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Monday, 18 November 2019

Correlation of FNAC lymph node cytology with CD4 count in HIV seropositive adults Annals of Tropical Medicine & Public Health SP2002-19

Sumana et al (2019): FNAC lymph node in HIV+ adults May 2019 vol. 19 page 32-38  ©Annals of Tropical Medicine & Public Health SP2002-19 
 Correlation of FNAC lymph node cytology with CD4 count in HIV seropositive adults
” Mukherjee Sumana1 , Mukhopadhyay Keya1 , Bhattacharya Pranab1
 1. Department of Pathology, School Of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata
 Corresponding Author:Sumana Mukherjee, BH-62, Sector-2, Salt Lake, KolkataPhone numbers +919830945575E-mail: doctor.sumana@gmail.com
Abstract: 
Context: 
Lymphoid tissues are common targets of HIV infection.FNAC is the initial investigation of choice inthese cases.Aims: To evaluate the usefulness of FNAC in HIV positive lymphadenopathy in our center..Methods and Material: FNAC was performed in 153 HIVpositive patients presenting with lymphadenopathy.Smears were stained with Giemsa, ZN and PAS/Grocotts/PAP according to cytological findings.Statistical analysis: The data was analysed using the T TestResults: Tuberculous lymphadenitis was the most common diagnosis (44%).Smear positivity was found in 29%cases. Necrotizing granulomas and smear positivity was significantly higher in cases with CD4 count<200.Reactive hyperplasia was significantly higher in the CD4> 200 category.Conclusions: FNAC is very useful and gives specific diagnosis in most cases of HIV lymphadenopathy. LowerCD4 count significantly increases the smear positivity for AFB.Key-words: FNAC, lymph node, HIV, CD4 count
How to cite this article: Sumana M, Keya M, Pranab B (2019): Correlation of FNAC lymph node cytologywith CD4 count in HIV seropositive adults, Ann Trop Med & Pub Health-Special issue; 19: 2002-19.
 Key Messages:
 FNAC should be the chosen diagnostic method in HIV lymphadenopathy because it avoids unnecessary biopsy, saves time, is cost effective, safer for the operator and has yields mostly specific diagnosis.
 Introduction:
 Lymphoid tissues are commonly targeted in HIV infections [1]. HIV positive individuals thus commonly present with enlarged lymph nodes. The degree of lymphadenopathy may range from progressive generalized to transient.The commonest infection is tuberculosis and extra pulmonary involvement is common [2]. Occurrence of extra pulmonary tuberculosis has increased specially in those who are severely immunodeficient [3] . FNAC is the initial investigation of choice in these cases. Though FNAC may not clearly demarcate all pathologies, it is useful in diagnosis of specific infections and involves lesser risk to the performer than biopsies [4] . We tried to note the FNAC findings of all HIV positive patients sent to our department with lymphadenopathy and corelated it with CD4 counts. We aim to evaluate the usefulness of FNAC in HIV positive lymphadenopathy in our center .
Materials and Methods
Subjects: This is a cross sectional observational study of HIV infected subjects diagnosed in an ICTC unit in a tertiary medical center. FNAC was performed on patients presenting with lymphadenopathy. Sample size: 153 HIV positive adults with lymphadenopathy. Inclusion criteria: Subjects above 18 years, seropositive for HIV, lymph node size at least 1 cm. Exclusion criteria: Retroperitoneal or non-palpable nodes, inadequate material. Data collection: Data collected included age, sex, site of lymph node enlargement, whether on ART therapy, clinical examination of nodes, CD4 cell count by flow cytometry and cytological features. All the smears from the aspirates were stained with Giemsa stain and ZN stain. PAS / Grocotts / PAP stains and culture were used depending on cytological findings. The following categories were used to record cytological data. The groups were (1) reactive hyperplasia, (2) necrotizing granulomatous with or without AFB, (3) necrotizing only with or without AFB, (4) other specific diagnosis like histoplasma, Cryptococcus, suspected lymphoma or metastasis, (5) inconclusive. Statistical analysis: The data was analysed using the T test. P-values were calculated. A p-value of < 0.005 was considered significant.
 Results: 

There were 108 males (70.5%) and 45 females (29.5%). The age range was 20 to 58 years. The commonest site was cervical (40%) followed by axillary (25%) and inguinal (5%). Some patients (30%) presented with multiple site involvement, commonly cervical and axillary. Most nodes (55%) were discrete, non-tender. Matted nodes constituted 25% cases, while abscess or sinus formation was seen in 20% cases (Table 1). 112 cases were onART, while 41 were ART naïveReactive hyperplasia accounted for 35% of diagnosis. There were 29% cases positive for AFB (figure 1). Only necrotizing pattern (figure 2) were noticed in 35% cases among the AFB positiveswhile most smear positives showed necrotizing granulomas (figure 3). Necrotizing granulomatous comprised 36%. Tuberculosis was diagnosed when there was AFB positivity irrespective of cytology and/or presence of caseation necrosis with epithelioid granulomas. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 44% cases. Fungal infection comprised of 2 cases, proven by culture. Lymphomas comprised 3.2% cases. Out of the 5 cases of lymphoma, biopsy confirmed NHL in 4 cases and 1 was florid reactive hyperplasia. Most lymphomas and fungal infections (figure 4) were in CD4 count < 200 group (Table 2). The number of reactive hyperplasias was significantly higher in CD4 > 200 group (p=0.00). While necrotizing granulomas and AFB positivity was significantly higher in CD4 < 200 group (p=0.0066). Similarly, only necrosis with AFB was significantly higherin CD4 < 200 group. There was no significant difference among cases with necrosis and no AFB in the 2 CD4 groups (p=0.00). Cases with granulomas but no necrosis or AFB were considered inconclusive at FNAC.
Discussion:
 Male predominance has been established in most studies5,6 and the higher age limit varies up to 65 years7,8,9 In our study , however, we did not get any case above 60 years of age. Agravatet al8 showed incidence of lymphadenopathy decreased with increasing age. Cervical nodes were most commonin our study like Neelima et al and others 9, 10, 11 Satyanarayana et al 4 found axillary nodes most commonly. Liatjos et al12 and Naser S et al13had categorized cytological findings in our line. Similar to our findings, most workers found tuberculous lymphadenitis as the most common diagnosis.1,5,8,9,11Chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis without caseous necrosis and no AFB or fungi, which we categorized as inconclusive 6,14 on FNAC comprised 12 of our cases (7.8%) is in between the 19% recorded by Satyanarayana et al4 and the single case reported by Neelima et al.10 CD4 count < 200 is considered advanced stage while counts 200-500 and >500 are early and intermediate stages.15We considered two groups based on similar cut off value. Our study corroborates with other workers 10 that fungal infections and lymphomas are common in the low CD4 categories. Kumar Guru et al 6 also found highest CD4 counts in reactive hyperplasias like our study. We found that metastasis has also been reported by some corroborating with our findings.15 We may have missed many opportunistic infections like viruses and toxoplasma in this cytomorphological study. Diagnostic accuracy could be increased by using appropriate immuno fluorescence kits.
Conclusion
 FNAC is very useful and gives specific diagnosis in most cases of HIV lymphadenitis. Lower CD4 count significantly increases smear positivity for AFB and fungi and may help in considering segregation of these patients.
Source(s) of support: Nil
Presentation at a meeting: Not Applicable
Conflicting Interest (If present, give more details): Nil
References
 1.Shenoy R, Kapadi SN, Pai KP, Kini H, Mallya S, Khadilkar UN, et al. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis in HIV-related lymphadenopathy in Mangalore, India. ActaCytol. 2002;46:35–9. [PubMed]
2. Fauci AS, Lane HC. Human immunodeficiency virus disease: AIDS and related disorders. In: Kasper DC, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Jameson IT, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies; 2005. pp. 1076–39

 3. Haas DW, Des Prez RM. Tuberculosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A historical perspective on recent developments. Am J Med. 1994;96:439–50. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

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 5. Deshmukh AT, Jagtap MW, NomaanNafees. Cytological evaluation of lymphadenopathy in HIV patients. Int J Recent Trends Sci Technol. 2013;6:125–9. [Google Scholar]

 6. Kumar Guru BN, Kulkarni MH, Kamaken NS. FNAC of peripheral lymphadenopathy in HIV positive patients. Sci Med. 2009;1:4–12. [Google Scholar]

7. Parikh UR, Goswami HM, Nanavati MG, Bisen VV, Patel S, Menpara CB, et al. Dignostic utility of FNAC in HIV positive lymphadenopathy. J Clin Res Lett. 2012;3:37–40. [Google Scholar]

 8. Agravat A, Sanghvi H, Dhruva G. Fine needle aspiration cytology study of lymphnode in HIV patients and CD4 count. Int J Res Med. 2013;2:16–9. [Google Scholar]

9. Vanisri HR, Nandini NM, Sunila R. Fine-needle aspiration cytology findings in human immunodeficiency virus lymphadenopathy. Indian J PatholMicrobiol. 2008;51:481–4.[PubMed] [Google Scholar]

 10.NeelimaTirumalasetti and P. PremaLatha.Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations.Indian J Med Res. 2014 Feb; 139(2): 301–307.

11. Bhoopat L, Patanasakpinyo C, Yanaranop M, Bhoopat T. Clinico-immunopathological alterations of lymphnodes from human immunodeficiency virus infected patients in northern Thailand. Asian Pac Allergy Immunol. 1999;17:85–92.

 12. Liatjos M, Romeu J, Clotet B, Sirera G, Manterola JM, Pedro-Botet ML. A distinctive cytologic pattern for diagnosing tuberculous lymphadenitis in AIDS. J Acquir Immune DeficSynd. 1993;6(12):1335–1338. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
13. Nasser S.S, PatilR.K.,KitturS.K .Cytomorphological Analysis of Lymph Node Lesions in HIV-Positive Patients with CD4 Count Correlation: A Cross-Sectional Study.ActaCytologica 2017;61:39-46

14.Jayaram G, Chew MT. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lymph nodes in HIV- infected individuals. ActaCytol. 2000; 44:960–6.

 15.Gautam H, Bhalla P, Saini S, Dewan R. Correlation between baseline CD4 + T-Lymphocyte count and plasma viral load in AIDS patients and their early clinical and immunological response to HAART: A preliminary study. Indian J Med Microbiol 2008; 26:256-8.

16.Saikia UN, Dev P, Jindal B, Saikia B. Fine needle aspiration cytology in lymphadenopathy of HIV positive cases. ActaCytol. 2001; 45:589–92

Thursday, 19 September 2019

LIfe Time Achievement Research awards 2019-20 2nd International Scientist awards on Engineering ,Science, and Medicine

VDGOOD Working towards finding the New Innovations to make life easier in all aspects, Innovation is the process of creating and implementing a new idea. It is the process of taking great ideas and converting them into useful products to general life. These useful ideas are the result of creativity, which is the prerequisite for innovation.

Mission

Simultaneously humans are on a journey to the achievement of self-actualization, which relates to the ultimate fulfillment of one's potential.
 Aim of VDGOOD International Conferences is to provide the Platform for Researchers across the world and also its provides a forum to the appropriate target group by organizing Planned Annual Meetings with the aim of generating new knowledge and better understanding. Our world is undergoing a revolutionary period in the creation and dissemination of new knowledge and innovation in many disciplines. Simultaneously humans are on a journey to the achievement of self-actualization, which relates to the ultimate fulfillment of one's potential. The unprecedented levels of discovery and innovation that are the hallmarks of recent decades are giving birth to entirely new meetings, which are in turn stimulating further advances, new opportunities, fresh insights and serve as a 'Continuing Force for Progress'.

2nd International Scientis..

2nd International Scientist Awards on Engineering, Science, and Medicine

Life Time Achievement awards   Professor  Pranab Kumar Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya
PROFESSOR , INDIA

Monday, 8 July 2019

Two more Life Time Achievement Awards in month May 2019 conferred to Professor Dr Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya Photos and Vedio

Two ,more "Life Time Achievement Awards in Medicine" conferred in May 2019 to Professor Dr Pranab kumar Bhattacharya .

Two more Life Time Achievement Awards in  month May 2019 for Professor Dr .Pranab kumar Bhattacharya - 
:
1)
 Mahatma Gandhi Lifetime Achievement Award and Glory of India Gold Medal from India International Friendship Society (I I F S-) - New Delhi [ http://www.globalfriendshipday.org/patronsandmembers.php] on 27.05.2019 on the occasion of 150th Birth Anniversary of late Mahatma Gandhi, was conferred to Professor Dr Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya  at India International Center, Maxmullar Marg; New Delhi [ http://www.iicdelhi.nic.in/] , by Prof. P. J. Kurien - -: Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha,India [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P._J._Kurien] ; former Chief Justice of the, Supreme Court of India - Honb Mr. T S. Thakur [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._S._Thakur] , in presence of Prof. VedaPrakash- ex chairman of University Grant Commission (UGC), New Delhi [ https://www.ugc.ac.in/subpage/Former-Commission-Members.aspx];  Vurgadda Vedapras- presently Vice president of A ICC, Prof. G. K Pravu- Vice Chancellor of Manipal groups of Global Universities at Jaypur [ https://jaipur.manipal.edu/…/board-of-manag…/G-K-Prabhu.html] , Prof. Aditya shastri- Vice Chancellor of Banasthali University, Rajasthan [ http://qsapple.org/…/academic-adv…/professor-aditya-shastri/], and ex cricketer for India, now Minister in charge of higher education and skill development, MIC sports of UP state Mr. Chetan Chauhan[ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chetan_Chauhan]
 For Video Please Click On the You Tube Links
 1] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bhVvYK9J-yY
2] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I29RLu6H42U




2)'SUSHRTA Award- 2019" LIFE TIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD of I E R P (International Exemplary Research and Performance award) by Prof. Medha Gupta MD CEO of I E RP for his professional excellence in field of Medical Research and innovations awarded by I JC M SR, ISFCMR and ISFHD on 31st March 2019
 at IERP WEBSITE

Allopathy

IERP AWARD 2019 "SHUSRUTA AWARD" - LIFE TIME ACHIEVEMENT
  https://ierpawards.com/award/allopathy/ierp-award-2019-shusruta-award-life-time-achievement?fbclid=IwAR2iGUmmkTKtttemCiXEWu-ieV3YIfHrtLAAZzq_cMs2wdUDBZgJGrDimM8
Reported at Daily Bengali News paper 
At the Page no 6 of a daily Bengali News Paper ( in upper mid right column of the page no 6 ) ""Duranta Barta"" news paper Volume No 24 ; issue no 208, of Dated 29th June, 2019 Saturday; page no 6 , a news by staff reporter on " Delhi te Mahatma Gandhi Life Time Achievement puroskare sammanito kolkatar oadhyapok Chikitsok ""
PDF to read Down load URL
http://www.durantabarta.co.in/…/uplo…/2019/06/Binder1-20.pdf

                       
 Memento of Mahatma Gandhi Life time Achievement award and certificate

 Reciving  Certificate and Memeento of Mahatma gandhi Life time Achievement award 2019 From Prof. P. J. Kurien - -: Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha,India [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P._J._Kurien] ; former Chief Justice of the, Supreme Court of India - Honb Mr. T S. Thakur [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._S._Thakur] , in presence of Prof. VedaPrakash- ex chairman of University Grant Commission (UGC), New Delhi [ https://www.ugc.ac.in/subpage/Former-Commission-Members.aspx];  Vurgadda Vedapras- presently Vice president of A ICC, Prof. G. K Pravu- Vice Chancellor of Manipal groups of Global Universities at Jaypur [ https://jaipur.manipal.edu/…/board-of-manag…/G-K-Prabhu.html] , Prof. Aditya shastri- Vice Chancellor of Banasthali University, Rajasthan [ http://qsapple.org/…/academic-adv…/professor-aditya-shastri/], and ex cricketer for India, now Minister in charge of higher education and skill development, MIC sports of UP state Mr. Chetan Chauhan[ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chetan_Chauhan]

Photo Sessions of all awardees  by  India International Friendship Society (I I F S-) - New Delhi [ http://www.globalfriendshipday.org/patronsandmembers.php] on 27.05.2019 on the occasion of 150th Birth Anniversary of late Mahatma Gandhi, at at India International Center, Maxmullar Marg; New Delhi [ http://www.iicdelhi.nic.in/ 
certificate and Mementoes of  SUSHRTA Award- 2019" LIFE TIME ACHIEVEMENT  CAWARD of I E R P (International Exemplary Research and Performance award) by Prof. Medha Gupta MD CEO of I E RP for his professional excellence in field of Medical Research and innovations awarded by IJCMSR, ISFCMR and ISFHD on 31st March 2019 at Chandigarh 




Mementoes of  SUSHRTA Award- 2019" LIFE TIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD of I E R P 

Tuesday, 11 June 2019

The Fate of Our Universe: How This Universe Will End


Abstract


RRJoSST (2019) 15-27 © STM Journals 2019. All Rights Reserved Page 15 Research & Reviews: Journal of Space Science & Technology ISSN: 2321-2837 (Online), ISSN: 2321-6506 (Print) Volume 8, Issue 1 www.stmjournals.com
 There are two ultimate questions for human beings: “where do we come from?” and “where are we going?”. For a long time, they have been topics of just religion and philosophy. But in the last three decades, along with the rapid development of modern cosmology, scientists have already obtained some important clues to these two questions. To explain the origin of the Universe, cosmologists have established a standard theoretical framework: Inflation + Hot Big Bang. To foresee the destiny of the Universe, people have realized that the key point is to understand the nature; Shape of the Universe, Cosmological constant, Age of the Universe, How the first star formed, What was the particles nature at Big Bang, About Dark matter and finally Dark energy and Higgs Particles.
 Keywords: Big Bang, cosmological constant, dark matter, Higgs particles, Universe
 *Author for Correspondence E-mail: profpkb@yahoo.co.in
The universe started at 20x1010 (20,0000 million years ) ago but there is still uncertainty about the age of the Universe according to these present authors. Determination of hydrogen molecule suggests that H~50Km/s1MPC-1 0H-1 =20x109 years, while age-old galactic clusters like N G C is 10x109 years and the age of elements obtained from the active isotopes were ~13x109 years. The Friedman and Le -maitre models of Universe tell us that the Universe, however,, has a finite age and it must be either expanding or contracting, or both expanding and then contracting again and so on[1–3]. The observation that galaxies are in red shift having special features of shifted to redder wavelength in an apparent Doppler recession, strongly support however the expanding Universe model. Confidence in the Friedman- the le-maitre model was strengthening further when Edwin Hubble discovered the near relation between red shift and distances in galaxies in 1929. 
HUBBLE COSMOLOGICALCONSTANT- AND AGE OF THEUNIVERSE Hubble discovered a cosmological constant and this constant is proportionally is known widely as Hubble constant. The H(0) is usually expressed in terms of Kilometers per second per mega Per sec i.e. 50 Km/s/MPC Hubble constant. The Hubble parameter is defined as H(t) = 1/R(t)x dR(t)/dt, where R(t) is the scale factor of the Universe. Hubble constant is the current value of that parameter and defined as H0 = H(now) = velocity/distance and is estimated by measuring the velocity and distance of extra galactic objects [4-6]. Hubble constant is
 perhaps the most important parameter in cosmology because it not only provides us the physical scale of the Universe which affects the observed absolute size, dynamical mass and luminosity of extra galactic objects but it also provides us an estimated age of the universe. The Hubble constant has the units of inverse time. An estimate of the age of the Universe is the Hubble time 1/H0. This is the approximate age of a nearly empty universe one, where expansion had not significantly been solved by its mass-energy content. A new Model called Ω=1 model, where Ω is the ratio of the universe mass-energy density to the critical value required for binding. In the Friedman- Le maitre models the expansion rate of the universe approaches 0 as time approaches£ and the current age of the universe is then(2/3) H0 -1 is then Age=1/H0[(1- 2q0 ) -1 -q 0 (1-2q0 )- 3/2 cos h-1 (1/q0-1 )] where the de-acceleration parameter q0 is (1/2)Ω the ratio of the universe mean mass density to the closer density[1,7,8]. The age of the universe, when H0 is of 50KmS1MPC-1 gives an age of near 20 billion years while an H0 of 10050KmS-1MPC-1 in an empty universe roughly correspond to an age of 13 billion years. But the Cepheid variables are the bright stars where brightness varies periodically on time scale between one and a hundred days. The period of Cepheid is very tightly correlated with its brightness. So they are the excellent indicators of distances of expanding the universe and also the age of the universe. Cephids are most distant galaxies of the observable universe and are figured prominently in the extra galactic distance scale. Cepheid first gave us the idea that other galaxies lay outside our Milky Way galaxy. Virgo cephid or Virgo galaxy clusters are so far farthest, twice as far as the most distant previously measured cephids. They are now measured by Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A new example of Virgo cephid H0=87± 7 Kms-1MPC-1 . The galaxy there NGC 4571 is in the core of Virgo clusters galaxy (Figure 1). Again Taking H0 as H0=87± 7 Kms-1MPC-1 as short value (H0 = 80-100 Kms-1MPC-1 ) and long value H0 = 50 Kms-1MPC-1 ) will after the age of the universe for 20 billion years to 11.2±0.9 billion years and 7.3±billions years for Ω=0 model and Ω=1 model respectively. The absence of accelerating force for the age of the universe is less than 1/H0 and in standard Big Bang, Model is 2/3x1/H0 0r 7x109 years. In contrast, some stars are thought to be 8x109 years old, So here starts the crisis regarding the age of the universe what these authors strongly feels. In Freidman Universe model, Freidman et al calculated Ho=80+17 Kms-1MPC-1 implying the age of the universe 9x109 years. In that case, this is identifying 20 Cepheid variables in m 100 a beautiful spiral galaxy in Virgo. However, if we are ready to accept the theory that age of the universe is estimated from the cosmological model based on Hubble constant, as per this model the age of the universe will be 13.7±0.2GYR ie 13.7 billion years old.
 Though a big bang like event happened in the early universe, universe spent a period of time in the early phase (1s Planck’s time) in a supercooled stage (About 400,000 years after the Big Bang, that the cosmos had cooled sufficiently for protons and electrons to recombine into atoms). In the supercooled stage, its density (3K) was then dominated by large positive constant vacuum energy and false vacuum. The supercooled stage was then followed by the appearance of multiple bubbles inflation. The temperature variation occurred in 3K cosmological background imprinted some 10~35 second in preinflationary stage and grand unified theory 

 [GUT] happened there with the generation of trillions and trillions of degrees of temperature. As per the old inflationary theory of Big Bang, there appeared multiple bubbles of true vacuum and inflation blew up a small casually connected region of the universe that was something much like the observable universe of today. This actually preceded large scale cosmological homogeneity & was reduced to an exponentially small number the present density of any magnetic mono poles, that according to many of particle physicist GUT & would have been produced in the pre inflationary phase. In the old inflationary theory, our universe must be homogeneous in all its direction and was no doubt isotropic. In old inflation theory, the super cooled stage was married by the appearance of bubbles of the true vacuum, the broken symmetry of ground state. The model of old inflation theory, however, was later on abandoned, because the exponential expansion of any super cooled state always presents the bubbles from merging and complicate the phase transition. Moreover in a true sense, the universe is not totally homogeneous but in small scale non homogeneous too. It is very much a well-known fact that the universe contains a critical density of matter (3K) and infinite space-time. The matters are mostly baryonic and Mixed Dark matter [MDM]. Through COBE satellite studies, we know that the early universe consisted of a mixture of Cold Dark matter and hot Dark Matter, which is known altogether as Mixed Dark Matter [MDM]. Most Redshift surveys had been either shallow (Z=<0.03), three dimensional survey of few thousands of galaxies covering a large angle or somewhat deeper (Z>0.05). So argument still persists about the mechanism by which galaxies/first generation stars were formed in the early universe. The essence of the problem is so high-level physics that while galaxies were on average, uniformly distributed throughout the volume of the universe, as it should be in the Inflationary “ Big Bang” model, the observed distribution of both optically visible and radio galaxies on the sky was not uniform. But very much patchy (Authors Prof. Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya’s Concept only). Does this clumsiness’ represent that the distribution of matter at some primeval stage in the evolution of the universe or there had been some kind of gravitational process [3,9,10]?suggested that the present distributions of galaxies are in the relic of a dynamic process, in which an outward propagating shock wave created an earlier generation of galaxies. Created galaxies at some places were of high density on the shock front. But the problem of their theory to present authors are that the empirical rule, which says that the chance finding of a second galaxy within same value unit at a distance of “S” is proportional to an inverse power of “S”, which simply means that there is a greater chance that galaxies will be close together than it is far apart. Secondly, the distribution of galaxies in the Universe may have a fractal three-dimensional structure. The most spectacular of large voids in three dimensions of galaxies is the BOTES VOID. A region at least 50 MPS in diameter that contain no luminous galaxies. Why voids? A survey of large-scale galaxies distributions reveals that the “Large Voids” were not the exception, but the rule. The survey was the systemic collection of Red Shifts of all galaxies of apparent magnitude brightness than 15.5 in a region measuring 6 degrees by 12 degrees on the sky. These Red Shifts via “Hubble laws” provides us a three-dimensional map of the galaxy distribution in a limited volume of the universe. Inspection of the map of the galaxy revealed a striking result- large apparently empty, quasi spherical “Voids” dominate space & time and galaxies are crammed into the thin shits and ridges in between hole. (Joseph Sick- Nature-Vol.320; P12; 1986) Joseph Sick discussed in his article published in Nature (Vol 320; p12; 1986) that galaxies were distributed in a thin slice of the universe to 150 MPC. The red shift measurement of galaxies, however, reveals a foamy and clustered distribution of galaxies in the Universe. Most of them lying on a sheet, surrounding large, almost empty holes up to 50 MPC According to Jeremiath Ostriker & Lennoy Cowie (1981), an explosion initiated by many supernovas in a newly formed galaxy drive a blast wave, which propagated outward and swept up a spherical shell of ambient gas. A hole was thus evacuated and the unstable
compressed shell fragmented to form more galaxies. These, in turn, developed blast waves and a series of bubbles developed that filled most of the spaces with galaxies (Jeremiah Ostriker & Lennoy Cowie - Astrophysics journal letter Vol 243; P127; 1981) and published independently by Satron Ikeuchi Astronomical Society of Japan Vol, 33; P211; 1981) But the problem of this hypothesis to present authors are - 1) possibility of the mechanism itself - Supernova exploded and cleared out holes that are tens or in rare cases hundreds of parsec cross? 2) did this phenomenon really worked out on the scale of MPC? 3) Billions of supernovae were presumed to be exploded coherently over the crossing time of galaxy of about 108 years to yield a vast explosion 4) Next is the missing ingredients which are Gravity. Density fluctuations were present at the beginning of the time in the earliest instants of the” Big Bang gospel” and the gravity amplified the fluctuation into the large-scale structure of the universe. Most cosmologists& theoretical physicists believe today that galaxies were originated in this manner rather than by explosive amplification of primordial seeds which themselves must be attributed into the initial condition. LARGE VOIDS AND DARK MATTER A “giant hole” in the universe was discovered by astronomers from Minnesota in 2009 January. Investigating an area of the sky known as the WMAP cold Spot, Lawrence Rudnick and colleagues found a void empty of stars, gas and even dark matter. As AP’s widely circulating report notes, the hole is big: an “expanse of nearly 6 billion trillion miles of emptiness” Astronomers have long known that there are big voids in the universe, and think they can explain them with their theories as to how large scale structures first formed [ Daniel Cressey” Plenty of nothing - August 24, 2007 The Great Beyond Nature.Com http://blogs.nature.com/cgi-bin/mt/mt-tb.cgi/3329]. our Galaxy, the Milky Way, contains also disks of ‘dark matter. Dark’ matter is always invisible but its presence can be inferred through its gravitational influence on its surroundings. Dark matter particles are neutral it does not couple directly to the electromagnetic field, and hence annihilations straight into two monochromatic photons (or a photon and a Z boson) are typically strongly suppressed. γ-rays can be a significant byproduct of dark matter annihilation, since they can arise either from the decay of neutral pions produced in the hadronization of the annihilation products or through internal bremsstrahlung associated into charged particles, with annihilation into charged particles, interactions of energetic leptons. In the Lattanzi & Silk models the annihilation results in two neutral Z bosons or a pair of W+ and W. bosons, and the dominant source of γrays is neutral pion decay. Form_ = 4.5 TeV, every annihilation results in 26 photons with energies between 3 and 300GeV. Physicists today believe that dark matter makes up 22% of the mass of the Universe (compared with the 4% of normal matter and 74% comprising the mysterious ‘dark energy’). But, despite its pervasive influence, even today no-one is sure what dark matter consists of. It was thought that dark matter forms in roughly spherical lumps called ‘halos’, one of which envelopes the Milky Way and other spiral galaxies. Stars and gas are thought to have settled into disks very early on in the life of the Universe and this affected how smaller dark matter halos formed. Such a theory suggests that most lumps of dark matter in our locality actually merged to form a halo around the Milky Way. But the largest lumps were preferentially dragged towards the galactic disk and were then torn apart, creating a disk of dark matter within the Galaxy. The presence of unseen haloes of Dark matter had long been inferred from the high rotation speed of Gas and stars in the outer part of spiral galaxies. The volume of the density of these dark matter decreases less quickly from the galactic center than doe’s heat luminous mass such as that in stars meaning that dark matter dominates the mass from the center of galaxies. A spiral galaxy is composed of a thin disk of young stars called (population I star) whose local surface brightness falls exponentially with cylindrical distances from the galactic center and with height above the galactic plane.
 The concept of biasing the formation of large scale structure of the universe was first introduced by Nick Kaisar in the journal of Astrophysics (Peacock .JA &Heavens A.FMonday Nottingham. Royal Astronomical Society Vol 217; P805; 1985 &BardenJ. Bond. Jr, Kaiser. N. Eszalay –Journal of Astrophysics). Galaxies were presumed only to form in the rare peaks of an initial Gaussian distribution of density fluctuation. The average density of the universe is roughly 1031gcm-3 which is less than 10% of critical Density (K) of the present universe [The matter of which universe is made of 42.3% is CDM matter and 73% is dark energy]. Density fluctuation peaks that occurred in a potential large-scale cluster acquired with the slight boost that enabled galaxies to form. The biasing hypothesis enhanced the large-scale structure that developed as gravitational forces amplified the initial fluctuations. Biasing hypothesis enabled stimulation of a universe containing “Cold Dark Matter” at the critical density, with the observational determination of density perturbation of the universe. Density Fluctuation was present at the beginning of Time in the earliest instants of the Big Bang and the Gravity amplified the fluctuations into the large-scale structure of our universe. The “Voids” were not really voids but contained matter that had somehow failed to become luminous. The Dark matter was more uniformly distributed than the luminous matter and does not respond to most of the astronomical tests. The universe is now populated with the non-luminous component of matter (Dark Matter) made of weakly interacting massive particles which does cluster in galactic scale and designated ΩDM≈0.15-0.35. The dark matter was weakly interacting and was clustered in all scale (hence labeled as cold). It selectively formed galaxies at an early epoch in the rare density peaks. The Cosmic Background Explorer study announced on 18th Nov’1990 that COBE had used its liquid helium cooled detectors to make a stunningly accurate measurement of BIG Bang afterglow .The COBE study was based on microwave background radiation that bathes every object in the universe with a cool wash of photon 2.7K. COBE study conferred that the Big Bang was a remarkably smooth and homogeneous event. The COBE study consistently pegged its temperature at about 2.7 K_ what was predicted by Standard Big Bang Model which holds that radiation was emitted by cosmic fireball just a few hundred years after the Big Bang moment itself and cooling off ever since then. George Smoot [2006 Nobel Laureate in Physics] and his colleagues of Barkley university used differential microwave radiometer to look for anisotropic variations in the brightness of radiation from point to point of the sky. They presumably corresponded to density variation in the cosmic plasma shortly after the Big Bang and these variables are in turn presumably the clumps of matter that contracted by GRAVITY to form the galaxies. The problem was that anisotropies if they existed at all, were so weak that it was hard to see now that how they had contracted into much of galaxies. Any clump that was going to form a galaxy needs to be heavy enough to fight cosmic expansion which tends to pull the material apart almost as fast as gravity can pull it together. COBE showed no anisotropy at all to an accuracy of one part in 104 to one part 105 and it was DARK MATTER. This Dark matter (Figure 2) consisted of some kind of massive but weakly interacting elementary particles produced in the Big Bang. The cosmic background explorer study (COBE) satellite study was undertaken by the leadership of George Smoot considers the Big Bang very seriously. Microwave Background Study also provided BIG Bang COBE study had spotted millionth of degree variations in the temperature of microwave left over from Big Bang traces of the early universe. Images of the cosmic microwave background, the radiation left over from the Big Bang; provide the earliest snapshots of the cosmos-from when it was only about 400,000 years old only. The model of MDM of the universe is consistent with homogeneous inflation theory and large-scale density fluctuation and galaxies distribution that happened in the early universe. It was the Merry Gelman, who first described the nature of the earliest particles in the universe. According to him “it was quark particles in quantum theories.” Actually speaking, 
the quest for the early Universe had provided the particle physicists with an unrivaled accelerator of high-energy particles. The Grand Unification Theory (GUT) based on ‘Gauge Symmetry” say that Proton (Nucleon) should decay with a half-life of at most 1031 Years. But while isolating the rarest events due to spontaneous decaying of protons, extensive shielding from atmospheric “Muon” produced by cosmic rays showers was also regarded and the primary result once was reported at Geneva, Switzerland. This experiment was carried out us provided in deep underground Kolar Goldfield, Kamoka. This experiment provided us the most sensitive limit so far, that the half-life of the proton is 1.5x 1032 years. This half-life of a proton is close to the age of the elements obtained from Radioactive isotopes ~10X109 years.This experiments had great implications to astrophysicists in that 1) possible explanation of the ratio of proton to the photon in the universe. Since the photons now are seen in 3K-background radiation are the remnants of equal numbers of particles and antiparticles created during the thermal equilibrium of first instants of the Universe. This particle was Merry Gelman’s quark particles and its antiparticles were anti quarks. Today’s observed proton [matter] represents an excess of matter after antimatter. This is the asymmetry in the Universe. This asymmetry probably had arisen naturally after 10-35 seconds of initial Big bang. However, Madsen and Mark Tailor gave the concept of another particle in the primordial universe. The name of their particles is “Neutrinos”. There are broadly three species of ‘Neutrinos”. 1) Electron neutrinos 2) Muon neutrinos and 3) that neutrinos. To start the universe i.e. before nucleo synthesis, neutrinos must have a zero rest mass, which can support at least a hypothesis and theories of the large-scale structure of the universe. According to Maiden and Tailor, the Dark Matter of which this universe consisted of were the neutrinos and not the quarks. How did the cosmic Dark Age end and when did the first star lit up in the universe in a few hundred million years after the Big Bang? According to the Standard Model of Big Bang Star formation in the early universe was very different from the present now. Star today form in the giant clouds of molecular gas and dust embedded in the disk of large galaxies like our milky ways. Whereas the first stars evolved inside “Mini holes” agglomerates of primordial gas and dark matter with a total mass of millions of times of our Sun. Another difference arises for the initial absences of elements, other than hydrogen and helium that were synthesized in the Big Bang. Gas clouds today be efficient via radiation emitted by atoms molecule or dust grains that contain heavy elements. Because the primordial gas lacked those coolants, it remained comparatively hot. For gravity, to overcome when the higher thermal pressure, the mass of all first stars must have been larger as well. The emergence of first stars fundamentally changed the early universe at the end of the cosmic dark ages. Owing to the high masses these stars were copious. They also produced many ultraviolet photons that were energetic enough to ionize hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe. Thus began the extended process” re-Ionization” which
transformed the universe from the completely cooled and dark material state into the fully ionized medium. Observation of CMB is due to the scattering of CMB photons of free electrons, phase constraints in the onset of re  ionization. How the first stars formed and how they affected the evolution of cosmos assumes that dark matter is made up of WIMP-yet undetected because they interact with normal matter only via gravity and weak nuclear interactions. A possible WIMP candidate is the Neutrinos particles, the lightest super partner in mass super symmetry theory but not zero rest mass particles [1]. Super symmetry postulated that for every known particle there must be a super partner thus effectively doubling the mass of the elementary particles. Most of the super particles that were produced after the Big Bang were unstable and decayed. The neutrinos are expected to be rather massive having roughly the mass of hundreds of protons, so are a part of cosmos. Most of the matter in the universe did not interact then with light except gravitationally. These dark matters assumed to be very intensively cold, that is its velocity dispersion was sufficiently small for density perturbation imprinted in the early universe to persist in a very small scale. Dark matter has yet to be detected in the human laboratories. However, there might exist some viable dark matter candidates from particle physics that were not cold. They may be termed as Warm Dark Matter (WDM) as per present authors. Warm dark matter particles had intensive thermal velocities and their motion quenches the growth of structure below a “free streaming scale” {the distances over which a typical WDM particles travel}, which depend on the nature of the particle because small and dark haloes do not form better than free streaming scale. The dark matter haloes that formed the galaxies in a WDM model had far fewer substructures and were less concentrated as compared to the cold dark matter (CDM) counterparts. The first generation of stars in the universe formed when primordial gas compressed by falling into these small dark matter potential wells. Large scale partner in the spectrum of density perturbation causes progenitors of present-day clusters of galaxies to be among the first objects to condense out of the initially almost smooth mass distribution. Lang Gao & Tom Thennus [science 317:14th Sept: Page 1527:2007] studied the early star formation in the redshift Z=0 and they concluded that pristine gas heat and it falls into the dark matter potential Well (halos) cools radiatively because of formation of molecular hydrogen and became self gravitating. They told another important particle called Gravitinos_ a popular WDM candidate particle with mass MWDM=3Kev-a. a free streaming particle of few +_ evs of kelopersec and first stars at redshift Z~200 and the growth structure re-simulation in the led to a pattern of filaments and sheets which is familiar from the local large scale distribution of Galaxies. In assumed Gaussian spectrum of density perturbation appropriate for an inflationary model lead collapse along with one (sheet) and two (filaments) direction before the formation of Haloes. Altogether the large scale filamentary pattern is very similar in CDM &WDM. This structure of filaments themselves was very different. The CDM filaments fragmented later into numerous nearly spherical high-density regions(haloes) and WDM filaments fragmented at redshift Z=23.34 when the universe was 140 million years old. Gas and Dark matter accreted perpendicular and to the filament axis. Dark matter particles falling into filaments performed damped oscillations as the potential well deepened. Baryons did not undergo orbit but gas compressed to a temperature T~7000K at γ~ 20Pc. Rapid buildup of H2 induced cooling and gas started to dominate the density. 
We generally think of stars in populations. Population III stars were so long the hypothetical first stars in cosmos. These stars are extremely metal-poor but massive stars composed of only gases as told. By metals we authors talking about elements heavier than hydrogen (and helium depending on which definition you read and is what we consider to be a non-metal too). All elements heavier than hydrogen are a by-product or ash from fusion within the cores of stars. Population II stars group however have also very little metals, and stars in globular clusters are made up of a good percentage of such population II stars. Population II stars are till date considered to have created all other elements found in the 
periodic table beyond hydrogen and helium. Prior to 1978 or 1979, these were the stars thought to be the oldest stars and still are the oldest observed stars in the observable cosmos. Population I stars are considered very metal-rich young stars and they include our own Sun and are common in the arms of our galaxy the Milky Way. Many astronomers have for long theorized existence of first generation of such stars - known as Population III stars as stated by me - that was in fact born out of the primordial materials from the Big Bang event. All the heavier chemical elements - such as oxygen, nitrogen, lithium, carbon and iron, which are essential to creating life — were then frozen in the bellies of stars. This means that the first stars must have formed out of the only elements to exist prior to stars called Proto-stars: hydrogen, helium and trace amounts of lithium. These Population III stars would have been enormous -several hundred or even a thousand times more massive than our Sun is - blazing hot, and transient - exploding as supernovae after only about two million years. But until now the search for physical proof of their existence had been inconclusive. A team in 2015 led by David Sobral, from the Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon in Portugal, and Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands, has now used ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) to peer back into the ancient Universe, to a period known as re-ionization, approximately 800 million years after the Big Bang as we told. Instead of conducting a narrow and deep study of a small area of the sky, they broadened their scope to produce the widest survey of very distant galaxies ever attempted. According to conventional cosmological theory, all space, time, and energy began with the Big Bang, now estimated to have occurred around 13.8 billion years ago. In a new twist to standard theoretical models, however, many astrophysicists now believe that the universe may have suddenly inflated (inflation theory of Alan Guth) from a tiny point after this incredible explosion to create dark energy (74 %) and dark matter (22 %), as well as a small amount (04 %) of ordinary matter we see in the universe in the form of electrons and quarks or neutrinos in a superhot plasma (more on the proportion of matter in the "Cinderella Universe" model from SDSS). Within the first second after the Big Bang, the quark-gluon plasma may have cooled enough for quarks to combine and formed protons (the most common atomic nuclei of hydrogen) and neutrons. After about three minutes, a small portion of the neutrons avoided decay by bonding with protons (to produce deuterons, the atomic nuclei of the deuterium form of hydrogen) which underwent rapid reactions to form helium and a trace of lithium. For a few hundred thousand years afterward, however, the universe still remained extremely hot at around a billion degrees and so ordinary matter remained then ionized, as plasma of positively charged ions and unbound negatively charged electrons. Three to four hundred thousand years have then passed before continuing cosmological expansion and cooling enabled atomic nuclei to hold onto electrons and create neutral hydrogen and helium gas (along with a trace of lithium at around a redshift of z ~ 1,000). Measurements of the modern universe suggest that, by mass, about three-fourths of the ordinary matter formed from the Big Bang became hydrogen while virtually all of the rest became helium; by number, around nine-tenths of all atoms may still be hydrogen, while roughly 9 % has become helium. After this initial cooling, the early universe became extremely dark. Although cosmic microwave background radiation from around 380,000 years after the Big Bang suggest that the early universe was remarkably smooth, very small-scale density fluctuations (possibly related to small variations in early cosmological inflation predicted by quantum mechanics) may have led to uneven concentrations in the primordial distribution of matter in the universe, of which around nine-tenths may be comprised of dark matter (CDM). While particles of ordinary matter readily interact with one another and, if electrically charged, with electromagnetic radiation, dark matter is comprised of particles that do not react with such radiation, although dark matter interacts gravitationally just like ordinary matter. In theory, gravitational attraction should have caused these dark matter density variations to condense into a network of filaments and sheets over time. Unlike ordinary matter, however, the dark matter hypothesized by theorists either cannot 
 or mostly did not collapse into dense objects like stars, brown dwarfs, and stellar remnants (white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes) Although dark matter is thought to be relatively segregated from ordinary baryonic matter in outer galactic halos and intergalactic space today, the two may have been mixed initially. As the dark matter condensed into a denser filamentary network, ordinary matter made of hydrogen and helium gas also was gravitationally attracted by these relative concentrations of dark matter, creating Lyman-alpha "forest" clouds of gas. At the nodes of the dark matter filaments, these gas clouds collapsed under gravitation towards of the cores of denser clumps of 100,000 to one million Solar-masses that may have measured around 30 to 100 light-years across and still consisted mostly of dark matter. As the gas clouds contracted, compression would have heated the gas to temperatures above 1,000° Kelvin (727°C or 1,340°F). Some hydrogen atoms would have paired up within the dense, hot gas to create molecular hydrogen, which would then help to cool the densest parts of the gas cloud by emitting infrared radiation after collision with atomic hydrogen. Eventually, the temperature in the densest regions of such clouds would drop to around 200 to 300°Kelvin (-73 to 27°C or -100 to 80°F), reducing the gas pressure and allowing the cloud to continue contracting into gravitationally bound clumps The results of various simulations by several teams of astronomers suggest that these nearly "metal free" clumps were able to resist fragmentation into smaller clumps. Hence, the first stars (often they are called Population III stars) may have been very massive, hot, and bright, with 100 to 1,000 Solar-masses (more discussion on Jeans mass and metal-free stars. At least one simulation suggests that only one massive star may have formed for each proto-galactic clump because of resistance to renewed fragmentation of the star-forming cloud and intense radiation once the star is formed. Various computer simulations suggest that the first stars could have appeared between 100 and 250 million years after the Big Bang when the universe had expanded to at least 1/30 of its present size. In 2003, astronomers announced that analyses of NASA's recent WMAP satellite images of the cosmic microwave background indicate that this primordial light was ionized by the first generation of stars, which may have come and gone within only 400 million years after the Big Bang , but further analysis of data led astronomers to conclude by March 2006 that ionization may not have occurred as much as 400 million years after the Big Bang latest WMAP results). When this first generation of massive stars lighted up, the so-called "Cosmic Dark Age" ended. And first light (photon) of the universe came out. Even then, these stars were surrounded by a "fog" of light-absorbing neutral hydrogen. The first stars, however, began emitting intense ultraviolet radiation -- perhaps as much as a million times that of Sol - that "re-ionized" neutral hydrogen atoms by energizing electrons away from their proton nuclei (Larson and Bromm, Scientific American, December 2001, in pdf). Gradually, the first stars created ever-wider bubbles of clearer space. Since these stars were shortlived, it probably took another generation of stars and a few hundred million years for that hydrogen fog to dissipate, as strong absorption of ultraviolet light from quasars dating to 860 to 900 million or so years after the Big Bang suggests that the last patches of neutral hydrogen were being ionized at that time. On July 31, 2008, a team of astronomers (led by Naoki Yoshida) announced that new simulation results which indicate that the first stars formed within 300 million years after the Big Bang. First, "seed" proto-stars formed from the collapsing core of gas clouds that go through a stage as a flattened disc, with two trailing spiral arms of gas. Despite having only 0.1 Solar-mass, the proto-stars quickly "bulked up" on surrounding gases into behemoths of at least 100 Solar-masses within 10,000 years. After a million years as a very bright star, some of these massive stars may have become supernovae - depending on their mass On December 3, 2007, a team of theoretical physicists (including Katherine Freese, Douglas Spolyar, and Paolo Gondolo) released the results of a paper which suggests that the first proto-stars could have been powered by the annihilation of opposite forms of dark matter (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles or WIMPs, such as neutralinos). In theory, each dark matter particle should have its own anti-particle. When such particle pairs meet, 
 they would annihilate each other, whereby one-third of the resulting energy is produced as neutrinos which escape, one-third becomes gamma-ray photons, and the last third becomes electrons and positrons. MULTIPLE AND MINIKWASI BUBBLE UNIVERSE AND THE POSSIBILITY OF COLLISION WITH ANOTHER BUBBLE Cosmological phase transitions, inflationary cosmology, as well as the putative landscape of string theory, all invoke various aspects of bubble universe dynamics. In this regard, the classic works [1, 2] play a key role in understanding the quantum nucleation of bubble universes with different scalar field expectation values. More recently, the works [3, 4] gave evidence that a distinct classical process, involving bubble collisions, provides an alternate - and efficient - the mechanism for moving from one vacuum to another. Recent works [3–6] indicate that ultra-relativistic bubble collisions provide a mechanism for efficiently moving between vacua. Generally speaking, an accurate description of the collision between two bubbles embedded in a parent false vacuum requires using the full nonlinear equations of motion. But the ultrarelativistic limit offers a great simplification, as the nonlinearities become subdominant [3], and so the solution is given by superposing two single bubble solutions. This is the free passage approximation. 
- How the Universe will End? Astrophysicists now believe that the ultimate fate of this Universe depends on three things: 1) The universe’s overall shape, 2) its density, and 3) How much amount of dark energy the Universe is truly made of. The first two scenarios how ever again depend on whether the universe existing in a “flat” or “open” “closed” system (one that is negatively curved, similar to the surface of a saddle). The evidence that the present bubble of this Universe began with the Big Bang is very compelling. 13.8 billion years ago, the entire Universe was then compressed into a microscopic singularity that grew exponentially into the vast cosmos we now see today. But what does the future hold with humanity and civilization? How will this bubble Universe end is a big question? Will this Universe end in another singularity called “Big Crunch” (Figure 3)or will it expand endlessly or will it expand for some time [expansion to last until the current Hubble time, about 1010 years] & then collapse on itself [let us allow for the expansion to last until the current Hubble time, about 1010 years, to accommodate our Universe and then collapse] will further expand and continues in that manner or the bubble universe will coalesce into another growing bubble universe and transfer its 22% dark matter and 4% matter and into that new bubble universe? Theoretical physicists & physicists had been thus pondering the ultimate fate of this Universe for thousands of years. In the last century, cosmologists considered three outcomes for the end of everything, and it all depended on the critical density of the Universe. i) If this critical density was high, then there was enough mutual gravity to slow down expansion and eventually halt the expansion of the universe after 1010 years. Billions of years in the future, it would then collapse in on itself again, perhaps creating another Big Bang. This is known as a closed Universe, and then in that universe, the final result is the “Big Crunch”. “The Big Crunch” is thought to be the direct consequence of the Big Bang. In this model, the expansion of the universe doesn’t continue forever. After an undetermined amount of time (possibly 1010 years), when the average density 
 of the universe is enough to stop the expansion, the universe will begin the process of collapsing in on itself. Eventually, all of the matter and particles in existence will be pulled together into a super dense state (perhaps even into a black hole-like singularity). If the critical density becomes low, then there will not be enough gravity to hold things,all matter together. The expansion will then continue on ever and forever. Stars will then die in nova or supernovas, galaxies will be spread apart, and everything will cool down to the background temperature of the Universe. This is an open Universe, and such end is known as the” Big Freeze” . In this scenario, the Universe continues to expand at ever increasing speed. As this happens the heat will be dispersed throughout space-time as clusters, galaxies, stars, planets, Satellites all are put apart. It will continue to get colder and colder until the temperature throughout the Universe reaches absolute zero (or a point at which, the universe can no longer be exploited to perform work). Similarly, if the expansion of the Universe continues, planets, stars and galaxies are pulled so far apart that the stars would eventually lose access to raw material needed for star formation, thus the lights inevitably go out for good. This is the point at which the Universe will reach a maximum state of entropy. Any stars that will remain will continue to slowly burn away until the last star is extinguished. Everything will be so far away that light from distant stars and galaxies will never reach to earth due to the expansion of the universe. When the universe density is equal to critical density the expansion will continue but the expansion will eventually start to decrease gradually, finally when the critical density will become greater than the universe the expansion will halt and the Universe will start to collapse back on itself into another singularity “Big Crunch” and it will further trigger a next Big Bang. And if the critical density is just right, the Universe’s expansion goes on forever, but it’s always slowing down, reaching a dead stop in an infinite amount of time. This creates a Flat Universe… also a Big Freeze. And our universe is a Flat type Universe fortunately as shown above and WIMP study by NASA’s WMPA spacecraft. The universe probably has existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. The widely accepted age of the universe, as estimated by general relativity, is 13.8 billion years. In the beginning, everything in existence is thought to have occupied a single infinitely dense point, or singularity. Only after this point began to expand in a "Big Bang" did the universe officially begin. Although the Big Bang singularity arises directly and unavoidably from the mathematics of general relativity, some scientists see it as problematic because the math can explain only what happened immediately after - not at or before - the singularity generally accepted view of our universe (homogeneous, isotropic, spatially flat, obeying general relativity, and currently consisting of about 72% Dark Energy, likely in the form of a cosmological constant Λ , about 23% Dark Matter, and the rest observable matter) implies its small acceleration, as inferred from Type IA supernova observations, CMBR data and baryon acoustic oscillations. However, quite a few things remain to be better understood, e.g. (i) The smallness of Λ, about 10−123 in Planck units (‘the smallness problem’), (ii) The approximate equality of vacuum and matter density in the current epoch (‘the coincidence problem’), (iii)The apparent extreme fine-tuning required in the early universe, to have a spatially flat universe in the current epoch (‘the flatness problem’), (iv) The true nature of dark matter, and (v) The beginning of our universe, or the so called big-bang. QRE, the second order Friedmann equation derived from the QRE also contains two quantum correction terms. These terms are generic and unavoidable and follow naturally in a quantum mechanical description of our universe. Of these, the first can be interpreted as cosmological constant or dark energy of the correct (observed) magnitude and a small mass of the
 graviton (or axion). The second quantum correction term pushes back the time singularity indefinitely and predicts an everlasting universe. While inhomogeneous or anisotropic perturbations are not expected to significantly affect these results, it would be useful to redo the current study with such small perturbations to rigorously confirm that this is indeed the case. Also, as noted in the introduction, we assume it to follow general relativity, whereas the Einstein equations may themselves undergo quantum corrections, especially at early epochs, further affecting predictions. Given the robust set of starting assumptions, we expect our main results to continue to hold even if and when a fully satisfactory theory of quantum gravity is formulated. For the cosmological constant problem at late times, on the other hand, quantum gravity effects are practically absent and can be safely ignored. We hope to report on these and related issues elsewhere. QRE, the second order Friedmann equation derived from the QRE also contains two quantum correction terms. These terms are generic and unavoidable and follow naturally in a quantum mechanical description of our universe. Of these, the first can be interpreted as cosmological constant or dark energy of the correct (observed) magnitude and a small mass of the graviton (or axion). The second quantum correction term pushes back the time singularity indefinitely and predicts an everlasting universe. While inhomogeneous or anisotropic perturbations are not expected to significantly affect these results, it would be useful to redo the current study with such small perturbations to rigorously confirm that this is indeed the case. Also, as noted in the introduction, we assume it to follow general relativity, whereas the Einstein equations may themselves undergo quantum corrections, especially at early epochs, further affecting predictions. Given the robust set of starting assumptions, we expect our main results to continue to hold even if and when a fully satisfactory theory of quantum gravity is formulated. For the cosmological constant problem at late times, on the other hand, quantum gravity effects are practically absent and can be safely ignored. We hope to report on these and related issues elsewhere.
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 Research & Reviews: Journal of Space Science & Technology Volume 8, Issue 1 ISSN: 2321-2837 (Online), ISSN: 2321-6506 (Print) RRJoSST (2019) 15-27 © STM Journals 2019. All Rights Reserved 
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Cite this Article Rupak Bhattacharya, Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, Upasana Bhattacharya, Ritwik Bhattacharya, Rupsa Bhattacharya, Ayshi Mukherjee, Dalia Mukherjee, Hindole Banerjee, Runa Mitra. The Fate of Our Universe: How This Universe Will End. Research & Reviews: Journal of Space Science & Technology. 2019; 8(1): 15–27p.

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