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Tuesday, 4 February 2020

"Academic Excellence Awards"of Institute of Scholars, Bangalore [] Registered under the Ministry of MSME Government of India

"Academic Excellence Awards"of Institute of Scholars Award 2020  Institute of Scholars, Bangalore] Registered under the Ministry of MSME Government of India (

Every year InSc issues “Emerging College of the Year Award” under four categories namely Placement, Research, Infrastructure and Academics for Higher Educational Institutes, “Academic Department of the Year Award” for programs (branches/departments) of Engineering and Medical Institutions, “Principal of the Year” Award for the Principals of the Higher Educational Institutes, “InSc Research Excellence Award / Young Achiever Award” to the research scholars, academicians and professionals from industries for their research work published in indexed International reputed Journals and “InSc Best Teacher Award” for teaching professionals for excellence in teaching, Award for the HOD's of various Academic Departments of Educational Institutes for their excellence in leadership and management: "InSc HOD of the Year", “InSc Student Project of the year” award to the UG/PG students for academic project

InSc Academic Excellence Awards (AEA): [[…]]. This is the highest award of InSC conferred to a single individual .This award is to recognize teaching professionals for Academic ranks of Professors for the most excellence in teaching, his/her research contributions in respectivefields , collaboration with students in their research projects, and active participation with students in professional activities, with a very good academic record, growth and achievement in his/her area of expertise. Minimum teaching experience must not be less than 10 years ( unless Exceptional academic Carrier) and he/she must be presently working professional in a recognized institute as a Professor

Monday, 20 January 2020

Hello! Are We Alone? If You're Like Me, You May Want to Know Me!

Ritwick Bhattacharya4, Rupsa Bhattacharya5, Ayishee Mukherjee5, Dalia Mukherjee6, OaindrilaMukherjee6a, Hindole Banerjee5a, Debasis Mukherjee6b, Soumayak Bhattacharya7

Hello! Are We Alone? If You're Like Me, You May Want to Know Me!Bhattacharya et. al.

A thin-layer near the surface of earth is teeming with life of huge diversity: from micro-organisms to plants, animals, and possibly even more intelligent species humans! Up till now, human forms the only known samples of intelligent civilized life in the Universe? We humans accepted that the laws and concepts of physics and chemistry can be applied throughout entire cosmos. Is there then a general biology as well throughout cosmos?Is there then also life beyond our planet earth? Pinpoints of light in the night sky probably always made humans speculate about the existence of many super earths and exo-planets, but the presence of such super earths/exo-planets orbiting many stars/red dwarfs other than our sun has become a proven reality only within the last 20 years or so. While the vast majority of the more than450 of 4034 exo-planets that are known to date are gas giants like our Jupiter and Saturn, some spectacular discoveries of about 20 planets of less than 10 earth masses have already indicated thatthey are rocky planets with conditions suitable to harbor life are of the big unknowns till date how likely it is for life to emerge once all conditions are right and how many of them are civilized. There is no lack of building blocks of life in space time]!The number of molecules fundamental to earth's biochemistry that have already been found in the interstellar medium, planetary atmospheres and on the surfaces of comets, asteroids, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles is surprisingly large. Giant "factories", where complex molecules are being always synthesized,might appear to make carbonaceous compounds ubiquitous in the universe. If the genesis of life arises from chemistry with a high probability, we may speculate whether this process occurred more than once on earth itself also, leading to the existence of a terrestrial “shadow biosphere”with a distinct tree of life. Moreover, there are several other promising targets within the solar system, namely our moon,mars, Europa, Enceladus, and, for biochemistry based on a liquid other than water, “Titan”. Evidence for life is not easy to discover, any chemical footprint needs to be unambiguously characteristic, and to exclude an abiogenic origin. The most powerful probe would result from returning a sample to a laboratory on earth. Search for extra-terrestrial intelligence" (SETI) experiments had provided so fara negative result. However, these have probed only up to about 200 light-years distance, whereas the centre of the milky way is 25,000 light-years away from earth. And, even if there is no other intelligent life in the milky way, it could still be hosted in another of the remaining hundreds of billions of other galaxies. Advanced efforts are now on the drawing board or already underway for the further exploration of the solar system and the detection of biomarkers in the atmospheres of extra-solar planets, while searches for signals of extra-terrestrial intelligence are entering a new era with the deployment of the next generation of radio telescopes, or nano-probes or DNA viral probes.The search for life elsewhere is nothing but a search for ourselves, where we came from, why we are here, and where we will be going after death in this planet. It encompasses many, if not all, of the fundamental questions not only in biology, physics, and chemistry, but also in philosophy, psychology, religion and the way in which humans interact with their environment and each other. The question of whether we are alone in the universe still remained unanswered before humankind, with no scientific evidencesyet supporting one possible outcome or the other. If, however, extra-terrestrial life does exist, an emerging new age of exploration may well allow living generations to witness its detection.

 Hello! Are We Alone? If You're Like Me, You May Want to Know Me!Bhattacharya et. al.

Alien life forms are generally regarded as the stuff of science fiction and fantasy and subject for/from the movies by several times Oscar winner Hollywood director Steven Spielberg.But both SETI (Search for extra-terrestrial intelligence),(hile philosophers and biologists may debate the meaning of the term 'intelligence', for the purposes of the SETI project intelligence simply means the ability to build large radio telescopes and transmitter of high-powered radio signals or intense laser beams and NASA's Exobiology Program, which seeks to understand the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe, researchers are about to begin the SETI Microwave observing project Radio Telescopes around the world which will search for signals produced by other intelligence. There are of course two schools of thoughts about intelligent life out there in the galaxy .It is argued that life on the planet earth, and especially intelligent life, is the result of an incredibly unlikely set of circumstances; and there is no intelligent life anywhere else in our milky way galaxy,perhaps none in the entire universe. But according to the opposing school argument, there are so many stars and planets in the galaxy that, provided there is even a small chance of intelligence developing on any one planet (super earth) it must have happened many times on many different planets. Nobody seems to take the middle view, that life is restricted to just a few planets in our galaxy; either it exists solely on earth, or there are many inhabited planets or super earths. If the SETI project detects just one signal, the implication will be that we are not alone, and that evolutionary biology is an inherent characteristic of certain locations in the universe planets like earth[1]

Building material for life according to these authors -: Astronomy related

What are the requirements for development of life (simple, complex or intelligent)in universeespecially in our galaxy milky way star’s planets?First of all, let us(the authors), compose a list of possible astronomy related requirements for development of life on the planet earth or if evolved in other worlds of our galaxy the milky way.

Fig. 1: 2nd Generation Stars with Heavy Elements

·         Large planetary family to absorb debris.

·         Iron core to generate magnetosphere.

·         Planet massive enough to retain its atmosphere.

·         Collision with planetoids to create voids in tectonic plates and large moon(Please see also at URL LINK (×1.html)).

Spectral Type Stars: G, Late F, Early Ka Late F or Early K Type Star are also Candidates for Having Life-Bearing Planets

Stable Intensity of Star

·         Large moon to stabilize rotation because without large moon the rotational axis of the planetwillbe unstable
·         Plate tectonic activity
·         Water(ocean must be) by cometary’s seeding
·         Recent nearby nova to clear out interstellar dust.
Time between large impactors for life

Main Sequence Star
Please see LINK

·         Adequate Age for Life to Evolve.

·         Orbit within ' the Habitable Zone'.

·         Avoid close orbit and being tidally locked to star

·         Not within a dense star cluster

·         Sudden, occasional environmental/ecological changes to encourage evolution.

Planetary Worlds whose Mass is between 0.5 and 10 Earth Masses(the current theoretical optimum size, gravity, etc. for which life’s development is favorable due to the ability to hold atmospheres, plate tectonics, magnetic fields, etc.): Too little mass and the planet won’t be able to keep its atmosphere (and inevitably liquid water) for longer than a few billion years; too much mass and odds are fairly good that it will retain hydrogen and helium, thereby adding more mass to the planet that allows it to trap more H+ and He- thus starting a cycle that transforms the planet into a gas giant 
 URL (

Earth-Like' Conditions for Life
Oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphereThe oxygen to nitrogen ratio is determined by the presence of life and is, as such, self-regulated by life oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphere
1            If larger: advanced life functions would proceed too quickly.

2            If smaller: advanced life functions would proceed too slowly.
3            Radioactive methane gas generated by volcanism or like nearly all methane in our own atmosphere is produced by bacteria and other life.
4            Presence of volcanoes [2]
5            Commets Impact[2]
6            Methane and water are very important to any carbon based life[2]

The Frank Drake Equation forTechnological Civilization in the Milky Way Galaxy

Universe or our galaxy is possibly teaming with life according these authors particularly in the G and K class stars in the Galactic Habitable Zone(HZ) [2]. How many planets may be there in that galactic habitable zone?More than 4000 [2]We consider that life itself is fairly common throughout this galaxy.How can we estimate the number of technological civilizations that might exist among the stars? While working as a radio astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia, Dr. Frank Drake (he was once the Chairman of the Board of the SETI Institute) conceived an approach to bind the terms involved in estimating the number of technological civilizations that may exist in our galaxy.

The Drake Equation, as it has become known, was first presented by Drake himself in 1961 and identifies specific factors thought to play a role in the development of such civilizations[3]. Although there is no unique solution to this equation, it is a generally accepted tool used by the scientific community to examine these factors. The equation is usually writtenas:
Where, N= The number of civilizations in the milky way galaxy whose electromagnetic emissions are detectable, R* =The rate of formation of stars suitable for the development of intelligent life,fp= The fraction of those stars with planetary systems ne= The number of planets, per solar system, with an environment suitable for lifefl= The fraction of suitable planets on which life actually appears fi= The fraction of life bearing planets on which intelligent life emerges fc= The fraction of civilizations that can develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space, and L= The length of time such civilizations release detectable signals into space. Drake himself estimates the final number of communicating civilizations in the galaxy to be about 10,000. As per Drake, wemay calculate, for example, 0.333333333 7,300,613.497 planets may be containing any kind of life, intelligent or not.0.333333333 973415.1329 "Jurassic" worlds or any other whose most intelligent species is sub-sentient.0.333333333 12.16768916 planets whose most intelligent species is within (but not over) 5000 years of current Western World technological development i.e. ~12 worlds with 'planets whose most intelligent species is within (where life evolved without artificial intervention).So planets with 'advanced technical civilizations are quite rare, if we consider modern civilizations not more than 5000 years old and if the average age of a civilization is a million years, that increases the number of intelligent species civilizations to 2400. In 2001, for the first time, the researchers estimated how many planets might lie in the "habitable zone[2]" around stars, where water is liquid and photosynthesis was possible. The results suggest that an inhabited earth-like planet(Super earth) could be as little as a few hundred light years away[2]. So it is obvious that within the limits of our existing technology, any practical search for distant intelligent life must necessarily be a search for some manifestation of a distant technology, . The National Research Council of US has emphasized the relevance and importance of searching for evidence of the electromagnetic signature of distant civilizations. The late astronomer Professor Carl Sagan FRS, estimated that there might be a million technological civilizations in our galaxy alone who are able to communicate with us.Frank Drake offered the number 10,000. John Oro, a pioneering comet researcher, calculated that the milky way is sprinkled with a hundred civilizations. And finally there are also skeptics like Ben Zuckerman, an astronomer at UCLA, who thinks we may as well be alone in this galaxy if not in the universe. All the estimates are however highly speculative. The fact remains that there is yet no conclusive evidence of any life beyond ourearth.

Simple Life or Complex Life or Intelligent Life
Simple life in some form microscopic may be more and more than complex life form or intelligent life form that understands physics or mathematics and target of SETI that may also does exist. Recent life forms have been also discovered that do not need solar energy to survive. Bacteria can live on energy derived from chemical reactions rather than photosynthesis[2]. And, higher life forms survive by consuming the bacteria. So evolving to complex organisms is highly possible. More complex life will certainly be rarer. If at all they exist we do not believe that we will ever make contact with them. Think once about the vastness of space and the age of the universe. The vast distance between stars and galaxies makes it less likely that any other life will be found because it takes too long to travel and combined with the increased rarity, it is extremely unlikely we could just go to the "next star over" and find complex life there.[4]. Finally, with the age of the universe, other civilizations could have grown and died out long before life even started to develop here. So what are the chances we could travel somewhere within a reasonable distance?

PanspermiaTheory in Cosmos
The big yet unsolved question is “are we alone in this universe?” If and even multiple universes are present,then is there also chance of development of life in planet or phantasmal in those universe[5]? Paul Devis of Australian center for astro-biology Macquire university retired the claim of astro-biologists that life is cosmic in pattern bound to arise under earth like conditions and likely to spread across the galaxies. He first raised question ‘are we alone in the cosmic eternity”. Or life also existed in extraterrestrial planets or atmosphere or in asteroids where from it came through a rocket system. Our heavenly (expired in 2006)mom late Mrs.Bani Bhattacharya(1935 ,2006), of residence7/51 Purbapalli, PO- Sodepur, District-24 Parganas(North) Kol-110,West Bengal,India, used to tell our brothers and sister in our child hood times in 1960s such kinds of peculiar stories. She had auditory hallucination. She had a false belief of Panspermia theory, i.e., life exists throughout cosmos. People from extraterrestrial of other galaxies, other planets used to tell her various stories or used to speak with her. Really civilized life also existed in extraterrestrial planets or atmosphere or other universe? If it was so, on the countless other planets that may circle other suns, in same distances from their sun, as our earth circles our sun in a distance, life may exist. It may exist as organic molecule like carbon molecule DNA or RNA based life, as life on our earth (then there the evolutionary pattern would probably be same as it happened in our earth we authors consider so) or they may be different. Based on other molecule (let us say silica based, Iron based,sulphubased DNA or RNA) with other types of evolutionary system and adaptation to their environment. What we think about life is based on chains of carbon atoms with a few atoms life phosphorus, sulphuand nitrogen. One may speculate that one may have life with some other chemical basis such as silicon, iron but carbon atoms should have most favorable case(Life in the universe sated by Prof. S.W. Hawkings FRS).Francis Crick, the Nobel Laureate for discovering the double helix structure of DNA molecule, once wrote ostensibly to answer “Enrico Framis”,another Nobel laureate for his famous question “…if there are intelligent beings in the galaxy why are they only in earth?” and Crick assessed the hypothesis known as “Directed Panspermia hypothesis”, that is to say a variant of Arrethenious 19th century theory modified, in that Crick considered “whether life was deliberately planted in earth by some God?” i.e. evolution from extraterrestrial space?.Answer that Francis Crick gave to EnricoFramis “that life on earth could well have originated elsewhere in the galaxy and that there had been time enough for intelligent beings to evolve elsewhere. A suitable environment and to have dissipated prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms by rocket or asteroid to this planet where life may have developed” Crick however admitted that the theory of “Directed Panspermia” although suffered from possible paucity of evidences.

In the great darkness of space time, between stars there are condensed dark matter(composed of gas, dusts, organic matter) and dark energy (we yet do not know composition of dark energy) with dozens of different kinds of organic molecules. The abundance of these molecules further suggests that stuff of life is everywhere in the cosmos. A very pertinent question raised by present authors mind is “Is our universe especially designed to produce human race?” The possibility of life is on some of thousands of planets in our milky way galaxy even or in other galaxies of universe or may be in other universes if there are multiple universes as per string theory[5].Life may have never arose somewhere, on the other hand it may have arose and died and or never evolved beyond the simplest form or in some planets there may be life which developed more intelligent civilization, more advanced than human civilization on the surface of earth. The biologists and physicists say that our planet “the earth” is perfectly suitable one for evolution now. Moderate temperature,liquid water, oxygen, nitrogen in air, greenhouse effect and so on were helpful for development of life here. We the earthlings are supremely well adapted to this environment, because we grew up here in three-dimensional form from three-dimensional molecule very complex organic molecule DNA/RNA in three dimensional space and one dimensional time on this earth.

In the beginning of our universe, many say that there was the Big Bang, and only physics, the mostly and yet undiscovered laws of universe. Then chemistry came along at milder temperatures; when elementary particles quarks with its color ultimately formed nucleons and then atoms; “Of course there was no carbon when universe began 15 billion years ago. It was so hot that all the matters were in form of quarks or Higgs particles and or zero rest mass Rupak particles and then protons and neutrons came. However as the universe expanded it became cool.After one minute of the Big Bang the temperature fell to billion degrees at which temperature neutrons started to decay to protons. If this happened then, all the matter in the universe ended up into simple matter hydrogen. Some of the neutrons probably collided with protons and stuck together to form next element Helium whose nucleus consist of two(2) neutrons and two(2) protons. But no elements like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur were there in the early universe. The universe continued to expand and further cooled. Some regions would have higher density than others. The gravitational attraction of extra matter in those regions slowed down their expansion and eventually stopped expansion. And they collapsed to form proto galaxies –-> galaxiesà proto starsàstars starting about two billion years from the Big Bang moment. From the stars planets were formed. Our solar system was formed about ten billions years after the Big Bang. The earth was formed largely out of the heavier elements including, hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen[4]. These united to give more and more complex organic molecules ever most complex largest molecule on earth the RNA, DNA, enzymes, and genes epegenes which in turn associated into organized aggregates and cell membranes, defining the most primitive cells out of which life emerged in this planet.Chemistry and Biochemistry may be then considered as the science of matter and of its transformations, and life in this planet is its highest form of expression of biochemistry. Chemistry and notably supra-molecular chemistry thus entertained a double relationship with biology of life in this planet.The progression from elementary particles to the nucleus, the atom, the molecule, the super-molecule RNA and the supra-molecular assembly of bio organic represents steps up the ladder of supra-intelligence complexity that happened here. Particles interacted to form atoms, atoms to form molecules, molecules to form super molecules and supra-molecular assemblies, etc. At each level a novel feature appeared that however did not exist at a lower one. Thus a major line of development of chemistry to form life is towards more and more complex systems and the emergence of complexity. The highest level of complexity is expressed in the highest form of matter, living matter, life, which itself culminated in the human brain, the plasticity of the neural system, epigenesis, consciousness and thought. For this, what took the active role, is the Darwinian evolution that might also be brought into parallel with the recent development, via procedures of both chemical synthesis and molecular biology, of molecular diversity methods that combined the generation of large repertoires of molecules with highly efficient various selection procedures, adaptations, and conflicts, to obtain products presenting specific properties.The techniques of amplification by replication used in these methods would bear relation to the spontaneous generation of the target superstructures by the operation of self-processes.

A further major development along these lines, concerns the design of molecular species displaying the ability to form by self-replication.With respect to the frontiers of life itself, arises three basic questions to these authors mind which may be today asked: How it appeared in cosmos? Where are places it appeared? Why it appeared?

The first concerns the origin of life on this planet, the earth only as we know it, of our biological world. But is it true for only this planet? The second considers the possibility of extraterrestrial life, within or beyond the solar systems, beyond galaxies, or beyond even our universe. The third question wonders why life has taken the forms we know; it has as corollary the question whether other forms of life can (and do) exist: is there “artificial life”?; it also implies that one might try to set the stage and implement the steps that would allow, in a distant future, the creation of artificial forms of life. Such an enterprise, which one cannot (and should not) at the present stage outline in detail except for initial steps, rests on the presupposition that there may be more than one, or several expressions of the processes characterizing life. It thus invites to the exploration of the “frontiers of other lifes”and of the chemical evolution of living worlds.

Questions have been addressed about which one may speculate, let one’s imagination wander, perhaps even set paths for future investigations. However, where the answers lie is not clear at present, and future chemical research towards ever more complex systems will uncover new modes of thinking and new ways of acting that we at present do not know about and may even be unable to imagine.

What are the Extraterrestrial Contributions for Life in this Planet?
An excess of L-amino acids was detected in Murchison and Murray, two meteorites of the carbonaceous chondrite class,although some discrepancies in the reported results remain to be yet resolved. Cronin et al. originally discarded the evidence for small excesses of L-enantiomers in Murchison as controversial and possibly caused by terrestrial contamination[6]. Later, however,they themselves found an enantiomeric excess of various amino acids that have never been reported, or are of limited occurrence,on earth [7, 8].The detection of a significant 15N enrichment in individual amino acid enantiomers from Murchison, when was compared with their terrestrial counterparts, it confirmed that the source of these amino acids was extraterrestrial and not any terrestrial contamination.Carbonaceous chondrites were formed ~4.5 billion years ago (i.e.,before the origin of life on Earth). There is still some controversy regarding the actual origin of those meteoritic amino acids (i.e.,on the meteorite parent body via Strecker synthesis in liquid water [3, 7] or in the interstellar medium followed by incorporation into the parent body [6, 8]. Experiments with interstellar ice analogues have shown that the UV-light–induced synthesis of amino acids was possible under the types of conditions likely to be found in interstellar dust [9, 10]. No matter which scenario is the correct one, the finding of an excess of L-aminoacids in carbonaceous chondrites strongly suggests that the excess is of extraterrestrial origin and existed in the solar system before the origin of life on earth.
The experiments further indicated that at least some amino acids did not undergo complete racemization during their residencein space, transit to earth, atmospheric entry, and surface impact.The methyl amino acids found to exhibit considerable excessof the L-enantiomer in the Murchison meteorite are reportedlyquite resistant to racemization [7].Racemization half-lives of meteoritic -amino acids, the ones used for protein synthesisin contemporary terrestrial organisms, were calculated from models, taking into account the various environments that suchan amino acid was exposed to, in space [11].In the temperature range between 150 and 300 K, the racemization half-lives variedbetween amino acids by approximately 5-orders of magnitude,with glutamic acid and iso-leucine predicted to retain an enantiomericexcess much longer than phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and alanine. These calculations suggested that the reported D/L value forglutamic acid in Murchison of 0.3was close to the originalvalue [9], whereas that of alanine (D/L=0.5) could correspondto original values in the range of 0.5 to 0.35 [11]. Note,however, that others did not observe any enantiomeric excess in alanine [12]. Other experiments suggested that amino acid racemization at high temperatures, as may be encountered duringatmospheric entry and surface impacts of space bodies, wouldbe very rapid [13]. Incorporation into rocks of a size to prevent their being heating all the way through should, however, overcomethis problem.The presence of a variety of amino acids in meteorites raisesthe further question of whether not only the source of enantiomericexcess in terrestrial amino acids but also possibly the provenanceof pre-biotic amino acids themselves was extraterrestrial. Meteoritesare actually considered unlikely to have made a significant contribution to the total amount of pre-biotic organics [14]. In contrast, impacts of carbonaceous asteroids and comets during the period of heavy bombardment 4.5–3.8 billionyears ago are thought to have been important sources not justof amino acids but also a variety of prebiotic organic molecules[15, 16].Even greater amounts of organic material are likelyto have been accreted from interplanetary dust particles, which bare currently contributing ~3.2×105 kg.year-1 of intact organics.How large a portion of the total inventory of organics on earlyearth came from extraterrestrial sources depends on a varietyof factorsforemost among them is the actual composition of earth’searly atmosphere and hence the extent of endogenous production [2].Whereas Miller and Urey assumed a fully reducing early terrestrialatmosphere for their famous experiments, it is now thought thatit was non-reducing or slightly reducing [16–18]. Theefficiency of organic synthesis decreased rapidly as a functionof the H2/CO2 ratio. It has been calculated that with UV lightas the energy source, a yearly production of 2×1011 kg organicswould have occurred in a reducing atmosphere, whereas only 3×108 kgyear-1 would be produced in a neutral atmosphere (H2/CO2=0.1) [16]. Recent experiments suggested that high-energyparticles, but not UV light, were able to generate amino acidprecursors under mildly reducing conditions [14].The delivery to earth of large amounts of extraterrestrial carbonaceouscompounds, including many of the building blocks of life, mightactually fall under a new expanded definition of panspermia[19]. Originally, however, the term panspermiawas referred tothe transfer of some form of viable extraterrestrial organism.Theoretically, the transfer of such organisms between planetswithin our solar system is possible on rocks ejected by largeimpacts [20]. A majority of these ejecta were heated to temperaturesthat would kill all microbes; however, some remain almost un-shocked[21]. Further heating during the ascent through the atmosphereof the home planet requires that the ejecta be of a size thatprevents heating to 100°C all through, with a diameter of>0.2 m estimated as necessary. Similar heating occurs duringthe entry into and passage through the atmosphere of the targetplanet and the landing there. In between, microbes would haveto survive thousands of years of travel through space. Spaceis a very hostile environment in which UV and ionizing radiation,extreme vacuum, andvery-very cold temperatures individually, andeven more so in combination, are potentially lethal [14]. Theoreticaland experimental results indicate, however, that protectionfrom these sterilizing factors however may be possible [14].The ability of some bacteria to form spores makes them attractivecandidates for extraterrestrial organisms that might have introducedlife to earth,explained later in this article[22]. Spores represent a dormant state of any bacteria. Thisoffers the advantage of the absence of (detectable) metabolism and high resistance to a variety of physical insults, includingthose imposed by prolonged space travel. Only a small proportion of spores were found to survive space travel of up to 6 years(i.e., a minute fraction of the actual time they may have tospend in space during transfer between planets [22].A single living organism may be enough to seed life on another planet, however.Our Panspermia theories offer the advantage of overcoming the difficulties arising from the shortness of the time interval during which life on earth must have become established. Life could not have arisen, or would have been destroyed if it did, during the heavy bombardment period that ended about 3.8 Gyear ago. Micro fossils and stromatolites indicate that complex life must have originated morethan 3.5 Gyr ago, and evidence of biologically mediated carbon isotope fraction puts the existence of life back even farther,to ~3.8 Gyr ago we do belief. Some biologists say that life must have arisen around 10 billion years ago.This leaves a very narrow window of time for the emergence of terrestrial life and adds some plausibility to scenarios in which a preformed extraterrestrial life form started life on earth as we authors think it so. Ultimately, however, postulating an extraterrestrial origin not just for organic bio molecules but for entire organisms simply shifts the location of the origin of life, without addressing the underlying questions of how life arose and at what point during this process homo chirality became established.Clearly the questions of life’s origin and the relationship of its emergence to the phenomenon of homo-chirality are the subject of active investigation. To conclude this review, we are struck by the ‘‘symmetry’’ of some of the possible mechanisms linking these questions and the expressions of these in aspects of biology. Homo-chirality, a prerequisite of life’s emergence in some scientists’ view, might arise as a consequence of the roles played by cosmology (e.g.,by cold dark matter and cold dark energy) and occur at the far edge of galaxies. The conjunction of these (the dark) with our increasing understanding of the processes that control nuclear fusion and supernovas in providing both the building blocks and the energy (the light) to drive life’s processes leads us to conclude with a quote alluding to the symmetry of light and dark.Thus the darkness bears its fruit, and proves itself.

Life in Other Universes:- Possible with Symmetry Breaking according to Us!
Though a big bang like event happened in the early universe, universe spent a period of time in the early phase (~1 s Plank’s time) in a super cooled stage. In the super cooled stage its density (3 K) was then dominated by large positive constant vacuum energy and false vacuum. The super cooled stage was then followed by appearance ofmultiple bubbles inflation. The temperature variation occurred in 3 K cosmological background imprinted some 10~35 sec in pre-inflationary stage and grand unified theory (GUT) happened there with generation of trillions and trillions degrees of temperature. As per old inflationary theory of Big Bang, there appeared bubbles of true vacuum and inflation blowed up a small casually connected region of the universe that was something much like the observable universe of today within a bubble. This actually preceded large scale cosmological homogeneity and were reduced to an exponentially small number; the present density of any magnetic monopoles, that according to many of particle physicist, GUT, and would have been produced in the pre-inflationary phase. In the old inflationary theory, the universe must be homogeneous(and a little bit un-homogeneous too) in all its directions and was isotropic. In old inflation theory, the super cooled stage was married by appearance of bubbles of the true vacuum, the broken symmetry of ground state. The model of old inflation theory however was later on abandoned, because the exponential expansion of any super cooled state always present the bubbles from merging and complicate the phase transition. Moreover in true sense, universe is not totally homogenous, but in small scale,non-homogenous too.

The cosmic inflation theories of Big Bang postulate that our universe underwent a period of extremely rapid expansion shortly after the Big Bang. But how the transition from inflation to today’s more slowly expanding universe occurred has not yet cleared before the world. It is also not known before world that why did inflation occur in the first place and not happening now?The answer lies in that probably the universe began in every possible ways we today can imagine and vast numbers of these universes withered away. and universe did not have just one unique beginning and history but a multitude of different ones.It is our authors multiverse concept which states that“The present day universe would have begun as multiple bubbles in the inflationary cosmos [5]. One of such bubbles is probably our universe. But bubbles according to calculation were nothing but vacuum-matter- and energy, would never have developed under such conditions”.

There happened an unusual phase transition in mixture of helium isotopes. Normal fluid changes their phases from gas to liquid to solid. Let us say, following a bubble requires similar to the one that theorists believed ended inflation. But the mixture of super fluid helium changed its properties in completely smooth uniform fashion? Applied to cosmology, the super fluid transition allowed the entire universe to gently roll from inflation to present day condition. Helium-3, an isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron has thus a very unusual property. Helium-3 can undergo the phenomenon of symmetry breaking. Normally, pairs of atoms in the liquid phase have and angular momentum aligned in a random direction. But when cooled, the helium atoms would snap into a single alignment, spontaneously creating order of chaos. The symmetry breaking in early universe lead to creation of every force of universe,except gravity. Kibbles hypothesis says that cooling of early universe as it expanded created all massive structures. Defects called cosmic strings that were the seed of large nets ofgalaxies we see around us today.String theory is controversial because it has evolved over past 2½ decades, almost without references of experiment or observation and many views that it is more on super high branches of mathematics then reality of physics. Some versions of String theory however state possibility of electrical multi-universe.String theory predicts the existence of an enormous number of different “vacuum states,” or space time bubbles with different properties, such as physical constants or particle masses. Of an infinite number of bubbles, there could be 10500different varieties. And though any underlying basic law of physics would remain the same, the bubbles could nonetheless exhibit vast physical diversity. Some of the string theory postulate that our universe may sit on 3D membrane or Brane suspended in a higher dimensional space, the way on a two dimensional sheet of paper sits in 3-D words. Such a string theory explains the end of inflationary period through collision of our Brane with another similar Brane inmulti-universe concept.

Nowadays, the multi- universe concept is a hot topic for discussionat real-world scientific conferences. The question arises as to whether all these other universes are going to be like ours “or whether they will have different laws and the laws in our universe are in some sense special.String theory, a favorite candidate (although unsubstantiated by experiment) for explaining all of physical laws of universe; suggests that the multi-universe encompasses bubbles hosting various sorts of physics. String theory predicts the existence of an enormous number of different “vacuum states,, or space time bubbles with different properties, such as physical constants or particle masses. Of an infinite number of bubbles,there could be 10500different varieties. And though any underlying basic law of physics would remain the same, the bubbles could nonetheless exhibit vast physical diversity. Some of those bubbles would not have lasted long enough for life, inflating but then shrinking before any interesting chemistry commenced. Others would expand forever, as seems the case with the bubble that humans occupy. In some, the local laws of physics would have welcomed living things; others would have permitted none of the particles and forces that conspire to build atoms, molecules and metabolic mechanisms. It seems that universes come in all sizes and flavors, with thebubble being the Goldilocks version, just right for life. In other words, if the multiverse offers multiple bubbles that permit life to evolve, humans would most likely live in an average bubble. If, for instance, you throw out all the bubbles that would not allow life anyway, and then calculate the average temperature of space in those that remain, humans should measure a cosmic temperature that is not very far off from that average. Somewhere in the cosmos, such a random mix of molecules has produced a brain identical to yours in every respect, neurons in identical configurations, with all your memories and perceptions.

Which Stars in Our Galaxy Milky Way?
Stars in our Galaxy Milky way- estimates: 500 billion (Royal Greenwich Observatory). And these stars include everything from M-Class (Red Dwarfs) to Enormous O-Class stars (very hot, very fast burning, Blue stars). Our ownstar sun is Class G star.K class stars are.The cooler and “redder” the star, the longer it remains on the main sequence (barring the obvious exception of red giants). The previously-mentioned O-Class (very hot blue) stars will likely last only a few dozen million years, barely enough time for star dust to coalesce into planets. Furthermore, hotter stars emit enormous quantities of ionizing radiation (UV or higher). In fact, large stars tend to emit the bulk of their radiation in the UV band. Stars in classes B (a lower level blue-white) and A (white) suffer similarly, though not to the extreme extent as O-class ones. Nevertheless, these stars will last only a few billion years at most. This may be long enough for simple life and perhaps even the simplest animal life to form, but not likely enough to allow technologically advanced life to arise (unless its evolution is incredibly quick). F-class (white) is likely to last from 4 to 6 billion years, certainly enough to give rise to complex life (perhaps even intelligent life). Unfortunately, in the earth-term timeline, at least, a white sun will start to leave the main sequence just when intelligence does arise. Timing truly is everything. So while it is certainly possible and even plausible for a white sun to have a technically advanced civilization, we do not find it particularly likely.
By contrast, the red dwarf (M-class) stars will be around for billions of years, much more than enough time for life to form. Furthermore, they do not emit as much ionizing radiation as even our own sun (G-Class), another factor favoring a life-friendly environment. Unfortunately, the cooler the star, the narrower is its life zone. We personally interpret this fact to mean that a red star’s HZ will be less likely to contain a planet of any sort, let alone one with other preconditions necessary for life to have a chance on it. Even if the red sun’s HZ does have a planet with the appropriate gravity, atmospheric and other characteristics, odds are fairly high that the planet will suffer from “rotation lock” (one face always facing the star). This means one side will be in eternal day or close to it (thus rendering it too hot) and one side will be in eternal night (rendering it too cold). However, there is still at least some chance other mitigating factors will come to play on such a planet (the hot spot over the planet may create atmospheric convection that creates winds, thus spreading heat more evenly over the planet). Obviously, a rotationally-locked planet’s twilight zone could offer a happy medium in which life, and even intelligence can flourish in theory. However, as I will discuss later, such a planet will have a much more difficult time developing a sustainable high technology civilization, and even a high-end pre-industrial civilization. G (yellow), K (orange), and low-level white stars areplaces favorable for advanced civilization to arise. If we include all G and K stars, plus about 1/3 of all F stars, these stars are about 22% of all stars in the galaxy (Wikipedia). If M-class (red) stars78% of all stars permit HZ planets without a rotation lock, then perhaps another 10% of all stars (the hotter M-class ones) can be added to (though I admit this number is rather arbitrary). So we can say that as many as 33% of all stars could support a technical civilization, given other necessary planetary conditions listed above. Such stars that are the appropriate age .if you are content with finding significant life in any form, you will likely find it around planets between 2 and 5 billion years old. This is certainly long enough for life to form an oxygen atmosphere (strong evidence of life), though not necessarily sentient life. Hopefully, by 20162020 the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project will finally give the answers we all want: where there are rocky crust planets orbiting around G to K class stars within 200‑300 light years of earth. The TPF mission will survey number of earth-sized planets in habitable zone orbits in the galaxy.

How willYou Define Intelligent Life in the Galaxy?[23]
According to these authors, intelligence is a prerequisite fortechnology development. Intelligence drives technology development.We say intelligent life is life with the ability to learn something and share that knowledge with others. Then, the only thing oneneed is time to build up a civilization, which will automatically lead to the ability to produce radio waves or any other thing that is needed to call a life form intelligent.

Any Special Signal Received yet by SETI as a Proof of Intelligent Life?
In August 1977, an Ohio State University radio telescope detected an unusual pulse of radiation from somewhere near the constellation Sagittarius. The nearest star in that direction is 220 light years away. The 37- seclong signal was so startling that an astronomer monitoring the data scrawled "Wow!" on the telescope's printout. The signal was within the band of radio frequencies where transmissions are internationally banned on Earth[3]. In February 2003, astronomers with the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) project, used a massive telescope in Puerto Rico to re-examine 200 sections of the sky which had all previously yielded unexplained radio signals. These signals had all disappeared, except for one which had become strongercame from a spot between the constellations Pisces andAries. SETI has many signal detectors type. Recently in 2008, SETI signal detector called  SonATA(SETI on the ATA). Son ATA does everything that Prelude does, but it is a softwareonly detector, capable of operating on commodity servers, without the special-purpose hardware accelerators that had to be built into Prelude to make it run in near-real time.On October 9, 2008 the X-band signal from the Rosetta spacecraft was detected by the SonATA as a demsystem!

Fig. 2:X-Band Signal from the Rosetta Spacecraft was Detectedby the SonATA as a
Demo System in October 2008.

Figure 2 shows that detection. The Rosetta X-band signal is much stronger than the signals fromVoyager Figure 2 [6]. After a half-century of scanning the skies,SETI astronomers today have little to report. Why?. The problem could be that SETI had been so long looking in the wrong place, at the wrong time, and in the wrong way. "Why to waste time looking for old-style radio signals? The advanced and intelligent aliens may use entangled particles like neutrinos or some form of gravity waves to signal us.

Other Technology to Detect ET Signals?
Neutrino signaling has been studied bythe Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of California Santa Barbara, suggested that the more intelligentand civilized aliens wouldrather opt for neutrino energies far above those generated naturally by the sun and stars. Because there are very few energetic neutrinos coming from any specific direction of space, a beam of high-energy neutrinos that passed our way would be highly conspicuous. Contrast this with energetic radio waves, which are generated by many compact astronomical sources; using radio,intelligent ETs are in competition with the entire cosmos. Wesothink that the intelligentaliens, if any, could use a particle accelerator to collide and annihilate electrons and their antiparticles (positrons) to make a narrow beam of neutrinos that can be aimed at will.

In contrast to the classic SETI target, a continuous narrow-band signal at a specific frequency, a beacon would show up spread across a range of frequencies in the form of a short blip, or perhaps a more attention-grabbing blip-blip. As it happens, many blips have been recorded throughout the lifetime of SETI, but very little follow-up has resulted, and for good reason. The procedure when a radio telescope picks up something odd is to move the antenna off target, to make sure the signal fades (thus eliminating equipment malfunction), and then move it back on target again. If the signal is still there the second time, a partner radio telescope, preferably far away, is brought into play to confirm that the source is in fact astronomical (and not a local mobile phone, for example). All this assumes that the mystery signal will continue for long enough for the checking procedure to be completed, which in practice could take several hours. But if a telescope detects a momentary blip, there one moment, gone the next, the checking procedure isnot possible. The biggest drawback of conventional SETI is the immense time required for radio signals to pass between the stars. But there is an-other, more exciting, possibility. Humans could conduct a conversation with an alien intelligence by proxy on a nearly real-time basis if the aliens have sent a probe to the solar system, where the travel time for signals to earth is measured in minutes or hours. Ronald Bracewell raised this possibility at the inception of SETI, and it has been a recurring theme ever since. From the standpoint of the aliens, the big plus of a probe is its “set and-forget” character. With careful design, it might well outlive the civilization that launched it. It doesnot need a massive antenna, unless required to report back to HQ on the home planet. Radio telescopes on earth had no trouble picking up the Pioneer 10 spacecraft at the edge of the solar system (before it finally blinked off the air a few years ago) and its transmitter was no more powerful than a Christmas tree light bulb. An alien probe could store a huge amount of information in a tiny chip; once in communication with us, its supercomputer could engage in an intensive educational and cultural exchange. In principle, the probe could be any size at all, but for now I have in mind something the size of a human communications satellite. In the not too distant future,we hope thathumans will be able to build micro or nano-machines that store prodigious amounts of information, and they could be used as space probes. Because of their tiny size, they could be accelerated to high speeds (say 0.01% of the speed of light) very cheaply, perhaps without the need for rockets. It may still take a few million years for them to reach the target stars, but haste is not an issue in the scenario I am exploring. We can readily imagine an advanced alien civilization packaging mini-databanks in microscopic capsules and spewing them around the galaxy in the millions.

Possibility of Life inOur Solar System in thePlanets like Mars,Venus, Saturn or inOur Moon
We authors are now going to discuss some of important features of our planetary and our lunar environments which strongly contraindicate presence of life on our moon, on Venus, or even on Mars. Let us (authors)consider first the effect of temperature of the surfaces of these planets. Although many organisms have only a limited temperature range to evolve and to survive, such as the blue-green algae-can withstand greater extremes. Blue-green algae werereported growing also in hot springs of the earthat temperatures approachingtowards 100°C. Othermicroorganisms or organisms multiplyvery slowly attemperatures close to 0°C. At much lower temperatures, vital activity of all organisms must cease ascellular cytoplasmfluid becomes frozen.Howeverat very low temperatures, in liquid nitrogen,genetics,  ‑80°C), many organisms could presumably be preserved forindefinite time although they would not metabolize or grow. Many organisms are destroyed while inpasteurization of milk. Standard bacteriological sterilization technique calls for sterilization at 15 £ steam pressure for 15 min. This procedure occasionally fails to destroy however some spores. However, a longer period of exposure is successful. When exposed to dry heat, temperatures of 170°C are required if sterilization is to be accomplished in 15 min. Four mechanisms involved in sterilization can be recognized.Destruction ofany cell at 60°Cprobably due to de-naturation of proteins, and failure of thermophiles (those bacteria which can withstand 100°C or more like Streptococcus mitis) to be destroyed at this temperature perhaps reflects utilization of a different type of protein (e.g., collagen proteinsdo not coagulate at 600°C). Sterilization at 120°C in saturated steam indicates destruction of some of the many hydrolysable chemicals of the organisms such as proteins and nucleic acids. Thereare indications that oxidation has a major destructive role when sterilization is carried out in dry air.

A fundamental limitation is that of the instability of organic substances and amino acids.Almost all organic chemicals becomethermodynamically unstable and become degrade at rates which in the region of interest are exponentially increased with small elevations in temperature. For instance, Alanine, one of the most stable amino acids, is half destroyed in about 10 min at 300°C, in 10 h at 250°C, and in 30 days at 2000°C.This well-known dependence of reaction kinetics on temperature is also noted in the destruction of bacteria and sporeswith rates changing by a factor of 10 for each 70 to 100°C in moist heat or for each 150 to 350°C in dry heat. Long exposures to temperatures below the conventional sterilization regime may result in destruction of the organism. For instance, one in 100,000 spores of the thermophilic facultative anaerobe Bacillus stearotheormophilus can survive 42 sec of exposure to superheated steam at 1770°C and only the same fraction survive after 4,680 min of exposure at 1210°C.This data suggest that comparable destruction would occur in 100 days at 1000°C with dry heat.

The whole question of thermal stability of some bacteria and spore organismsrequires however more study, particularly observations of time-death curves for extended periods at lower temperatures and very hot temperature of 1770°C. However, it is unlikely that any present terrestrial form of any carbon basedlt handed coileddouble helix DNAlife can withstand long exposure to temperatures above 1800°C even under the most favorable conditions given by any forms of adaptation. Nor does it seem likely that throughor by process of adaptation in any planets a thermally resistant strain might be evolved in others planets whichwould be strikingly more resistant than those now known.

Water is a second important requirement of any carbon based double helixDNA living organisms whatever it may be when it has protoplasm or nucleoplasm in its cell structure. Although some organisms and spores successfully withstand desiccation and resume vital processes on or after rehydration, growth and reproduction occur only when they aregiven the hydrated state. Oneof the most striking examples is the water requirement of roots of plants. Researchshowed that most plants will grow if the relative humidity of air in soil is between 98.91 and 99.83% but not at 98.90%, although at this lower humidity most plants remain alive.

Another example,to me,moist meat is an excellent culture medium for anaerobic bacteria. However, if the meat is kept dried and maintained at a relative humidity of less than 20%,bacterial attack ceases. Consider the fate of a small amount of physiologicalsaline solution, when it is exposed to air of low humidity. Water, of course, is lost.Ultimately the volume diminishes until the solution is supersaturated and NaClbegins to crystallize out. If the relative humidity is less than about 30%,the process continues until only dry solids remain. Protoplasm of any cellalso behaves in asimilar manner, having no special affinity for water. At relative humidity ofabout 30% and below, terrestrial living matter eventually loses nearly all its water.It is a well-known fact that all growing and dividing cells are made of jelly like cytoplasm, and in the nucleus, nucleoplasm,and these consistmostly of water. Why is water essential to living things? Many answers maybe given. Dehydrated protoplasm is very hard and stiff. How could then chromosomaldivision and the other essentials of reproduction, including reorganization of cells,occur in that dry state? How could transfer of metabolites occur? Many syntheticsteps seem to involve assembly lines on which metabolites are handed along.Many millions small molecules move freely within the cell. The cellular fluid, which is mainly ofcourse, water in this earth,acts as a highway for rapid transfer of many substances inside or outside the cell. Lifewithout water would be thus a very slow process, limited by solid state diffusion. Or it might be another kind of life involving gaseous diffusion process of cells or a different cellularfluid other than water. May be methane?.Water also enters into many of the chemical processes of the cell as a reactantand as such is completely essential to metabolism. Many biological reactionssuch as hydrolysis of proteins, esters, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids involveliquid water as a reactant. These reactions often are characterized by small negative free energy changes. Thus, in the hydrolysis of proteins, values in therange of3,000 cal/mol have been quoted. In utilizing protein as food or inreorganizing protein into new configurations, the organism can take advantage ofthis free energy change, and if a catalyzing enzyme is present, the reaction occursquickly. If liquid water is not present, the fugacity of water is diminished and the free energy released in these hydrolysis reactions can be changed substantially.For instance, if the partial pressure of water were 1/1000 that of saturation, freeenergy of hydrolytic reactions would be changed about +4 kcal/mol at 20°C.In such an environment, peptides would not hydrolyze but rather the reversereaction would occur spontaneously. The amino acids and proteins would tend toreact to form impossibly large molecules and the living system could not function unless a means were devised to prevent untoward polymerization.The great capacity of organisms to adapt is often cited. Superficially, the differencebetween a bacterium and a human is enormous. However, when examinedin the light of comparative biochemistry the contrast blurs. In detail,most of the important features are virtually identical, including the principal aminoacids, enzyme systems, and the nucleic acids. The capacity of microorganismsto adapt is likewise often told, but the actual alterations in enzyme systems ornucleic acids (as a result of adaptation) are relatively trivial. Observation of thecapacities of living systems on this earth provides no basis for optimism that through adaptation, terrestrial organisms could circumvent the facts of thermal instability or those of chemical thermodynamics if the organisms are carbon based DNA or RNA Life.

Let me now turn then to a consideration of our lunar and planetary environments.Mercury can be quickly dismissed. It has no atmosphere and the face exposedto the sun reaches 340°C, while the dark side approaches less than absolute zero. The planetsmore distant than Mars are too cold. Only the moon of Saturn Titan, Venus, and Mars may deserveserious consideration.

Our lunar surface presents a singularly hostile environment, with temperaturesranging from intense cold at night to 1350°C at the lunar equator. There is essentiallyno atmosphere, but rather a very high vacuum. Intense lethal solarradiation penetrates to the lunar surface. No liquid water is present. Watsonet al.estimated that the vapor pressure of water on the moonis 1.4×10-12 mm of mercury[24]. This corresponds to 3.5×10-13 of the saturationvapor pressure at 0°C. Under these conditions, free energy of reactions involvinghydrolysis would be changed by nearly +16 kcal, which would constitute anenormous driving force toward polymerization of proteins. If an organism wereto accompany a lunar rocket to the moon, its prognosis would be indeed dubious.On exposure to the sun, unless completely encased in protective vacuum-tightspace suit, its water simply would boil away and its organic components would be gradually destroyed by radiation and heat. However a multi-cellular organism, microscopic Taradigrades (also named as water bears)which is the toughestanimal which has everbeendocumented (they canhoweverproduceglass like hard shieldsin their cells to protect themselves in extreme hot above 1800°C and in extremecold conditions and without water)can survivein spaceandin everywhereto be present in the soil of our (in April 2019from the Israel lunar Lander named Bereshhet, crashed on the moon in lastyear April) lunar surfacesurvived the crashin thousands.This space craftthat crashedwhile landed on moonon last spring in 2018had been carryinga backup of planet earth.The mission foundationa nonprofit organization, that aimedto amass librariesand store themin variousspots around the solar systemfor safe keeping. This particular collection containedhuman DNA samplesof human faces in international space station, a CDRom like disc inscribed with 30 million pages of information and dehydrated Tardigrades. When Targrades are dehydrated, they are virtually indestructible. On the face of danger, they enter this near death state on their own and can manage to survivewithout water or even air, in extreme hot or cold temperature where no microorganism cangrow or colonize,until conditions improve. They can live this way for decades after decadeswithout an issueand when rehydrated, theyinstantly resume life as normal.If the lunarlibrary isremained intactthrough the crash, it may be possiblyfor future missions to retrieve itand conduct tests on tardigrades once they areback on the earth;until thenthere is a strong likelihoodthat earth is no longer the onlycelestial bodyin our solar system that are supporting life.

The moon is, of course, always close to us and relatively easy to study. Venus and Mars are not so readily observed, nor so definitely known. One measure of thedifficulty. of obtaining trustworthy information concerning composition of theplanetary atmospheres is the disagreement among authorities concerning fundamentalfacts. For instance, Menzel and Whipple suggested that the surface of Venus might be completely covered by an ocean [25].

There are features of the planetary environment, however, which seem wellestablished and which have important bearing on the questions of extra-terrestriallife.Venus has an atmosphere and is covered by a dense cloud layer. These featuresare especially evident at inferior conjunction when Venus appears as a crescentand the horns of the crescent are extended to a variable degree. In contrast tothe moon and Mercury, which have no atmosphere or clouds, Venus has a highalbedo-,a relatively high fraction of incident light is not absorbed. What is thecomposition of the atmosphere? Only one component has been quantitativelydetermined, carbon dioxide. The measurement of this component, which was atriumph of astronomy, was performed by Adams and Dunham in 1932[26]. Laterworkers were able to make an improved estimate of the carbon dioxide content,which is now generally accepted as totaling 1,000 m atmospheres. Attempts to detect water or oxygen in the atmosphere of other planets arehampered by the absorption of light by these components in our own atmosphere.

However, it is possible to take advantage of a Doppler shift in wavelength, which Dunham described in the following:"A qualitative examination of the infrared spectra of Venus failed to reveal any components of the oxygen lines in the B band or of the water-vapor lines near8,000 A which could be attributed to oxygen or water in the atmosphere of Venus[26, 27].VOL, the radial velocity of the planet averaged 14 km/sec during the period of observing,and this would correspond to a separation of 0.37 A in the spectrum. "On the basis of the present evidence, it seems unlikely that there can be morethan 5% (probably less than 2%) as much of either oxygen or water vapor in the atmosphere of Venus as in the atmosphere of the earth.".Wheninvestigated the atmosphere of Venus using a telescopein a balloon,it was alsoreported finding a trace of water-approximately 19 µm water equivalent above the cloud layer. The probable error of this measurement,however, wasalmost as large as the effect observed. Interpretation of these findings was of course, difficult, for they essentially pertain to that portion of the atmosphereabove the clouds. We do not know how much water is beneath.Owing to the continual presence of clouds high in the atmosphere of Venus,it is not possible to determine the temperature of the surface by measurementsof radiation of wavelength near the maximum on the black body emission curve.The best estimate comes from measures at cm wavelengths far to the long wavelength side of the black body maximum. The temperatures reported for thesurface of Venus are in excess of 3000°C, which is, of course, far too hot to permit terrestrial life or complex organic substances to exist. This high temperatureseems acceptable to most astronomers. They point to the effectiveness of carbon dioxide and cloud cover in conserving heat in a way often called a greenhouse effect.

Solar radiation is absorbed at the surface, which re-emits radiation of longer wavelength, mainly in the infrared. The blanketing atmosphere is relatively opaque to this radiation. Hence heat is conserved. A similar greenhouse effect is activeon earth where the carbon dioxide content is only 2% that of Venus.

We turn then to Mars, which has always been regarded as the likeliest candidate for extra-terrestrial life. Mars has an atmosphere and, though on the average is colder than earth, has temperatures which at least part of the time are suitable for life. Temperatures at the equator rise to 350°C during the day time. At night, theyfall far' below freezing since there is practically no cloud cover and greenhouse effect. The atmosphere is relatively very thin and the surface is visible most of the time. The quantity of gas in the atmosphere was determined most accurately by Dollfus,who measured the light reflected by the planet and determined what part was reflected from the surface and what part was due to Rayleigh scattering in the gas [28].The value which is generally accepted is a pressure of 85 millibars at ground level.

What does this atmosphere consist of? Our knowledge is incomplete. Kuiper 6 showed that the gas is carbon dioxide and nitrogen[29]. Some of it is doubtless A40,arising out of decay of K40. The remainder is generally assumed to be largelynitrogen, although there is no direct evidence for its presence. There is disagreement concerning a haze in the atmosphere of Mars which leads to absorption that increases rapidly at wavelengths below 4500 A. At least threeexplanations have been advanced. Kuiper"7 states that the haze is due to verysmallice crystals. Opiki8 attributes the absorption to carbon-containing particulatematter. Another explanation, advanced by Kiessis that the absorption is due to nitrogen. Mars is smaller than earth and correspondingly gases can escape far more readily.Only hydrogen and helium can leave earth, but it has been calculated that even atomic oxygen can escape from Mars10 It would be a most remarkable circumstance if we were to be especially favored with the privilege of being around to witness escape of the last traces of original water from Mars. It has been suggested that water could be supplied by planetary out gassing. At best, such asupply would be then sporadic. Volcanic activity on Mars had been also reported.In any event, the present moisture content of the Martian atmosphere is somewhat adequate to permit life as we know it to grow and reproduce.There is evidence, though not very convincing, of life on Mars. The well-known seasonal pattern of color variation has often been interpreted as of biologicorigin. Following dust storms, earlier color reappears. Sintonhas measuredthe infrared spectra of light reflected from Mars and suggested that his spectraindicate the presence of organic molecules for development of life [30]. The effects observed are smallhowever, Abelsonconsidered that they can also be explained as due to nitrogen oxides [31]. If these oxides are present in substantial amounts at the surface of Marsthey would constitute a toxic hazard to any terrestrial life which might reach Mars.If life actually would exists on Mars it cannot be like any terrestrial form of life because of the relative absence of water. The crucial difficulty is the inability of life to function in a non-fluid state. If there is life, special arrangements to provide fluidity must be available, e.g. organic liquids of low vapor pressure. Such a form of life would be quite different from anything we know and would probably be destroyed in any standard culture medium.
Samples those are likely to contain evidence of past life on Mars must had been deposited when and where environments exhibited habitable conditions. Mars analog sites provide the opportunity to study how life could have exploited such habitable conditions. Acidic iron- and sulfur-rich streams are good geo chemical analogues for the late Noachian and early Hesperian, periods of martian history where habitable conditions were widespread known. Past life on Mars would have left behind fossilized microbial organic remains. These are often-sought diagnostic evidence, but they must be shielded from the harsh radiation flux at the martian surface and its deleterious effect on organic matter. One mechanism that promotes such preservation is burial, which raises questions about how organic bio markers are influenced by the post burial effects of diagenesis. When investigated the kinetics of organic degradation in the subsurface of Mars. Natural mixtures of acidic iron- and sulfur-rich stream sediments and their associated microbial populations and remains were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis, which simulated the increased temperatures and pressures of burial alongside any promoted organic/mineral interactions. Calculations were made to extrapolate the observed changes over martian history. Our  authors experiments indicate that low carbon contents, high water-to-rock ratios, and the presence of iron-rich minerals combine to provide unfavorable conditions for the preservation of soluble organic matter over the billions of years necessary to produce present-day organic records of late Noachian and early Hesperian life on Mars. Successful sample selection strategies must therefore consider the pre-, syn-, and postburial histories of sedimentary records on Mars and the balance between the production of biomass and the long-term preservation of organic bio markers over geological time. Success in the search for evidence of life on Mars depends on selecting the appropriate samples for investigation. The late Noachian and early Hesperian period of martian history provide samples of a time when conditions were habitable and when any martian life would have had a relatively lengthy opportunity to originate and proliferate . During the Hesperian period of Mars' history, acidic, sulfur-rich conditions led to the regional deposition of abundant sulfate minerals, such as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and jarosite (KFe3+3(OH)6(SO4)2), in aqueous conditions . Although the longevity of these environments is uncertain, they may have been capable of supporting extremophilic organisms that produced organic remains that, when entombed in a mineral matrix, could represent fossil organic bio markers in the martian rock record. For this reason, there has been significant interest in the ability of jarosite, or minerals associated with jarosite, to preserve organic matter  Recent work  by Jonathon Tan  and by Mark a saphton had shown that lipids are concentrated in iron oxyhydroxides (such as goethite) associated with acid sulfate environments and can preserve fatty acid profiles beyond the initial stages of diagenesis ( Jonathon Tan et al.2018). The iron oxides and oxyhydroxides present in these environments have also been found to be significantly more amenable to thermal extraction techniques (e.g., pyrolysis) used to search for organic matter when compared with minerals that release oxygen upon heating, such as sulfates (such as jarosite) and perchlorates (Jonathon Tan  and by Mark a saphton ). Consequently, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides associated with sulfur stream environments should be considered targets of astrobiological interest. Little is known, however, about how organic biomarkers might be degraded by reactions involving both the organic and inorganic constituents of these acidic iron- and sulfur-rich stream samples, especially following burial where temperature and pressure are elevated for extended periods of time. If life arose on Mars at the same time as Earth, when conditions on both planets were relatively similar, its remains would need to survive billions of years to be detectable in the present day. Although the martian ultraviolet (UV) flux may have been comparable with early Earth and hence not an inhibitor of the evolution of early life (Jonathon Tan  and by Mark a saphton ), the cumulative effects of UV radiation over martian history would likely have destroyed all traces of surface organic matter, or at the very least have rendered organic biomarkers indistinguishable from abiotic carbon sources. Radiation raises some concerns for iron-rich environments, as iron may promote the destruction of organic matter in Mars' present-day radiation environment . Thus, to avoid the deleterious effects of UV radiation, rocks containing organic biomarkers would need to have been rapidly transported to the subsurface where further exposure to the effects of UV would be avoided . Buried surfaces can be accessed in the present day by using a drill as planned in the forthcoming ExoMars (2020) mission (Vago et al.2016), or by searching for surfaces that have only relatively recently been exhumed such as near escarpments  or sites of impact ejection Burial on Mars is relatively rare owing to a lack of plate tectonics, but does occur mostly following continuous sedimentation and subsequent compaction, as observed in Gale Crater . The sediments observed at Yellow knife Bay, for example, were deeply buried and exhumed before 3.3 to 3.2 Ga, and analysis of the hydraulic fracturing within the mud stones of this unit shows a minimum burial depth of 1.2 km . Peak burial temperatures at such depths would depend on the geothermal gradient, which has changed throughout Mars' geological history. Present-day estimates range from 6.4 to 10.6 K/km (Hoffman, 2001), while modeling of the diagenetic history of Gale Crater suggests a time-dependent variable geothermal gradient, with peak paleotemperatures for sedimentary rocks at Gale Crater ranging from 80°C to 225°C, depending on factors such as surface temperature, overburden thickness, thermal conductivity, and heat flow. Consequently, organic biomarkers that have been buried will have been subjected to other potentially degrading mechanisms, and must have been able to survive elevated temperatures, pressures, and degradative reactions involving the interaction of minerals with organic matter.To achieve a full appreciation of how organic biomarkers could be preserved on Mars, it is important to understand how these materials are influenced by the post burial effects of diagenesis, especially with regard to the interactions between organic matter and the mineral matrices present in these distinct martian geochemical environments. Previous studies of Mars-relevant sulfur-rich analogues examined surface conditions where extant biomass was still present. The ability of organic matter hosted in Mars analog settings to survive the initial stages of diagenesis and subsequent burial and thermal maturation has not been previously addressed (e.g., Fernández-Remolar, 2003; Benison and Bowen, 2006; Parenteau et al.2014; Williams et al.2015; Tan et al.2018)Hydrous pyrolysis is a well-known technique used to artificially mature organic matter-rich samples in the laboratory , but has also been used to simulate the effects of diagenesis on certain biomarkers ( Jaeschke et al.2008). Hydrous pyrolysis involves heating a sample containing both sediment and organic matter in a closed system in the presence of an inert atmosphere and deoxygenated water at subcritical temperatures for 72 h . Historically, hydrous pyrolysis has been used to study rocks with a high total organic carbon (TOC) content, with diagenesis being studied at temperatures between 160°C and 280°C (Eglinton and Douglas, 1988; Peters et al.1990; Koopmans et al.1995) and catagenesis being investigated between 300°C and 365°C (Lewan et al.1979). Iron-rich rocks with low TOC, such as those found in Mars analog environments, have thus not been widely investigated by using this method. In this study, microbial mat materials hosted in two mineralogically distinct Mars-relevant acidic iron- and sulfur-rich stream environments were artificially matured with hydrous pyrolysis to investigate the effects of thermal diagenesis and associated mineral matrix-assisted reactions on the preservation of organic matter within these sa 018).
In contrast, an important caveat of these models is that they only predict the amount of detectable solvent-extractable organic matter remaining in a sample after a certain period. As revealed in the literature (Eigenbrode et al.2018), it is known that macromolecular organic matter can survive the radiative and diagenetic conditions of martian geological history (although it is important to note that the age of this material is not yet known). Macromolecular organic matter is not solvent extractable and thus was not considered by these sets of models. The model also does not provide insights into whether the remaining organic matter can be distinguished from sources of abiotic carbon, such as meteoritic material (Chyba and Sagan, 1992; Summons et al.2008; Sephton, 2012) or Fischer/Tropsch-type (FTT) reactions (McCollom and Seewald, 2006; Mißbach et al.2018). The latter is especially important, as FTT reactions are a common occurrence in hydrothermal deposits (McCollom and Seewald, 2007; Konn et al.2015) and can produce long-chain saturated fatty acids (Mißbach et al.2018). Finally, the model does not consider the effects of minerals common to the surface of Mars that are not present in our analog samples, most egregiously the presence of perchlorates in the martian regolith (Carrier and Kounaves, 2015). While we acknowledge the importance of perchlorate minerals, and the complexity of perchlorate mineral interactions with organic matter (Góbi et al.2017; Fornaro et al.2018), postulating how it may affect the kinetics of organic matter preservation in the studied environments is beyond the scope of this study.
The late Noachian and early Hesperian represented habitable conditions on Mars contemporaneous with the emergence of life on Earth. We can develop our suite of life detection skills by examining analog sites on Earth that are chemically and possibly biologically similar to the late Noachian and early Hesperian of Mars. Acid iron- and sulfur-rich streams and the microbial communities hosted within these environments provide one such analog site. Rocks representing the late Noachian and early Hesperian of Mars are old and any organic matter within would have been stored for billions of years. Samples that are likely to contain evidence of past life on Mars must exhibit conditions that promote the preservation of organic biomarkers over geological time.Artificial maturation techniques can recreate the effects of geological storage on Mars in Earth laboratories and allow us to draw conclusions about the behavior of organic biomarkers in response to diagenesis in these distinct geochemical environments. Fatty acids are found to be persistent organic biomarkers, but complex organic structures are susceptible to degradation. During maturation, thiophenes are released at low temperatures and fatty acids are liberated from adsorption sites. Low carbon contents, high water-to-rock ratios, and the presence of iron-rich clay minerals are all conditions that decrease the preservation of organic biomarkers in iron- and sulfur-rich stream environments. Kinetic modeling derived from quantitative hydrous pyrolysis, however, suggests that these conditions are applicable only on a 100 kA timescale, after which all solvent-extractable organic matter is expected to be lost.The analysis of kinetic parameters predicts that regardless of the carbon content, water availability, and the presence of clay minerals, saturated fatty acids are not expected to be detectable by wet chemistry techniques following postburial diagenesis. Sample selection on future Mars missions should appreciate that some samples, which reflect habitable conditions on Mars, can inhibit the preservation of martian organic matter when exposed to geological storage over billions of years. Sample selection strategies must therefore consider the pre-, syn-, and postburial histories of habitable conditions on Mars and the balance between the production of biomass and the long-term preservation of organic biomarkers over geological time
DNA/RNA Viruses asData Rich Signals
Nature has already invented neatly packaged data-rich nano machines we call them viruses. A typical virus contains thousands of bits of information encoded in either RNA or DNA enough for a decent message. So why not engineer trillions of viruses, package them in pea-sized microprobes and spew them around the galaxy? Each virus would convey a message for any future intelligent life on the destination planet, the space-age equivalent of a message in a bottle. The beauty of the scheme is that the message can be replicated ad infinitum should it encounter life on a destination planet, by the simple expedient of programming the viruses to “infect” any DNA-based cells with which they come into contact. The virus inserts its message into the genetic material of the host organism’s germ cells (that is what so-called endogenous retroviruses do), and the cell obligingly replicates it and passes the message on to all future generations. In this way the virus would spread like wildfire through the host ecosystem, its information preserved for millions of years until some future Craig Venter begins sequencing genomes and stumbles across the messagesoil is between 98.91 and 99.83% but not at 98.90%, although at this lower humidity, most plants remain alive.

How the Aliens Will Look Like in Other Star’s Worlds exo Planets in Habitable Zones (Figure 3)
Let us to assume that our own humanoid form is the generic result of an ideal set of criteria by the creator which hold true universally? Perhaps all biologic life strives for carbon-based, oxygen-burning chemistry, and to see the planet by the visible light spectrum. There is no reason these laws should be very much different on other planets of other stars, if the universe is composed of the same small number of elements, which seems to be the case.So the aliens will probably have a close/similar appearance to humans or animals or reptiles in the earth, if they are found to be living in an environment and climate similar to ours but may appear as monster based on gravity of that planet. Aliens may have the same DNA as we do here on earth. There are several types of nucleic acids that might be useful for genetic storage and transfer of information; tRNA, mRNA, aDNA, zDNA, even PNA. Three and four stranded varieties sometimes occur.

Fig. 3: An Exoplanet in Other Solar System in Habitable Zone.

It is possible that the variety which life on earth utilizes may predominate on many planets; it might be the most suitable type for living creatures and will be selected by evolution on a biochemical level. Even if this is true (and I donot think we can be sure yet) there are two mirror-image forms of DNA which are possible; we never encounter the mirror image L-DNA in nature as far as I know (as opposed to zDNA, which is completely different in form) but it could occur on other worlds. Alien life might not have DNA like earthlings. Prof Hawking warned: "Watch out if you would meet an alien. You could be infected with a disease with which you have no resistance.[4]"

The origin of all life in this planet, the earth, was at first RNA world and then DNA world and then first single cell then multi-cellular complex life and so on and all life has the same depth of evolution .Taking two of the points shown on the Figure 3, those for fish and mammals which shared a common ancestor around 500 million years ago; of what relevance to the origin of life has been the faster development of non-redundant genes in the lineage leading to mammals? Use of the hypothesized time of ‘origin’ of Eukaryotes, occurred around 2 billion years(bya) is particularly unfortunate. Firstly, we do not have any certainty about the timing of the origin of eukaryotes. Comparative genomic analyses (Figure 4)concluded that the first earthly multi-cellular eukaryote, did evolve by 2.7 bya, but the first proto-eukaryotes may have evolved around 4 bya. There are also microfossils dated to 3.8 bya which have been interpreted as simplified eukaryotes.Many others had cited this evidence to argue that eukaryotes did not at all evolve on earth, but also have an ancestry which predates the origins of this planetSecondly, the development of eukaryotes was arguably the greatest leap in evolution since the origin of the first self-replicating cell; certainly not within the gradualism camp since it resulted from a series of rare cell-fusions of prokaryotic cells. Once again, we might ask of what relevance to the timing of the origin of life was this serendipitous event? It is wrong to place the origin of the prokaryotic cell at 3.5 Gigayears ago. Although we have evidence of the existence of prokaryotes at that time we also have evidence that their phylogeny, on earth, runs much deeper from 3.bya. Prokaryotic life appeared on earth shortly after life became possible on this planet (Joseph and Schild 2010). Ifwe accept the Sharov's (2010) contentions, they may well have existed 10 billion years ago.

In our view all life-forms we might find in the outer solar system will share the genetic codesthat may be familiar to us. Any experimentation with alternative genetic systems in primordial cells would have been snuffed out by the development of the RNA world, which in turn was snuffed out (with the possible exception of some RNA viruses) by the DNA world. The important question remaining is whether both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are represented among these life-forms.

We authors think that many alien intelligent species (perhaps 2 or 3% of them) would look like humanoid as they look, act, think and feel amazingly like ourselves with probable some kind of appendages evolved for manipulation, locomotion. These appendages can have evolved from any movable body parts, including parts of the locomotors apparatus (limbs), feeding apparatus (mouth parts like lips or mandibles), respiratory apparatus (gills or lungs), or sensory apparatus (antennae). Earthlike worlds with slightly more gravity would tend to produce centauroids. The nearest centauroid might look like the upper part of a gorilla transplanted on the body of a donkey, for example. And its two eyes might be above each other, rather than side by side. Earthlike worlds with slightly less gravity would tend to produce flying aliens. Some might look like bats, others like octopoi with a balloon-like body, yet others like living monoplanes, with their manipulative extremities tucked away inside their mouths. In a dense atmosphere a life form might look like a living umbrella, which keeps a loft by opening and closing itself. Earthlike worlds with vast tracts of level ground might have inhabitants which look like giant wheels. The outside of the wheel might be covered with tiny mouths used for grazing. Ant like creatures and some reptile like, some are giants larger than elephant also, may be possible, and some like octopus also, aliens are aliens even we are aliens for them.

The intelligent civilized life in those planets will probably be humanoid as a technical term, which I want to denote having a bilateral body plan with a trunk, two legs, two arms and a head with three eyes. Humanoid species would not have always to look anything like human beings.

A bilateral symmetrical body plan may also have possible subdivisions of their body plans as per mathematical laws and if one observes the life around us in the planet earth evolved, as I had observed.

Fig. 4: Comparative Genomic Analyses Concluded that the First Earthly Multi Cellular Eukaryote, did Evolve by 2.7 bya, but the First Proto-Eukaryotes may have Evolved around 4 bya.

A: No discernable symmetry (a bush, an amoeba)
B1: Spiral symmetry (certain snails)
B2: Helical symmetry (other snails)
C2: Bilateral Symmetry (most vertebrates)

C3: Threefold cylindrical symmetry
C4: Fourfold cylindrical symmetry,

C5: Fivefold cylindrical symmetry (like a starfish)

CN: N-fold cylindrical symmetry
Coo: Complete cylindrical symmetry (like a jellyfish or a wheel),

D: Rectangular symmetry (like a two-headed snake or amphisbaena),

E1: Tetrahedral symmetry

E2: Cubical/octahedral symmetry
E3: Dodecahedral/icosahedral symmetry
Eoo: Spherical symmetry.

C2: Bilateral Symmetry with Appendages

C2.0: No appendages (like a snake)
C2.1: One pair of appendages
C2.2: Two Pairs of Appendages (like most mammals hands and feet)

C2.3: Three pairs of appendages (like a centaur)
C2.4: Four pairs of appendages (like a spider)
C2.5: Five pairs of appendages (like a butterfly)
C2.N: N pairs of appendages
C2.V: Variable (large) number of pairs of appendages.

B2.2: Bilateral Symmetry: Two Pairs of Appendages

B2.2.H: With a head on one end,

B2.2.T: With a tail on one end,

B2.2.B: With a head on one end and a tail on the other end,

(Absence of both head and tail would make the symmetry rectangular).

Kind of Appendage:

T1: Tentacle
T2(1,1): Tentacle, which divides into two sub-tentacles
T3(2(1,1)1,1): Tentacle which divides into three sub-tentacles, one of which divides into two sub-sub-tentacles, none of which divide any further
A: One rigid part
B: Two rigid parts
B2(A2(A1,T1),B1) Two rigid parts, the last one sprouting two sub-appendages, the first of which has one rigid part, sprouting yet another rigid part and a tentacle, the second of which has two rigid parts, sprouting nothing further.

C: Three rigid parts

C5(B1,C1,C1,C1,C1) Three rigid parts, the last one sprouting five sub-appendages, one of which has two rigid parts, the other four having three, none of these subdividing any further.

Description of the Humanoid Body Plan:

C2.2.H; 2B2(C1,A4(C1,C1,C1,C1)); 2C5(B1,C1,C1,C1,C1)

So,any body structural scheme starting with C2.2.H or C2.2.B will be consideredas humanoid, unless one or both pairs of appendages are wings or fins.

Our (authors here) expectation is that of all intelligent species, a large partin other worlds (perhaps even more than 50%), will have body schemes starting with C2, and of these the majority will be C2.2 (and these mostly humanoid) or C2.3 (and these mostly centauroid or angeloid).

Why we have considered the bilateral symmetry? The advantage of bilateral symmetrybefore us is thatthat there is a definitive front and back, this allows the organism to focus its limited senses in a certain direction defined as "front". If you look at squid and octopi, they actually technically are bilaterally symmetrical. They have two eyes, an ink gland, a beak, a water jet intake and outlet, and in the case of squid a pair of feeding tentacles. Despite their eight radially symmetrical tentacles, these paired or singular structures give a definitive bilateralness to their structure.

The most serious limitation for any intelligent life form is however the developmentnervous system or equivalent thereof for signaling. All life-forms on earth use ionic gradients as a signaling mechanism. This is the basis of the animal nervous system, but is also critical to all other life-forms on earth. I will assume that animals on another world use ionic gradients as the primary signaling mechanism as well. Chemical transport is far too slow for a mobile organism.

What will be their Food Habit?
All the smartest animals on earth are either carnivores or omnivores, since it is a lot more difficult for something that eats things that can run away to survive than something that simply needs to run away. This is because a given level in the food chain must have 1/10th the biomass of the previous level. The chances for a herbivore are a lot better than those of a carnivore. Similarly, pure scavengers probably would not need that high of intelligence.

Conclusionsand Possibility of life in other planets of our own solar system
There may be no little green men living in our solar system. However, there are plenty of places where more primitive life might be able to survive. Many astronomers now believe that life has a good chance of evolving wherever the conditions are right. So our solar system could be teeming with living creatures.The main candidates in the solar system to harbor life are Mars, Europa and Titan and our moon with tardigrades left with from earth. Europa is an icy moon that revolves around Jupiter. The temperature on the surface is a chilly ‑170ºC. But this inhospitable planet may harbor an underground ocean of liquid water, one of the essential ingredients for life.

This article,Hello! Are we alone? If you're like me, you may want to know me,is all authors tribute to diseased Late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharya(1926‑2009) and Late Mrs.Bani Bhattacharya(1935-2006)- ), Diseased parents of Professor Dr.PranabKumar Bhattacharya of 7/51 Purbapalli, Po-Sodepur, 24 Parganas(North), Kolkata-110, West Bengal-India, who believed presence of life in other forms in other worlds in galaxies and in panspermia theory and to his all maternal uncles aunts late Mr. AjitChakraborty, Late Mrs.SudharaniChakraborty, Late Mr.AbaniChakraborty, late Mrs.RebekaChakraborty, late Dr.AsitChakraborty and Mr.BinayChakrabortyand Mrs.AparnaChakrabortyMukherjee of CG block Salt lake Kolkata.


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] Pranab. Detecting Alien Radio-TV signals.htm Thread at BAD Astronomy &Universe Today
     Detecting Alien Radio/TV Signals?

Cite this Article
Rupak Bhattacharya, Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, Upasana Bhattacharya, Ritwick Bhattacharya, Rupsa Bhattacharya, Ayishee Mukherjee, Dalia Mukherjee, Oaindrila Mukherjee, Hindole Banerjee, Debasis Mukherjee, Soumayak Bhattacharya. Hello! Are We Alone? If You're Like Me, You May Want to Know Me!.Research & Reviews: Journal of Space Science & Technology. 2019; 8(3):

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