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Sunday, 31 March 2013

Blogs of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(cal) Pathology; : The First Generation of Stars formation at Red shi...

Blogs of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(cal) Pathology; : The First Generation of Stars formation at Red shi...

The First Generation of Stars formation at Red shift Z-0 and when did they lit up from the dark Matter

* Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya-Bsc(cal)Msc(JU) of Residence 7/51 purbapalli,Po-sodepur, Dist 24 parganas(north),Kol-110,West Bengal, India**ProfessorPranab kumar BhattacharyaMD(cal) FIC Path(India); Professor and Head of Department of Pathology [course coordinator of DCP course of  West Bengal University of Health sciences(WBUHS); member secretary of  Board of Studies for DCP course and member of Board of Studies for undergraduate, Post graduate & Doctoral courses in Pathology Discipline  of WBUHS],School of Tropical Medicine, 108 CR Avenue ,Kolkata-73, West Bengal , India,** Miss Upasana Bhattacharya- Student, Mahamayatala, Garia, kol-86, Only daughter of Prof.PK Bhattacharya ***Mr.Ritwik Bhattacharya of Residence 7/51 Purbapalli, Po-Sodepur, Dist 24 parganas(north) , Kolkata-110,WestBengal, India **** Mrs. Dalia Mukherjee BA(hons) Cal, Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north) West Bengal, India**** Miss Oaindrila Mukherjee- BA(hons)cal Student,  ****Miss Ayshi Mukherjee –Student of residence Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north), West Bengal, India ***Miss Rupsa Bhattacharya and ***Mr Somyak Bhattacharya BHM(IGNOU) Msc student(PUSHA) of 7/51 Purbapalli PO-Sodepur Dist 24 Parganas(north) Kolkata-110 West Bengal, India

Age of Universe & Hubble constant=The universe started at 20x1010 (20,0000 millions years ) ago but there are still uncertainty about the ages of the universe according these authors. Determination of Hydrogen molecule suggest that H~50Km/s-1MPC-10H-1=20x109 years, while age old galactic clusters NGC is 10x109 years and the age of elements obtained from the active isotopes were ~10x109 years. The Freidman and Le -maitre models of universe tell us that the universe however has a finite age and it must be either expanding or contracting. The observation that galaxies are in red shift having special features of shifted to redder wave length in an apparent Doppler recession, strongly support the expanding universe model. Confidence in the Friedman- le-maitre model was strengthening further when Edwin Hubble discovered the near relation between red shift and distances in galaxies in 1929. Hubble discovered a cosmological constant and this constant is proportionally is known widely as Hubble constant. The H(0) is usually expressed in terms of Kilometers per second per mega Per sec ie 50 Km/s/MPC Hubble constant. The Hubble parameter is defined as H(t)=1/R(t)xdR(t)/dt, where R(t) is the scale factor of the universe. Hubble constant is the current value of that parameter and defined as H0=H(now)= velocity/distance and is estimated by measuring the velocity and distance of extra galactic objects. Hubble constant is perhaps the most important parameter in cosmology because it not only provide us the physical scale of the universe which affects the observed absolute size, dynamical mass and luminosity of extra galactic objects but it also provide us estimated age of the universe. The Hubble constant has the units of inverse time. An estimate of the age of the universe is the Hubble time 1/H0. This is the approximate age of a nearly empty universe one, where expansion had not significantly been solved by its mass energy content. A new Model called Ω=1 model, whereΩ is ratio of the universe mass energy density to the critical value required for binding. In the Friedman- Le maitre models the expansion rate of the universe approaches 0 as time approaches  and the current age of the universe  will be  then(2/3) H0-1 is then Age=1/H0[(1-2q0)-1-q0(1-2q0)-3/2 cos h-1(1/q0-1)] where the de-acceleration parameter q0 is (1/2)Ω the ratio of the universe mean mass density to the closer density[ Bhattacharya Rupak and Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar-unpublished data & equation Published  in this blog  Do not try to do plagiarism]
 The age of the universe when H0 is of 50KmS-1MPC-1 gives an age of near 20 billions years while an H0 of 10050KmS-1MPC-1 in an empty universe roughly correspond to an age of 10 billion years. But the Cepheid variables are the bright stars where brightness varies periodically on time scale between one and hundred days. The period of Cepheid is very tightly correlated with its brightness. So they are the excellent indicators of distances of expanding universe and also the age of the universe. Cephids are most distant galaxies of the observable universe and are figured prominently in the extragalactic distance scale. Cepheid first gave us the idea that other galaxies lay outside our Milky way galaxy. Virgo cephid or Virgo  galaxy clusters are so far farthest, twice as far as the most distant previously measured cephids. They are now measured by Hubble Space Telescope(HST). New example of Virgo cephid H0=87± 7 Kms-1MPC-1. The galaxy there NGC 4571 is in the core of Virgo clusters galaxy. Again Taking H0 as H0=87± 7 Kms-1MPC-1 as short value ( H0=80-100 Kms-1MPC-1)
 [Picture of Virgo clusters of galaxy  taken by Rupak Bhattacharya]

and long value H0=50 Kms-1MPC-1) will after the age of the universe for 20 billions years to 11.2±0.9 billions years and 7.3±billions years for Ω=0 model and Ω=1 model respectively. The absence of accelerating force for the age of universe is less then 1/H0 and in standard Big Bang Model is 2/3x1/H0 0r 7x109 years. In contrast some stars are thought to be 8x109 years old, .So here starts the crisis regarding the age of the universe what these authors feels. In Freidman Universe model, Freidman et al calculated Ho=80+17 Kms-1MPC-1 implying the age of the universe 9x109 years. In that  case, identifying 20 cephid variables in m 100 a beautiful spiral galaxy in Virgo. However if we are ready to accept the theory that age of the universe is estimated from the cosmological model based on Hubble constant, as per this model the age of universe will be 13.7±0.2GYR ie 13.7 billions years old.

Though a big bang like event happened in the early universe, universe spent a period of time in the early phase (1s Planck’s time) in a super cooled stage[About 400,000 years after the Big Bang, that the cosmos had cooled sufficiently for protons and electrons to recombine into atoms]. In the super cooled stage its density (3K) was then dominated by large positive constant vacuum energy and false vacuum. The super cooled stage was then followed by appearance of multiple bubbles inflation. The temperature variation occurred in 3K cosmological background imprinted some 10~35 second in pre- inflationary stage and grand unified theory [GUT] happened there with generation of trillions and trillions degrees of temperature. As per old inflationary theory of Big Bang, there appeared multiple bubbles of true vacuum and inflation blowed up a small casually connected region of the universe that was some thing much like the observable universe of today. This actually preceded large scale cosmological homogeneity & were reduced to an exponentially small number the present density of any magnetic monopoles, that according to many of particle physicists GUT & would have been produced in the pre-inflationary phase. In the old inflationary theory the universe must be homogeneous in all its direction and was no doubt isotropic. In old inflation theory, the super cooled stage was married by appearance of bubbles of the true vacuum, the broken symmetry of ground state. The model of old inflation theory however was later on abandoned, because the exponential expansion of any super cooled state always present the bubbles from merging and complicate the phase transition. More over in true sense, universe is not totally homogenous but in small scale non homogenous too.
It is very much a well known fact that universe contain a critical density of matter (3K) and infinite space-time. The matters are mostly baryonic and Mixed Dark matter [MDM]. Through COBE satellite studies, we know that the early universe was consisted of mixture of Cold Dark matter and hot dark Matter, which is known altogether as Mixed Dark Matter [MDM]. Most Red shift survey had been either shallow (Z=<0.03), three dimensional survey of few thousands of galaxies covering a large angle or somewhat deeper (Z>0.05). So argument  still persist about the mechanism by which galaxies/first generation stars were formed in the early universe?. The essence of the problem is so high level physics that while galaxies were on average, uniformly distributed through out the volume of the universe, as it should be in the Inflationary “ Big Bang” model, the observed distribution of both optically visible and radio galaxies on the sky were not uniform. But very much patchy( Authors Prof Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya’s Concept only). Does this clumsiness’ represent that the distribution of matter at some primeval stage in the evolution of the universe or there had been some kind of gravitational process?. Ostriker and cowie in the journal Astrophysics (Vol 243; P127; 1981) had suggested that the present distribution of galaxies are in the relic of a dynamic process, in which an outward propagating shock wave created an earlier generation of galaxies. Created galaxies at some places were of high density on shock front. But the problem of their theory to present authors are that the empirical rule, which says that the chance finding of a second galaxy within same value unit at a distance of “S” is proportional to an inverse power of ”S”, which simply means that there is a greater chance that galaxies will be close together than it is far apart. Secondly the distribution of galaxies in the universe may have a fractal three-dimensional structure. The most spectacular of large voids in three dimensions of galaxies is the BOTES VOID. -A region at least 50 MPS in diameter that contain no luminous galaxies. Why? A survey of large-scale galaxies distributions reveals that the “ Large Voids “ were not the exception, but the rule. The survey was the systemic collection of Red Shifts of all galaxies of apparent magnitude brightness than 15.5 in a region measuring 6 degrees by 12 degrees on the sky. These Red Shifts via “Hubble laws” provides us a three dimensional map of galaxy distribution in a limited volume of the universe. Inspection of the map of the galaxy revealed a striking result- large apparently empty, quase spherical “Voids” dominate space & time and galaxies are crammed into the thin shits and ridges in between hole. (Joseph Sick- Nature-Vol.320; P12; 1986) Joseph Sick discussed in his article published in Nature (Vol 320; p12; 1986) that galaxies were distributed in a thin slice of universe to 150 MPC. The red shift measurement of galaxies however reveals a foamy and clustered distribution of galaxies in the universe. Most of them lying on a sheet, surrounding large, almost empty holes up to 50 MPC According to Ostriker and Cowie, an explosion initiated by many supernovas in a newly formed galaxy drive a blast wave, which propagated outward and swept up a spherical shell of ambient gas. A hole was thus evacuated and the unstable compressed shell fragmented to form more galaxies. These in turn developed blast waves and a series of bubbles developed that filled most of the spaces with galaxies (Jeremiath Ostriker & Lennoy Cowie- Astrophysics journal letter Vol 243; P127; 1981) and published independently by Satron Ikeuchi-Astronomical Society of Japan Vol, 33; P211; 1981) But the problem of this hypothesis before present authors are * 1) possibility of the mechanism itself- Supernova exploded and cleared out holes that are tens or in rare cases hundreds of parsec cross? And* 2) did this phenomenon really worked out on scale of MPC? *3) Billions of supernovae were presumed to be exploded coherently over the crossing time of galaxy of about 108 years to yield a vast explosion 4) Next is the missing ingredients which is Gravity. Density fluctuations were present at the beginning of the time in the earliest instants of the” Big Bang gospel” and the gravity amplified the fluctuation into large-scale structure of the universe. Most cosmologists& theoretical physicists believe today that galaxies were originated in this manner rather then by explosive amplification of primordial seeds which themselves must be attributed into initial condition.
A “giant hole” in the universe had been a discovered by astronomers from Minnesota in 2009 January. Investigating an area of the sky known as the WMAP Cold Spot, Lawrence Rudnick and colleagues found a void empty of stars, gas and even dark matter. As AP’s widely circulating report notes, the hole is big: an “expanse of nearly 6 billion trillion miles of emptiness” Astronomers have long known that there are big voids in the universe, and think they can explain them with their theories as to how large scale structures first formed.[ Plenty of nothing - August 24, 2007The Great Beyond Nature.Com].our Galaxy, the Milky Way, contains also disks of ‘dark matter. Dark’ matter is always invisible but its presence can be inferred through its gravitational influence on its surroundings. Dark matter particles is neutral it does not couple directly to the electromagnetic field, and hence annihilations straight into two monochromatic photons (or a photon and a Z boson) are typically strongly suppressed. γ-rays can be a significant by-product of dark matter annihilations, since they can arise either from the decay of neutral pions produced in the hadronization of the annihilation products, or through internal bremsstrahlung associated into charged particles, with annihilations into charged particles, interactions of energetic leptons. In the Lattanzi & Silk models the annihilation results in two neutral Z bosons Or a pair of W+ and W. bosons, and the dominant source of γ-rays is neutral pion decay. Form_ = 4.5 TeV, every annihilation results in  26 photons with energies between 3 and 300GeV.
Physicists today believe that dark matter makes up 22% of the mass of the Universe (compared with the 4% of normal matter and 74% comprising the mysterious ‘dark energy’). But, despite its pervasive influence, even today no-one is sure what dark matter consists of. It was thought that dark matter forms in roughly spherical lumps called ‘halos’, one of which envelopes the Milky Way and other spiral galaxies. Stars and gas are thought to have settled into disks very early on in the life of the Universe and this affected how smaller dark matter halos formed.  Such a theory suggest that most lumps of dark matter in our locality actually merged to form a halo around the Milky Way. But the largest lumps were preferentially dragged towards the galactic disk and were then torn apart, creating a disk of dark matter within the Galaxy. The presence of unseen haloes of Dark matter had long been inferred from high rotation speed of Gas and stars in outer part of spiral galaxies. The volume of density of these dark matter decreases less quickly from the galactic center than does heat luminous mass such as that in stars meaning that dark matter dominates the mass from the center of galaxies. A spiral galaxy is composed of thin disk of young stars called( population I stars) whose local surface brightness falls exponentially with cylindrical distances from galactic center and with height above galactic plane.
 The concept of biasing the formation of large scale structure of universe was first introduced by Nick Kaisar in journal of Astrophysics (Peacock .JA &Heavens A.F- Monday Nottingham. Royal Astronomical Society Vol 217; P805; 1985 &BardenJ. Bond .Jr, Kaiser. N. Eszalay –Journal of Astrophysics). Galaxies were presumed only to form in the rare peaks of an initial gaussian distribution of density fluctuation. The average density of universe is roughly 1031gcm-3 which is less than 10% of critical Density( K) of present universe.[ The matter of which universe is made of 42.3% is CDM matter and 73% is dark energy] Density fluctuation peaks that occurred in a potential large-scale cluster acquired with slight boost that enabled galaxies to form. The biasing hypothesis enhanced the large-scale structure that developed as gravitational forces amplified the initial fluctuations. Biasing hypothesis enabled stimulation of a universe containing “cold Dark Matter” at the critical density, with observational determination of density perturbation of the universe. Density Fluctuation was present at the beginning of Time in the earliest instants of the Big Bang and the Gravity amplified the fluctuations into large-scale structure of our universe. The “Voids “ were not really voids but contained matter that had some how failed to become luminous. The Dark matter was more uniformly distributed than the luminous matter and does not respond to most of astronomical tests. The universe is now populated with non-luminous component of matter (Dark Matter) made of weakly interacting massive particles which does cluster in galactic scale and designated ΩDM≈0.15-0.35. The dark matter was weakly interacting and was clustered in all scale (hence labeled as cold). It selectively formed galaxies at an early epoch in the rare density peaks. The Cosmic Back ground Explorer study announced on 18th nov’1990 that COBE had used its liquid helium cooled detectors to make stunningly accurate measurement of BIG Bang after glow .The COBE study was based on microwave background radiation that bathes every object in the universe with a cool wash of photon 2.7K. COBE study conferred that the Big Bang was a remarkably smooth and homogeneous event. The COBE study consistently pegged its temperature at about 2.7 K_ what was predicted by Standard Big Bang Model which holds that radiation was emitted by cosmic fire ball just a few hundred years after the Big Bang moment it self and cooling off ever since then. George Smoot[2006 Nobel Laureate in Physics] and his colleagues of Barkley university used differential microwave radiometer to look for anisotropic variations in the brightness of radiation from point to point of the sky. They presumably corresponded to density variation in the cosmic plasma shortly after the Big Bang and these variation are in turn presumably the clumps of matter that CONTRACTED BY GRAVITY TO FORM THE GALAXIES. The problem was that anisotropies if they existed at all, were so weak that it was hard to see now that how they had contracted into much of galaxies. Any clump that was going to form a galaxy needs to be heavy enough to fight cosmic expansion which tends to pull the material apart almost as fast as gravity can pull it together. COBE showed no anisotropy at all to an accuracy of one part in 104to one part 105 and it was DARK MATTER. This Dark matter consisted of some kind of massive but weakly interacting elementary particles produced in the Big Bang. The cosmic back ground explorer study(COBE) satellite study was undertaken by leadership of George Smoot considers the Big Bang very seriously. Microwave Background Study also provided BIG Bang COBE study had spotted millionth of a degree variations in the temperature of microwave left over from Big Bang traces of the early universe .Images of the cosmic microwave background, the radiation left over from the Big Bang, provide the earliest snapshots of the cosmos—from when it was only about 400,000 years old only  The model of MDM of the universe is consistent with homogeneous inflation theory and large-scale density fluctuation and galaxies distribution that happened in the early universe. It was the Merry Gelman, who first described the nature of earliest particles in the universe. According to her “ it was quark particles in quantum theories.” Actually speaking, the quest for the early Universe had provided the particle physicists with an unrivalled accelerator of high-energy particles. The Grand Unification Theory (GUT) based on ‘Gauge Symmetry” say that Proton (Nucleon) should decay with half-life of at most 1031 Years. But while isolating  the rarest events due to  spontaneous decaying of protons, extensive shielding from atmospheric “ Muon” produced by cosmic rays showers were also regarded and primary result once was reported at Geneva, Switzerland. This experiment was carried out us provided in deep underground Kolar Gold field, Kamoka. This experiment provided us the most sensitive limit so far, that the half-life of proton is 1.5x 1032years. This half-life of proton is close to the age of the elements obtained from Radioactive isotopes ~10X109years.This experiments had great implications to astrophysicists in that 1) possible explanation of ratio of proton to photon in the universe. Since the photons now seen in 3K-background radiation are the remnants of equal numbers of particles and antiparticles created during the thermal equilibrium of first instants of the Universe. This particle was Merry Gelman’s quark particles and its antiparticles were antiquarks. Today’s observed proton [matter] represent an excess of matter after antimatter. This is the asymmetry in Universe. This asymmetry probably had arisen naturally after 10-35seconds of initial Big bang. However Madsen and Mark Tailor gave the concept of another particles in the primordial universe. The name of their particles is ‘ Neutrinos”. There are broadly three (3) species of ‘Neutrinos”.  I) Electron neutrinos 2) Muon neutrinos 3) and tat neutrinos. To start the universe i.e. before nucleosynthesis, neutrinos should have a zero mass, which can support at least a hypothesis and theories of large-scale structure of universe. According to Maiden and Tailor, the Dark Matter of which this universe consisted of were the neutrinos and not the quarks.
How did the cosmic Dark Age ended and when did the first star lit up in the universe in a few hundred millions years after the Big Bang?
 According to the standard Model of Big Bang Star formation in the early universe was very different from the present now. Star today form in the giant clouds of molecular gas and dust embedded in the disk of large galaxies like our milky ways. Where as the first stars evolved inside “Mini holes” agglomerates of primoriadial gas and dark matter with a total mass of millions times of our Sun.  Another difference arises for the initial absences of elements, other then hydrogen and helium that were synthesized in the big bang. Gas clouds today be efficiently via radiation emitted by atoms molecule or dust grains that contain heavy elements. Because the primoridial gas lacked those coolants it remained comparatively hot. For gravity to overcome when the higher thermal pressure, the mass of all first stars must had been larger as well. The emergence of first stars fundamentally changed the early universe at the end of cosmic dark ages. Owing to the high masses these stars were copious. They also produced many ultraviolet photons that were energetic enough to ionize hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe. Thus began the extended process ”re-Ionization” which transformed the universe from the completely cooled and dark material state into fully ionized medium. Observation of CMB due to scattering of CMB photons of free electrons, phase constrains in the onset of re-ionization. How the first stars formed and how they affected the evolution of cosmos assumes that dark matter is made up of WIMP-yet undetected because they interact with normal matter only via gravity and weak nuclear interactions. A possible WIMP candidate is the Neutrions particles, the lightest super partner in mass super symmetry theory but not zero mass particles. Super symmetry postulated that for every known particle there must be a super partner thus affectively doubling mass of the elementary particles. Most of the super particles that were produced after the Big Bang (including Rupak particles also] were unstable and decayed. The neutrinos is expected to be rather massive having roughly the mass of hundred of protons, so are a part of cosmos.
 Most of the matter in the universe did not interact then with light except gravitationally. These dark matter assumed to be very intensively cold, that is its velocity dispersion was sufficiently small for density perturbation imprinted in the early universe to persist in a very small sale. Dark matter has yet to be detected in the human laboratories. However  there might exist some viable dark matter candidates from particle physics that were not cold. They may be termed as Warm Dark Matter(WDM) as per present authors .Warm dark matter particles had intensive thermal velocities and there motion quench the growth of structure bellow a “ free streaming scale”{ the distances over which a typical WDM particles travel}, which depend on the nature of the particle, because small and dark haloes do not form better then free streaming scale. The dark matter haloes that formed the galaxies in a WDM model had far less substructures and were less concentrated as compared to the cold dark matter(CDM) counterparts. The first generation of stars in the universe formed when primoridial gas compressed by falling into these small dark matter potential wells. Large scale partner in the spectrum of density perturbation causes progenitors of present day clusters of galaxies to be among the first objects to condense out of the initially almost smooth mass distribution.
 Lang Gao & Tom Thennus[science 317:14th Sept:Page1527:2007] did studied the early star formation in the red shift Z=0 and they concluded that pristine gas heat and it falls into the dark matter potential Well [halos) cools radiatively because of formation of molecular hydrogen and became self gravitating. They told  another important particle- called- Gravitinos_ a popular WDM candidate particle with mass MWDM=3Kev-a.    a free streaming particle of few +_ evs of kelopersec and first stars at red shift Z~200 and the growth structure re-simulation in the  led to a pattern of filaments and sheets which is familiar form the local large scale distribution of Galaxies. In assumed Gaussian spectrum of density perturbation appropriate for an inflationary model lead collapse along  one(sheet) and two(filaments) direction before formation of Haloes. Altogether the large scale filamentary pattern is very similar in CDM &WDM. This structure of filaments themselves were very different. The CDM filaments fragmented  later into numerous nearly spherical high density regions(haloes) and WDM filaments fragmented at red shift Z=23.34 when universe was 140 millions years old. Gas and Dark matter accreted perpendicular and to filament axis. Dark matter particles falling into filaments performed damped oscillations as the potential well deepened. Baryons did not under go orbit but gas compressed to a temperature T~7000K atγ~ 20Pc. Rapid build up of H2 induced cooling and gas started to dominate the density.
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Friday, 29 March 2013

Blogs of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(cal) Pathology; : The evolution of Spiral Galaxies in the universe –...

Blogs of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(cal) Pathology; : The evolution of Spiral Galaxies in the universe –..

The evolution of Spiral Galaxies in the observable universe – Author’s views


    * Authors are_:
Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya-Bsc(cal), Msc(JU), of residences 7/51Purbapalli, Sodepur, Dist 24 Parganas(north) Kol-110,West Bengal, India**ProfessorPranab kumar Bhattacharya- MD(cal), FIC Path(Ind), Professor and HOD of Pathology convener in-charge of DCP and DLT course of WBUHS, , Calcutta school of Tropical Medicine, 108, CR Avenue, KOlkata-73 , West Bengal, India, Ex- Professor and HOD  Ophthalmic pathology, RIO KOl-73, Ex professor of Pathology WBUHS and EX Add. Professor IPGME&R KOl-20 W.B, India** Miss Upasana Bhattacharya – only daughter of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya of mahamaya Apartment Mahamyatala, Garia kol-84 *Mr.RitwikBhattacharya, *Miss Rupsa Bhattacharya-,* Mr Soumyak Bhattacharya BHM(cal) MSC(student) PUSHA, New Delhi, all of residence   7/51 Purbapalli, Sodepur, Dist 24 parganas(north) ,Kolkata-110,WestBengal, India*** Mrs. Dalia Mukherjee BA(hons) Cal, Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north) West Bengal, India*** Mrs Dalia Mukherjee BA(hons) Cal cutta university, ***Miss Oaindrila Mukherjee- BA(hons) Student Cal Univ, ***Mr Debasis Mukherjee BSC(cal)  ,Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north), West Bengal, India           

 There are about 1018 million of galaxies in the Universe, and there exist vast empty 3D dimensional space-time is between them. How much distance from one galaxy to another? "Cephids" can be used as a distant indicator to about 10 million light years, which is equivalent to 4 million persec. These galaxies are distributed through out the Universe. Galaxies are of different type and configu­rations. Some are spiral galaxies, some are non-spiral galaxies Amongst all the galaxies in the Universe, a small minority of the galaxies are spiral galaxies i.e. disc shaped galaxies (some are again of thin disc and some are of thick disc). There are non spiral galaxies also and most of the galaxies in the Universe are of non spiral (without disc) and majority of them are elliptical galaxies and rare verities are lenticular galaxies. Our "Milky way" is the local group of spiral galaxies. It is our home galaxy. Our Milky way galaxy is a spiral galaxy – a massive and a big galaxy at least 250 billions of solar mass MO and is a disk like of a diameter 100,000 light years. The light at its speed cross from one end to another end takes almost one lack years. It consists beside trillions numbers of stars contain also 1022 planets and thousands of clusters of nebulae (nebulae are of various types like diffuse nebulae, planetary nebulae, supernova remnants, and dark nebulae), supernovas and globular clusters.  The mass of the Milky way is probably in between 750 billion & one trillions of solar mass. Milky way is a spial galaxy of Hubble Sb or Sc type. So Milky Way has pronounced disk component exhibiting the spiral structure and a prominent nuclear region, which is a part of a notable buldge/ halo component. Milky way galaxy belongs to local group, a smaller group of three large and over 30 small galaxies and second largest galaxy in the universe. Milky way galaxy contain many clusters of galaxies. They are 1) Mosiac of Milky way extending from  Saggittarius galaxy to  Cassiopeia Galaxy. 2 Ophiuchus galaxy and 2 globular clusters 3)Theta Ophiuchi 4) Scorpius & saggituris galaxy 5) Serpens 6) starclouds in Sagittarius  7) Sagittarius M8 8) Aquita & Sagittarius M69) Western Aquita 10) Gamma Cygni galaxy 11) Alpha cygni galaxy and so many. The milky way appears to be brightest in the direction of Sagittarius where the galactic center lies. Relative to the celestial equator, the Milky Way passes as far north as the constellation of Cassiopeia and as far south as the constellation of Crux. This reflex the fact that the earth axis of rotation is highly inclined to the normal to the galactic plane The galactic disk of milky way has a diameter of about 100,000 light years, The distance from our Sun to the galactic center of our Milky way is about 27,7000 light years. The center of our galaxy is one of the highest infra Red sources of sky. It is about thousands time brighter in the infrared then in radio wave length. Infra red observation show that the center of our Milky Way is orbiting very rapidly. The center of Milky way is not visible at optical wave length because it is hidden behind numerous clouds of star gas and dusts. However we can view the center of Milky Way at infrared sources as infrared can easily penetrate gas and dusts. The Milky Way contain over 200 billions numbers of stars more massive then our sun. The amount of mass inside suns orbiting only around galactic center is 9.0x1016M0. The stars in the galactic disk rotate around galaxy’s center, which is suspected to harbor a super massive black hole. There are believed to be four-mazor spiral arm and at least two smaller arms, which all start at the galaxy’s center. They are named as follows 1) Norma arms 2) Scutum arm 3) Sagittarius arm 4) Orion arm 5) Pursues arm 6) outer arm. The distance between the local arm to the next arm’ Peruses arm” is about 65,000 light years. Each spiral arm describes a logthermic spiral. The disk is surrounded by halo of old stars and globular clusters. Our sun is located at an extreme distance of the disk. The disk of the milky way has four spiral arms that we described a little ago. The disk is approximately 300 Pc thick and 30KPc in diameter. It is made up of predominantly of Population I star [see star formation] which tends to be blue stars and reasonably spanning an age range between a million and ten billions years old. The buldge at the center of Milky Way is a flattened spheroid of dimension of 1KPc /6KPc. This is a high density region with population II stars which tends towards red and are very old stars about 10 billions years old. The halo, which is a spherical region surround the disk .It, has low density of old stars mainly in form of globular clusters [each globular clusters consist of stars between 10,000- 1lack]. The halo is believed to be composed of mainly cold dark matter 9CDM) which may extend beyond the edge of the disk. The local group of galaxies is probably millions of light years away from our A.G.N.
When Did the First Cosmic Structures Form as galaxy? Quasars are probably the first cosmic structure probably formed in our cosmos . Quasars are  most distant and distinct objects that astronomers have been able to directly detect. Because of their intrinsic brightness, the most distant quasars are seen at a time when the universe was one tenth of its present age, roughly a billion years after the Big Bang moment . However, astronomers believe that some objects must have formed earlier than quasars, because the ambient gas in the universe is observed to be ionized at a relatively early time, presumably due to ionizing radiation from a population of early objects. Since ionized gas can interact with cosmic microwave background photons, WMAP observations help to elucidate the nature of the ionized gas and the objects that caused the ionization. Since light travels at a finite speed, distant objects are seen as they existed in the past. We see the Sun not as it is now, but how it was just eight minutes ago. (The  so the Sun which we see at a moment time today is eight light minutes away from the Earth). We see the nearby stars as they were several years ago. We see Andromeda, the nearest spiral galaxy as it was roughly 2.5 million years ago how it was . Thus, the most distant objects that we see are the oldest objects that we can directly detect.
 What is Quasars?

Quasars are the most distant distinct objects that astronomers have been able to detect. In a region smaller than our solar system, a quasar  in fact emits more & more light than our total entire Milky Way galaxy emits light.  Can you imagine that ?   But Quasars are again believed to be super massive black holes, whose masses exceed that of a million Suns, and whose pull is swallowing gas and stars from their host galaxies. Then black holes also emits light. They do shine brightly by converting the gravitational energy of the in falling Astronomers and physicists are not till date certain what objects ionized the gas(Mixed dark matter oe WIMP) in the early universe nor do they know at what time this ionization occurred. Some speculate that an early generation of massive stars ionized the gas. Others speculate that most galaxies contain super massive black holes and that the formation of these super massive black holes illuminated the early universe. When Was then Gas Ionized is our question ? While observations of quasars enable astronomers to infer that the gas was ionized within the first billion years of the universe, we need to observe something more distant than quasars to learn when the gas was first ionized: the cosmic microwave background radiation. Since the cosmic microwave background photons were emitted roughly 380,000 years after the Big Bang, much earlier than the photons from quasars, their properties tell us about the subsequent evolutionary history of the universe. Microwave photons move freely through neutral gas, but they scatter off of ionized gas. This scattering reduces the amplitude of fluctuations in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background and produces new "polarized" microwave background fluctuations.

material into light. The most distant quasars are seen at a time when the universe was one tenth its present age, roughly a billion years after the Big Bang

What Ionized the Gas in the Early Universe? Scattered light is often polarized. On a bright day, we see not only sunlight directly from the Sun, but also light that scatters off of dust in the air. This scattered light, or "glare", is polarized and can thus be filtered out by a good pair of polarized sunglasses. Similarly, scattered cosmic microwave background photons are polarized by scattering off of free electrons in the early universe. WMAP is designed to detect polarized photons. In principal, their properties reveal the number of free electrons in the early universe and the ionization history of the universe. This enables astronomers to infer that the first objects in the universe capable of ionizing the gas formed at about 200 million years after the Big Bang. We hope that the time history of the ionization will help determine the nature of these first objects

How the spiral gala­xies were formed? Before formation of the galaxies, there were pre galactic clouds which is consisted of gaseous substance. Sir James Jeans first proposed that when the same density perturbation exist in the homogenous gas clouds and when clouds exceeds a certain limit, the cloud suffer an instability. As a result the cloud begins to collapse. The Jeans critical mass (Mj) was described as follows.

       MJ=1023(T/U)3/2-1/2p gm
[Where "P" is the density, "T" is the Tempe­rature and fl is the mean molecular weight of cloud. ]

The pre galactic gaseous mass were above the critical mass and as a result this pre galactic gaseous clouds collapsed owing to density perturbation. The mass of discrete such clouds was about 1014-1015 MO which is typical for the mass of super cluster in the present Universe. Now the fragmentation process carried on within the super clusters. The denser central region of the collapsing gas cloud collapsed more rapidly than the outer region and became more and more dense. Ultimately it became so compact that instability set in and it was fragmented in pieces. Each individual fragment continued to collapse and was re fragmented and the process went on until star formation set in. Thus Super clusters collapsed and frag­mented resulting cluster of galaxies which in course of time again fragmented into galaxies. -If further fragmentation would continue, one would star clusters from where baby stars generated. If we observe today at high galactic latitude, we can see hydrogen clouds .concentrated in a thin layer around the galactic plane, which is moving with a very fast velocity about 5 Km S-I. There are several such gaseous clouds with very high velocity up to 200 Km S-I. The distributions of gases are extremely uneven. It is concen­trated in clouds (dark matters) of different sizes. This cloud matter are probably still in extra galactic system or even in the proto­galactic system. Now, the spiral galaxy system evolution resulted when the protogalactic gasses or clouds detached itself from the surrounding Universe. They then gained angular momen­tum, at the moment of their detachment. There was a minimum radius for the "cell" bellow which it no longer contained the nece­ssary angular momentum. For our spiral galaxy "Milky way" the minimum radius reached, suppose at the time "t" when the radius of the Universe "p" was about 1/25th of the present radius Ro. And that was the time when the "Cell" spiral galaxy had a large amount of angular momentum. There was of course radial stream momentum as well as transverse stream momentum in the ­cell. All these momentum resulted initiation of rotation. The angular momentum in the "Cell" containing cloud gasses gave spiral galaxy due to the collapse of the part of the gas, (Fig-I) It happened probably at the time of about 109 years, a little shorter then the age of the Universe 1010 years (1000 billion years). The radial stream force should diminish the Universe expansion locally. They will not in 'general eliminate it entirely and so the spiral galaxy will expand some time. But it will also collapse again, due to angular momentum in about again 109 years beyond the present time. Now the question remain to us if the galaxies would be formed where the velocity gradient happened to be favorable for spiral galaxies, then there may be many other areas where no such function was possible. So then, in those areas, we should have direct evidence of inter galactic matter. There must be considerable quantities of C D M matter in the local group galaxies, besides that they concentrated in galaxy. The "Milky way" galaxy is such a spiral arm galaxy. The spiral arm structure of our galaxy can be traced by radio wave -demonstration of interstellar hydrogen at a wave length 21 cm where neutral hydrogen is used as a tracer element to delineate the spiral arm and the galactic disks, in which gasses are largely concentrated. By these study, the position of various concentration of. Hydrogen, which can be seen in each line of sign are indicatated by filled circles. A series of small open circles correspond to a broad peak on the profile indicate a spiral arm. There are significant differences in the neutral hydrogen distribution on the two side of the galaxy. In the outer region, the peaks of the spiral arm are less pronounced on the southern side of the galaxy then they are on the northern side. This galaxy shows multi armed structure. The arm shows geometrical trailing tendency clock wise. The neutral hydrogen is confined mostly in the thin layer in the galactic disc.
 The Active galactic neucleus (AGN) like other spiral galaxies, is the central region of our galaxy. What is present at the center?

It is yet a great puzzle to us. There are many theories. A bright quarser! A black hole! A neutron star! Or globular clusters! The concept that the center of our galaxy might explode with the violence of a bright quarsar, by "Lorry Niven" in his book "Ring World" (Gollancz publishers-1970). Accor­ding to him, this galaxy will turn into a quarsar, and once, the blast of light, electro­magnetic radiations and very high energy particles will reach to us. Since, we orbit round the center of our galaxy, at a distance of about 10 Kilo Persec, then it is however possible that the nucleus of our galaxy had already exploded in the past 30,000 years and we have not yet know about it. The light from such an explosion along with cosmic ray particles will take much long time to reach to us. And if this happened in reality in past time, then the blast particles from the quarser at the center of our galaxy, as soon as will reach to us, will destroy the total civilization. It may happen on any day, any time. The center region of our galaxy, like the central region of other spiral galaxies contain globular clusters. However the feature is consistent with the elliptical galaxies "Spheri­cal type". These globular cluster contain the oldest stars of the galaxy, and their formation was clearly related to the formation of the first component of our galaxy as we have told early, Then one question appears to us "is it the fact that all the galaxies forming, at initial phase were elliptical one? and then under gravitational influence of central retarded core, some of them turned into spiral galaxies? Then another question appears to us, where from the material came for formation of disc of the spiral galaxy?

 How could these globular clusters form at AGN? The another big question!

The Conventional view is that they were produced by collapse of greater region of self gravita­ting gasses that became spiral galaxy as we have shown in above picture (Fig. 1). And if we take the concept of globular clusters at our AGN, there remains no possibility of explosion of our AGN. like that of a "quarser" or "Sey fert galaxies". These bright globular clusters were formed at the earliest stage of the deve­lopment of our galaxy, and these globular clusters are brightest at a distance 30,000 light years. (It is the distance of ours, from galactic center, at some direction). Each globular clusters were formed of tens of thousands of stars, and more than few hundred globular clusters are associated with AGN of our "Milky Way”. The most exciting theory is "Black hole" at the center of our spiral galaxy. Where from the black holes came in center? Then black holes has to be originated in the birth time of the galaxy or in the "Big Bang" time, or the black holes grew from the globular cluster? The x-ray sources have now been identified with globular clusters, and this has encouraged the speculation that there might be a massive black holes like "SgRA" at our galactic nucleus. The Globular clusters show no sign of exploding like "Sey fert" galaxies, or quarsers and may stay retarded for ever as simple massive black hole or perhaps they burst their bounds very soon after the "Big Bang" in the galaxy and settled down into a long life of respectability as quiet collapsed objects. Our spiral galaxy has a dark halo extend­ing 50 KPC to 100 KPC at its center. The shape of the halo is unknown. The gamma ray observatory (GRO) satellite found distri­bution of γ-ray on the sky and the γ ray burst was isotropic. The source of the gamma ray is non solar origin and is either in an extended galactic halo or at cosmological distance. So the most conservative approach is to assume that the halo at the center of our galaxy is of old population of type II accreting neutron stars and thus the halo emits y ray bursts. The distribution of neutron stars have an isotropic distribution in the galactic center. Our galaxy have spiral arms. Successful efforts to trace the spiral structure of our galaxy began in 1940s. Spectroscopic studies show that spiral arms themselves are made of mainly neutral hydrogen gasses and young hot stars. Measuring directly the concentration of hydrogen gas by its emission at 21 cm wave length. Our spiral arms show to contain huge concentration of hydrogen gasses. Other method of tracing the spiral structure is (1) tracing the young stars (0 and B stars). They are so common in our spiral structure, as if they are lighting the path of the spiral structure, like street lamps lighting a twisted road. (2) Co line luminosity of the spiral structure. Hydrogen mass of the galaxy can be calculated from the co line luminosity of a galaxy accordingly MH2/L’co = (4u/3π G)1/2(n (H2)1/2Tb), where (4μ/3μG)1/2 =2.1 MΘ (K. KmS-1Pc2)-1cm3/2K and n (H2) is the hydrogen density (P Solomon-Nature vol. 356, P. 318-19, 1992). Our galaxy contain trillions of stars.
Our galaxy has a spin rota­tion. Every spiral galaxies does rotate. Elliptical galaxies do not rotate very much. Our "Milky Way" is a very slow rotating galaxy. It rotates in its spiral arm "a few cm", once in every 10 million years. Where from the rotation came? Who set the spiral galaxies to rotate? It is the Soviet Astronomer V.A. Ambartsumian, who gave a theory that gala­xies are formed by a process of ejection from the parent galaxies, by a violent outbursts from the galactic nuclei, he told that spiral galaxies form in pairs, and that when two nuclei from one cosmic gusher to become the new pair of spirals, they split up with opposite rotation, relative to each other due to equal and opposite amount of angular momen­tum. So in that case there must be a link material or link bridge between the two spiral galaxy and each spiral galaxy must contain its companion galaxy. The "Whirlpool galaxy" M51 with its companion is the classical example of such a theory of Ambartsumian. Actually M 51 first revealed the astronomers about the existence of other spiral galaxies in the Universe. It has a very clear, beautiful spiral pattern, with bright young stars, edged by a lane of dark material, sweeping out from the center in two opposite arms. This M 61 has a bridge material which extends from one of the spiral arm to its companion galaxy, small and bright, made of same kind of materials. The spiral arm of M51 is radio spiral, and two strong spiral arms running along the inner edge of the spiral pattern of bright young (0 & B stars) stars. The spiral arm contain great quantities of neutral hydrogen gas, like ours "Milky way". The radio evidence also clearly reveals that lane of hydrogen gasses extended across the bridge to its companion galaxy. This compa­nion galaxy makes the end of one of the two major spiral arms. But the difficulties of Ambartsumian theory is that our galaxy and majority of spiral galaxies has no companion galaxy like M51
Our spiral galaxy is not any thing new or special in the Universe. Besides our "Milky way", there are at least 63 spiral galaxies (Catalogued so far) known, who have velo­cities 800 Kms.l. Spiral structures has also variability, some are tightly wound, others are open spirals. IRAS study has detected a spiral galaxy with a distant red shift Z=2.286. It is IRAS 10214+4724 galaxy with most intrinsically luminous objects in the universe α=1014LΘ (LΘ=Solar luminosity) The total mass of neutral molecular hydro­gen in the IRAS 10214+4724 is 2-6 X 1011 M0. This mass is compatible to total mass of a large spiral galaxy. "Co luminosity is recent technique to estimate the H2 mass in the spiral galaxy, and IRAS 10214+4724 galaxy has a Co luminosity at least 20 times than that of local group galaxy. Its hydrogen mass is roughly equal to total mass of large spiral galaxy like the "Milky way" (P.M. Solomon ­Nature vol 356, 26th March P. 318-19, 1992). 90% of the galaxy contain stars and 10% gasses (The total agglomeration of molecular gas in Milky way is 106-107 M0).

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 Tribute & Acknowledgement- To our late parent diseased late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharya FCA(India) SAS(India) and  late Mrs Bani Bhattacharya House wife of their residence 7/51 Purbapalli, Po-Sodepur, Dist 24 parganas (north) , Kolkata-110,WestBengal, India,  for their initial teaching  for us about the universe, Big Bang galaxy stars and the eternity 
 Copy RightCopy Right of this article is the intellectual Property and Copy Right of the article belongs to Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya and his first degree relatives only as per copy right act & rules of Intellectual Property Right Rules 3D/107/1201 a,b/ RDF Copy Right rules/ SPARC copy Right rules-2006/ and Protect intellectual Property Right(PIP) copy right rules of USA-2012.Please do not even try to Infringe and be enough careful for your own safety if you are not direct Blood relation to prof Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya  . No person, No NGOS [ except the authors& first degree relatives]  in the state of West Bengal or in any states of India or in any abroad countries are authorized to use this article, with any meaning full,  scientific sentences or with scientific and meaning full words laid out in this article either in the class room/  or in mass teaching programme including CME  or  in any form what so ever it is with any content of this article or while in writing any book or for his/her personal/ home use, or collective works or for any future Research or implementation as a policy matter or,[ except the authors ]or  by Xeroxing and distributing the article/ or by printing/saving/broadcasting the article from any website of internet services,displayed without proper copy right clearance from the authors or from his family members or future copy right owner by written forms. 
Sd/ Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya WBMES

Friday, 8 March 2013

Blogs of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(cal) Pathology; : supernovas and mechanism of explosion of supernova...

Blogs of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(cal) Pathology; : supernovas and mechanism of explosion of supernova...: Authors_; * Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya -Bsc( Calcutta Univ. ) Msc(Jadav Pur Univ)  of Residence 7/51 Purbapalli,PO-Sodepur...

supernovas and mechanism of explosion of supernovas


**Miss Upasana Bhattacharya-  Only Daughter of Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya,  Student, Mahamya apartment; Block B, Mahamyatala, 54 NSC Bose Road; Garia, kol-84. WB, India

**Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya  MD (Calcutta univ.) FIC Path(India); Professor and Head,  Department of  Pathology,  School of Tropical Medicine-kolkata;  108, C.R Avenue ,Kolkata-73, WB, India; Ex- Professor and HOD Ophthalmic Pathology RIO kolkata-73, & of WBUHS and Ex- Professor of Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education & Research,244 AJC Bose Road, Kolkata-20,  West Bengal, India{ Member & Member Secretary of Board of Studies of  West Bengal University of Health Sciences(WBUHS), DD36, Salt Lake City Sector-1, kolkata, West Bengal  for Undergraduate, Post Graduate and Post Doctoral  studies in Pathology and of DCP courses under WBUHS. Examiner of Post Doc PhD & Thesis  Evaluator Adjudicator of  MD/DM/PhD of  WBUHS
***Mr.Ritwik Bhattacharya Univ) *** Miss Rupsa Bhattacharya *** Mr Soumyak Bhattacharya BHM(IGNOU], MSc student PUSHA Govt of India, New Delhi, India ,
 * & ***  7/51 purbapalli, Po-sodepur Dist 24 parganas(north) , Kolkata-110,WestBengal, India
**** Mrs. Dalia Mukherjee BA(honors) Cal.Univ **** Oaindrila Mukherjee- BA Honors(English) cal univ; Miss Oaeshi Mukherjee-  Student **** Mr Debasis Mukherjee BSc(Calcutta Univ)  of Residence  Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north),   West Bengal,  India

What is the fate of this Universe?

Cosmos is Expanding
 It is not the first time that an astronomical discovery has revolutionized our ideas about our Universe. Only a hundred years ago, the Universe was considered to be a calm and a peaceful place, no larger than our own galaxy, the Milky Way. The cosmological clock was then as if ticking reliably and steadily and the Universe was eter­nal. Soon, however, a radical shift changed this picture. At the beginning of the 20th century the American amateur lady astronomer “Henrietta Swan Leavitt” found a way of measuring distances to far away stars. At the time,  some women astronomers were denied access to the large telescopes, but they were then frequently employed for the cumbersome tasks of analyzing photographic plates taken of these large telescopes. Henrietta Leavitt  had thus  enjoyed enough scope of  analyzing  & she  could  havoc  scope of studying thousands of pulsating stars, they called them “Cepheids”, and she found that the brighter ones had longer pulses. Using this information, Leavitt could calculate the intrinsic brightness of Cepheids and it was immediately accepted by rest of world.  She told ,If the distance of just one of the Cepheid stars is known, the distances to other Cepheids can be established – the dimmer its light, the farther away the star is”. A reliable standard candle thus was born, a first mark on the cosmic yard stick that is still being used today. By making use of Cepheids, astronomers would soon concluded that the “Milky Way” is just one of many millions galaxies in our observable Universe. And in the 1920s, the astronomers got access to the world’s then-largest telescope Mount Wilson in California, so they were able to show that almost all galaxies are in fact moving away from us. Wao! It was astonishing discovery in Astronomical science &Physics!. The concept of Red shift(z).  They were then studying the so-called “redshift”(Z) that occurs when a source of light is receding from us. The light’s wavelength gets stretched, and the longer the wave, the redder becomes its color was the theory behind it. What ever may be, the conclusion was that all the galaxies are rushing away from us and each other, and the farther away they are, the faster they move – this is known  today as Hubble’s law. The Universe is growing [2].

The coming and going of the cosmological constant
What was observed in space time  had already been suggested by theoretical calculations. In 1915, the great  intelligence & mind Nobel Laureates in physics  “Albert Einstein” published his “General Theory of Relativity”, which had been the foundation of our understanding of the Uni­verse ever since the publication. The theory described a Universe that has to either shrink ( Big Crunch)or to expand. It was really a disturbing conclusion for mathematician. This disturbing conclusion was reached about a decade before the discovery of the ever-fleeing  away galaxies. Not even Einstein could reconcile the fact that the Universe was not static ( steady State theory of JB Narleiker and  Fred Howel- Nobel laureates in physics). So in order to stop this unwanted cosmic expansion, Einstein  had no other option but to add a constant to his equations that he  himself called the cosmological constant. Later, Einstein would consider the insertion of the cosmological constant was in fact
a big mistake for him. However, with the obser­vations made in 1997–1998 that are awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics, we can conclude that Einstein’s cosmo­logical constant – put in for the wrong reasons – was actually brilliant one thought in fact. The discovery of the expanding Universe was a groundbreaking first step towards the now standard view that the Universe was created in the Big Bang almost 14 billion years ago. Both time and space began  only then. Ever since, the Universe has been expanding; like raisins in a raisin cake swelling in the oven, But No body still answered what is beyond that Planck’s moment of Big Bang Creation of our universe?. Was there another universe? Was there multiple universe?

Stars last too long in the universe.
 For an amateur astronomers/ or theoretical physicist like myself and my brother  Mr Rupak Bhattacharya, to see any evolution of a star or death of a star, in the course of his/their life time, unless he/they is/are lucky enough to see one star destroying itself in a phenomenon  called supernova or in a nova explosion or turning towards a Red giant . My then  old and  diseased father[  He was diseased in 2009 April] , late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharjee and my mom late Mrs Bani Bhattacharya ( She was diseased in May 2006)  of  our residence7/51 Purbapali, Po-sodepur,24 parganas (north) kolkata-110, West Bengal, India , they used to teach our brothers and  only sister in our younger ages, child ages, with their built up notion like this”….. Stars are long lived objects with ages, they are as old as our galaxy is, as old as our universe is and they are symbol of eternity [heaven and hell their Planets are] they may be 2.5 billion years – 3 billion years old from a first generation stars explosions and are almost perfect cosmic mile markers even very close to Big Bang. And many such stars might have habitable planets like our Earth where civilization grew but better form of technological civilization exists there and we intelligent human beings come from there and returns back after our death there according our acts in this planet. They belived in soul ! God! Creator! Big Bang!   Today we know that looking at a supernova of a very distant star almost at horizon of the universe, or of a Nebula, we can understand the mystery of creation of the Universe, the Big Bang it self. They are really the symbol of the eternity.  Edington suspected, that the nuclear reactions in the interior of the stars are primary sources of energy for it’s luminosity and fusion of hydrogen to make Helium and that can take place in it, in time bound scale for this ranges, from millions to millions years. Our sun has lost it’s brightness by more then 1% from it’s birth, due to change in it’s internal structure for past 107 years. But  the question remains  how these supernovas explode? What is the mechanism behind it?  No physics probably answered it yet. Here may be  some explanations by my brothers Rupak Bhattacharya and Ritwik Bhattacharya  the authors
If we consider the mode of generation of energy in the star, nuclear process provide the only source of energy adequate to keep the stars ongoing luminous. The nuclear fusion in which Hydrogen is built up into Helium, can function sufficient fast at temperature, like those at central core of star (12-25 million degrees). The Helium burning process are important 1) Carbon Nitrogen cycle at which a carbon-12 nucleus (12C) capture proton and is converted into 13C, Nitrogen-4 and nitrogen –15. At a final temperature, a proton leads to a fusion yielding original 12C nucleus to a Helium nucleus .2) The Proton- Proton process, in which protons are built direct Helium nuclei through steps, involving first in production of a deuterium and helium3 nuclei to form Helium4 nucleus and two protons. 3) Carbon burning process where 12C nucleus undergoes fusion reaction in the interior of a star producing neutron, proton, and Alfa particles with huge temperature. The first reaction probably dominates into the star, applicable to more massive stars then Sun. The second and third reaction is applicable for Sun and in less massive stars then Sun respectively. Thermonuclear reactions like those in a hydrogen bomb are powering the Sun in a contained and continuous explosions converting some four hundred millions tons (4x1014 grams) of hydrogen into helium. When we look up in the sky in night and see the stars we see them shining because of distant nuclear fusion in them .But hydrogen fusion can not continue for ever.  Our Sun is ~ 4.7109 years old star. The energy produced in our ordinary star Sun in each second, is equivalent to the destruction of 41/2 millions tons of hydrogen mass in every second, a mere fleabite compared with the mass of the Sun which is two thousand billion and billion tones. In the Sun or in any other stars, there is limited so much hydrogen in it’s hot interior. Although Helium is predominating as net fusing of Hydrogen, other elements like “carbon”, “Iron”, “L element” “Manganese” “Chromium”, EU, yttrium, Magnesium, SR, Nickel, Osmium are also built up in the interior of the stars. Arnett and Truran [Arnett W.D and Truran. JW –Astrophysics.J-Vol157;P339,1969] showed that nuclear reaction net work in the sun when 12C nuclei  began to under go the fusion reaction in the interior of sun many elements are produced such as
12C+12C à  23Na+P+2.238mev à23Mg+ n+2.623mev-à20Ne+ 27Al +4.616mev and the reaction goes on endlessly. A large number of computed reactions are possible as the liberated neutron and gamma particles begin reaction with all the nuclear species generated within the hydrogen fusion. In fact Arnett and Truran produced 99 different reactions only in 12C carbon burning net work and  23Na,20Ne, 24Mg,27Al,29Si, and some31P  elements are also produced. Beside these Li, Be, B ( Known as leptons)are also produced in the stars due to hydrogen burning. Another more most elementary particles are produced in huge quantities. They are called Neutrinos or ghost particles due to hydrogen burning procedure ( Professor Pranab Bhattacharya & Mr. Rupak Bhattacharyya). Conversion of hydrogen into helium in the center of the stars or of the Sun, not only accounts for Sun’s brightness in photons of visible light. It also produces a radiance of a more ghostly kind. The sun glows faintly in neutrinos  , which like photons, weight nothing and travel at speed of light. Neutrinos emitted from Sun carry an intrinsic angular momentum or spin while photons has no spin. Matter is transparent to neutrinos which can pass effortlessly through the earth and through the Sun. Only a tiny fraction of them is stopped by intervening matter. As you look up our sun, a billions neutrinos pass through your eye ball. They are not stopped by Retina as ordinary photons do ,but continue unmolested through the back of your head. The curious part is that if at night if I look down at ground, towards the place where sun would be, almost exactly same numbers of solar neutrinos pass through my eye ball, pouring through an interposed earth which is as transparent to neutrinos as a plane of clear glass is to visible light. Neutrinos on very rare occasion convert chlorine atoms into argon atoms with the same number of protons and neutrons. Davis first used a beautiful technique of Pontecours and Alvarez based on the reaction  37C1(V,e-)37Ar to place an upper limit on the solar neutrinos flux on earth
The previous view regarding the “L atoms elements” was that  each star makes it’s own share of these “L atoms elements”i.e (autogenously origin). But the concept of autogenic view has been now abandoned, because highest abundance values for stellar Li & Be have shown to be not larger than interstellar upper limit. The formation of each “L atoms” requires the acceleration of about 1erg fast proton. To account auto genetically for lithium abundance in T. Tauri stars (L1/H=109), the time integrated amount production of energy into particle acceleration must be comparable with gravitational release, implying an unlikely high efficiency for acceleration mechanism. So nuclear mechanism is responsible for generation of “L atoms” in the star. It involves high-energy process (Thermonuclear reactions). These L atoms” can be formed in two different ways within the stellar interiors. By the collision of incident light particles on the heavier atoms of interstellar gas (For instance fast protons on stationary C, N, O) or the reverse (for instance fast C, N, O on hydrogen at rest). In the first case the Products “ L atoms are to remain in rest, while in the second case, the products are moving at a velocity comparable with that of cosmic rays. The fate of  “ L atoms” generated by fast protons on stationary C, N, O stationary atoms and are all rapidly thermalised and become part of ISM.
  “L atoms” generated by reverse process have a fate which depends on the initial energy of “L atoms”. L atoms with energy E<0.2 Gev nucleon-1 will stop in galactic gas (ISM) while L atoms with E > 0.3Gev neucleon-1 will suffer nuclear transformation of various elements in the stellar interior.
Analysis of Old stars can give us some idea that heavy elements are produced in the interior of the stars and are subsequently ejected into the ISM either through the supernova explosion or through stellar winds or through cosmic rays. The total mass loss, from all stars in a galaxy will be roughly 1MO per year. A fraction of these accumulate in the galactic nuclei, which are center of the gravitational attraction. The halo of our galaxy is nearly spherical region containing very old stars, which have a smaller content of heavy elements than our sun has. It is usually assumed that some how cloud of gas condensed to form our galaxy and that the halo stars were formed during the collapse process and left with a nearly spherical distribution. These stars are ultra high velocity stars. These stars show weak spectral lines corresponding to abundance of carbon and heavier elements [relative to hydrogen] that are lower than our Sun. Because these stars are oldest in our galaxy quite distinct type of nuclear process have been postulated for different groups of elements. The most abundant nuclei are 32S and 58Fe those can be formed by silicon burning process while 16O, 20Ne,23Na 24Mg,28S may be produced by explosive carbon burning process. When heavier elements notably Sr, Y, Zr, Ba etc require neutron capture on slow time scale, by iron group nucleotide already present in the star. A peculiar type of star 73 DRA has been investigated for many a time. It is full of chromium with europium and strontium. The star showed the presence of Cr, Eu, Sr and also Mn, Fe, Ni, in gaseous form while osmium (z=76) is present in both neutral and ionized form. The importance of these heavy elements is that, some of them such as Iridium, gold, uranium are also produced in the stars in the gamma process of nucleus synthesis [Neutron capture slow process]
 So Helium, L atoms, Carbon, Iron, gold, chromium, nickel, silicon and many other elements are built up in the stellar interior. Although the net fusing of hydrogen into helium dominates however at this stage. Helium builds up in the core. The supply of hydrogen fuel diminishes and eventually becomes in sufficient to provide energy to hold up the strain position. As the energy production decreases, the core of the star contracts and heats up through release of gravitational energy. With a hotter center there is a greater outward pressure and the outer layer of the star expands, so that the star now becomes a RED GIANT. The red giant has a radius hundred times that of a sun. Mean while in the hotter core a new series of fusion reactions begins and with the helium as the fuel many elements like carbon oxygen, neon, magnesium. When helium will exhaust as a fuel, the carbon burning process will start as 12C as a fuel in the star. In any star the internal temperature and density and therefore the rate at which the energy is generated depend sensitively on the opacity of the stellar material or in other words, on the ease with which the photons can escape from the stellar core. In simple terms you can say greater the opacity harder it is for heat to get out making core hotter. Opacities in normal star can be calculated reliably from knowledge for the abundance of the constituent elements and their ionization site

Suernova-: Another important thing in our universe are the supernovas or novas. The supernovas are the explosion of the central core or outer core of a giant massive star. These supernovas are found in the binary star system. A star may end its life cycle either in the form of a RED GIANT or in the form of a white dwarf or in the form of a “ black Dwarf” or in the form of “ neutron Star” or in Black Hole” or in the form of Supernova Explosion”. When the explosion of a star occurs in small scale, we call it Nova. In Big bang concept, apart from hydrogen, a little helium was produced. Every atom of every element had been built up by the nuclear fusion reaction in the stellar pressure cooker. The elements only could arrive in the  interstellar space to mingle in the clouds of forming protostars is through this supernovas  Novas are however quite different from supernovas. Novas occur in binary star system and are powered by silicon or carbon fusion. Supernovas occur in single  associated with old population II stellar system such as elliptic galaxies and in globular clusters. The classical supernovas are therefore a subset of the cataclysmic variable class of objects, which undergoes out bursts with peak luminosity ~ 5x1037 to 5x 1038 ergs S-1 in every 104 to 105 years. Around 10-5 to 10-4 MO material are ejected at velocity typically 1000 Kms-1 at each outburst of supernova. The central system is a semi detached binary stars, containing a white dwarf . Classical supernova out burst was observed in 1901, where as dwarf nova out burst was first observed in 1986.
Supernovas are two types Type-1(SN-I) and Type 2(SN_II) supernovas.  Most astronomers agree that a type 1a supernova starts with a white dwarf — an aging star that crams as much mass as the sun into a volume no bigger than Earth. Most white dwarfs are cold and inert. But if the star has a companion, it will siphon mass off the neighbor star until tipping the scales at about 1.4 solar masses. At that mass, the white dwarf becomes dense and hot enough to initiate an explosion. Mass accreting white dwarfs, in close binary system of stars are Type-1 supernovas, while  low mass (M70t <5MO) binary X ray sources are known as Type II supernovas. Supernovas are the brightest source of IRAS and radio noises. Supernovas are the sources of Cosmic rays also .The bulk of the cosmic rays with high intensity are local cosmic rays and they are derived from many such  supernovas in past distributed through our galactic disks. Historical supernovas are all too recent and too distant , to be significant contributor of cosmic rays. In 6th  April of 1947 ( almost 9 years before I was born in this planet) a supernova, in a satellite of famous Whirlpool galaxy called MSI was observed . A star in that galaxy  had a sudden maximum Brightness and following that within a few weeks  it faded out  and had been then overlooked. A supernova appears in the spiral galaxy  on an average once in  400 years approximately. The most distant supernova so far detected is 10 billion light years away from our earth,  the first generation star it was. How much my father was correct, I often think it today
 The remnants of the Exploding stars or supernovas are called Supernova remnants. They are easily identified by radio astronomers up to millions years after their explosion. The optical ultra violets and X-rays continue are produced by the supernova explosion and interaction of the resting debris (Supernova remnants), with dense Circumstellar gas shell, previously formed by the stellar wind of the progenitor supernova. L. Stavely Smith , in 1992 showed the birth of the radio noise supernova remnants SNR1987A, following radio outbursts of Supernova 1987A[ Nature Vol-355 1992]. In the mid 1990, about 1200 earthen days after the supernova radio emission was detected at frequencies 843 MHZ and 8.6 GHG and this radio emission was within 0.5 arsc of the optical supernovas
Although both young and old star can give rise to supernovas, the massive stars, none of which is thought to live more than several million years, are also thought to end their life in this way. Supernovas can occur in conjunction with their satellite planet or binary stars. One of You among readers of our thesis may obviously ask me that in what conditions could a star or a planet can survive such a nearby explosion? Several simplifying assumption can be made to answer this question.
1)   The time of mass ejection will be small compared with the orbiting period
2) The mass of the second star or planet will be smaller than that of the pre- supernova star. The first simplification was based on that the ejection velocity of major fraction of the matter from a supernova will be comparable with or larger than its initial escape velocity from the pre- supernova star. Because the binary number is necessarily at larger radius, its orbital velocity will be less than the average ejection velocity. If the combined mass is reduced to less than a half by the supernova, in the limit, where the mass ejection is sudden and where the mass of the secondary is small, the system will un-banned regardless of the effects of the collision of the ejected matter within the satellite of the planet.
   The fractional mass ejection by supernova is known for the thermonuclear supernova model. No remnant of star remain on the other hand models of neutron star supernova, predicts various fractional mass ejection depending on mass and structure of the initial star. But all the models, be it thermonuclear or neutron star or cataclysmic variables predicts a small fractional mass ejection, for the models slightly more massive mass than C.S. Limit, and are self consistent, in that the mass of the remnant neutron star does not exceed current stability limit. A star of initial mass 1.5MO leaves a remnant neutron star of mass 1MO. The link between supernova explosion and formation of a neutron star has to be rather established even if Type II supernovas are expected to leave to a stellar component. Only five example of Pulsar Supernova remnant association are known on our galaxy and in large Megallenic cloud.
 Previously as we the authors told, that mass accreting white dwarf in close binary system can be considered to be Type-1 supernovas progenitors. Low mass (Mtot≈5MO) binary X ray sources( Known as type II supernovas) appear to be descendents of cataclysmic variables and thus they have been produced by collapse of a mass  accreting white dwarf. The fashionable model of explaining the out burst involves central deflagration of a white dwarf in close binary system living no remnant. But this model implies a unique configuration and do allow for variation. Slow supernovas show higher peak of luminosity, higher velocity in their ejecta and slower decline in their light curve. Fast Supernovas are dimmer velocities of expanding material are low and light curve decay is faster.

Super hemps_: They are periodic increase in Brightness (up to 40%) that are observed during occasional super out bursts lasting about 12 days, that are additional to normal outbursts of a subclass of white dwarf Nova. Dwarf Nova’s are characterized by two distinct class of out bursts. Normal  outbursts of duration ~2 days and less frequent super outbursts which lasts for ~12 days. During super outbursts, super hemps are observed which modulate the visible light by≤40% with a period 3-7% longer than biniary period.

 What is the Mechanism of Explosion in Supernova

Mechanism of Explosion in Supernova-a mechanism proposed by Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya  Mr, Rupak Bhattacharya_: How much correct it is?-
 What is the mechanism of a supernova explosion in a star? It is not known yet and yet explained very well.
 Possibly one of the standard mechanisms of a supernova is the collapse& out going shock due to collapse, leaving behind a neutron star, is the collapse of the iron core of a massive star. During the initial phase of the collapse, a sizable portion of the star transfers into neutrinos with emissions of ve energy≤10Mev.[Rupak Bhattacharya and Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya’s theory] The collapse phase lasts until the infiltrating matter becomes opaque to neutrinos. A few~1056 ve neutrinos are emitted during this phase. As the collapsed core reaches nuclear matter densities, an out going shock develop. When the shock reaches the dense layer that are still transparent to neutrinos, another ~1056V mostly Ve are expected to be emitted. The second one of the bursts , produce neutrinos with an average energy~10Mev5~10. The whole process lasts much less than a second. The remainder of the gravitational energy (~2x1053ergs) is emitted in the form of vv pairs of all flavors. Although the neutron star contain vv pairs of very high energy (100Mev), the only low energy one is eliminated, because the neutrinos mean the free path, is strongly energy dependent. The energy is larger for µ, e R neutrinos (Rupak neutrinos 115<Mh<127 GeV). There are dozen of neutrinos particles of 7-35 mev mass in that energy. There charges is smaller than about 10-17 times the charge of electron. [Such a neutrinos is R particles or R neutrinos-a near zero mass 115<Mh<127 GeV, conceptualized by Rupak Bhattacharya as Rb+ Rb- and hence nomenclatured  here according to his name]
 What is the Key thermonuclear feature of an expanding star that will end it in supernovas? The ignition of helium in the hydrogen as soon as exhausted, in core of a low mass star, in the presence of a degenerate electron gas which is providing the bulk of the pressure support of the star, the expansion of the star core starts. Because pressure of such a gas does not increase ,substantially when temperature rises, where as the rates of thermonuclear reaction increase dramatically with increasing temperature, a brief run away in thermonuclear activity ensues. After this the star in there core quickly expands. After only a small degree of nuclear burning to an adjusted configuration, where burning can proceed in hydrostatic equilibrium with subsequent discovery of very effective cooling of stellar interior due to neutrinos emission, it has become apparent that intrinsically more explosive nuclear fuel namely 12C and16O may also ignite in a very degenerate electron gas and that in that case, the run away in nuclear reaction may be great enough completely to disrupt the star via a thermonuclear explosion. The high temperature of the explosion which lasts only a fraction of second produces such a high degree nuclear processing that expelled thermonuclear product are vastly different than the composition of the mass zone of the star, before the explosion. The key thermonuclear feature of explosive burning is that several fuel combust at temperature considerably higher than those at which same fuel burn in an object in hydrostatic equilibrium with considerable effect in abundances of ejected matter. The over heating may result either from the fact that the fuels first ignite in a degenerate electron gas for the non central mass zones from the compression heating, produced as a strong pressure and have propagation outward fro an expanding core. In either case large amount of thermal energy are liberated in a time short compared with star’s ability to compensate hydro dynamically, with the result that the entire star may be given with positive energy sufficient to disrupt it in explosion.
Before the explosion, the gas is virtually half and consisted of 12C and 16O. The first indication of importance of dynamics of the explosion of the final nuclear product came in a study of carbon burning phenomenon of Arnet, who established a numerical scheme for solving the nuclear reaction net work that result when12C nuclear reaction began to undergo the fusion reaction in the interior of the star before supernova[ Arnet W.D & Truran J.W Astrophysics Jpurnal V157;P339;1969]
12C+12C        23Na+P+2.238mev             23Mg+tn    -2.623mev         20 Net+α+4.616Mev
A large numbers of computed reactions are thus possible, as the  fusion reaction liberated proton, neutron, neutrinos and alpha particles and began to react with all of the nuclear species generated within the gas. Before the explosion, the gas is virtually half and half of the 12C and 16O as produced in previous epoch on helium burning plus 2% of 18O which is the result of earlier conversion, within the same star, of all of the original CNO nuclei in to 18O by hydrogen burning and helium burning in turn. Carbon burn furiously for about 1/10th  of second at which time reactions are frozen by falling temperature, associated with vigorous expansion of gas. Most of the carbon and virtually all of the initial oxygen remain unburned, so that the final ratio of 12C/24Mg matches the solar ratio. More subsequently the nuclei  2One,23Na, 24Mg, 26Mg,27Al, 29Si and 3O and some time 31P are produced. So today whatever elementary nuclei  we know in our earth or in earth’s atmosphere is the fusion-burning product of a supernova explosion in a dying star.
1987 A Supernova-:  and Recently detected Supernovas[  Picture by

In our galaxy there were evidences of eight supernovas. They are in the years 185,393,1006 AD and in 1054,1181,1572,1604,and very recently one is 1987.Only supernovas 1006,1572,1604 were observed by European Astronomers. The supernova of 1054 was as a cloudy patch, and remains still as Crab nebulae as the legs of a crab. It is the remnant of that supernova. It is at a distance of 4500 light years away and is left over gases that has a diameter of about 6 miles. [Mitra A.K- Space Light first year 2nd quarter1997 P10]. Supernova 1987A occurred in the large Megaloionic Cloud (MLC).It was a supernova of a giant star SK69202 that exploded. The star was the star of multiple star systems instead of a binary star system. SN 1987a was 18 solar mass blue giant Sanduleak -69° 202a, a mere 0.000168 billion light-years distant. This star had lost a considerable mass of M20O due to the explosion. The other members of this giant multiple system is now visible as supernova remnant. The SK 69202 was probably a red super giant 104—105 years ago. The outer envelop, blue star giant progenitor star is preserved during the rapid supersonic un turbulence outflow of the supernova. The huge amount of R- neutrinos (Rupak Particles) are now emitted by this 1987A supernova proposes the formation of a neutron star, inside this supernova some have reported that central region of this supernova was a central pulsar. However the history of this supernova 1987A is today 23 years old. In the supernova 1987A there is evidence of presence of H3+ in the envelope or in the shell of it. The infrared L window spectrum of supernova 1987A is between 2.95-4.15um were obtained by hydrogen re combination line ( Mcikle.W. PS Not.R. Astr Society V283;P193-223;1989). But from 110 days onward there were an evidence of hydrogen recombination line between spectrum 3.41-3.53um. These were possibilities in wave length at which H3+ announces most strongly presence of a planet like Jupiter (Okata.T etal- Astrophysics J-Vol351;P253-56;1990).When the first explosion of supernova 1987A happened there were a brief initial outburst of radio emissions that lasted for more than a few days. The expanding Nebulae were set into motion by the ejection and cooling of ejected material and its interaction with circumstellar material that surrounded the progenitor& was then non visible at the available radio frequencies. Evolution of radio-supernova remnant over the last years provided us the information about the progress of the expanding supernova remnant. The nature of its unusual progenitor star which was first a   red giant and then a blue giant, before it exploded. In the red giant phase, the star threw off a dense slow moving wind which was succeeded by a more tenuous but faster wind from the blue giant. The circumstellar material of the progenitor at the moment of the explosion there fore consisted of a hot thin gas- cocooned inside a cooler thicker shell with a supersonic shock wave created at the boundary, as the blue  giant wind ran into red giant wind. The first brief flash of radio emission was a very minor part of the initial supernova outbursts and was probably attributable to the propagation of shock wave from explosion through the thin material immediately surrounding what had been progenitor star.
 Supernova are now routinely observed in other galaxies . During the life time of a galaxy about 10 billion years, a hundred millions of stars exploded. Amongst them, David Helfend and Knoxlong reported an extremely intense burst of hard X-ray and gamma rays which was also recorded by nine interplanetary space crafts and which was also probably Supernova N49 remnant in large Megellanic Cloud [ MLC is a small satellite galaxy of Milky Way 18,0000 light year distant)[ Nature march5,1979 & decemb6 1979]. The recent nova which had been detected in Cygx-1 galaxy. It was Nova V404 cygni- Low mass x ray binary emits x ray and x ray behavior is similar to black hole system. In April 6,1947 discovered a supernova in a satellite of famous whirlpool galaxy M51- A star suddenly had maximum brightness and had then overlooked. On 9th January 2008, while viewing of galaxy NGC 2770 an unexpected transient burst of Xray was detected in one of the galaxies spiral arm. Further observation showed that the burst was a first sighting of new type of Ibc supernova duly was named as SN200D.  Most distant Supernovae are super bright, and that makes them easy to see from far away. Very far away. 11 Billion Light years to be exact from earth. almost at time of birth of first generation stars and galaxy.

 Pulsar formation is generally attributed to supernova events and two pulsars are till associated with known supernova events. They are Crab Nebulae pulsar NP0532 and Vela. Other pulsars are close enough to supernova remnants to suggest an association but only if they are moving away from the remnants at velocities of order 103 Km/second. Fowler KA and Hogel F in 1963 suggested that supernova core may well be too massive to form a gravitationally  stable object(neutron Star) and gravitationally Collapsing Object(black Hole too). They suggested that systemic ejection of Radio luminous material from galaxy could be caused by symmetrical process occurring in the collapse of very massive objects, thus the more massive core could fission into several less massive objects. The same process can be applied to supernova events where core fragments into some distribution of neutron stars” Black holes’ and general debris[ Fowler WA, Hoyel F Nature 197; 533;1963]. There is a pulsar PSR 1509-58 located near the center of radio supernova remnant MSH 15-52, a supernova remnant of supernova AD1054. This pulsar is young only about 1700 years. The near coincidence of this age with that of supernova of AD 185 strongly suggest that PSR1509-58 was born in AD1054 supernova explosion.

 Why Supernovae? – the new measure of the Universe When Einstein got rid of the cosmological constant and surrendered to the idea of a non-static Universe, he related the geometrical shape of the Universe to its fate. Is it open or closed, or is it something in between – a flat Universe? An open Universe is one where the gravitational force of matter is not large enough to prevent the expansion of the Universe. All matter is then diluted in an ever larger, ever colder and ever emptier space. In a closed Universe, on the other hand, the gravitational force is strong enough to halt and even reverse the expansion. So the Universe eventually would stop expanding and fall back together in a hot and violent ending, a Big Crunch. Most cosmologists,  and  I myself however, would prefer to live in the most simple and mathematically elegant Universe: a flat one, where the expansion is believed to decline. The Universe would thus end neither in fire nor in ice. But there is no choice left by laws of the Universe. If there is a cosmological constant, the expansion will continue to accelerate, even if the Universe is flat.2011 Physics Nobel Laureates expected to measure the cosmic deceleration, or how the expansion of the Uni­verse is slowing. Their method was in principle the same as the one used by astronomers more than six decades earlier: to locate distant stars and to measure how they move. However, that is easier said than done. Since Henrietta Leavitt’s days many other Cepheids have been found that are even farther away. But at the distances that astronomers need to see, billions of light years away, Cepheids are no longer visible. The cosmic yardstick needed to be extended. Supernovae – star explosions – became the new standard candles. More sophisticated telescopes on the ground and in space, as well as more powerful computers, opened the possibility in the 1990s to add more pieces to the cosmological puzzle. Crucial were the light-sensitive digital imaging sensors – charged-coupled devices or CCD – the invention by  Willard Boyle and George Smith who were awarded Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009. White dwarfs exploding  the newest tool in the astronomer’s toolbox is a special kind of star explosion, the type Ia supernova. During a few weeks, a single such supernova can emit as much light as an entire galaxy. This type of supernova is the explosion of an extremely compact old star that is as heavy as the Sun but as small as the Earth – a white dwarf. The explosion is the final step in the white dwarf’s life cycle. White dwarfs form when a star has no more energy at its core, as all hydrogen and helium have been burned in nuclear reactions. Only carbon and oxygen remain. In the same way, far off in the future, our Sun will fade and cool down as it reaches its end as a white dwarf. A far more exciting end awaits a white dwarf that is part of a binary star system, which is fairly common. In this case, the white dwarf’s strong gravity robs the companion star of its gas. However, when the white dwarf has grown to 1.4 solar masses, it no longer The nuclear fusion products emit strong radiation that increases rapidly during the first weeks after the explosion, only to decrease over the following months. So there is a rush to find supernovae – their violent explosions are brief. Across the visible Universe, about ten type Ia supernovae occur every minute. But the Universe is huge. In a typical galaxy only one or two supernova explosions occur in a thousand years. In September 2011, we were lucky to observe one such supernova in a galaxy close to the Big Dipper, visible just through a pair of regular binoculars. But most supernovae are much farther away and thus dimmer. So where and when would you look in the canopy of the sky? manages to hold together. When this happens, the interior of the dwarf becomes sufficiently hot for runaway fusion reactions to start, and the star gets ripped apart in seconds.

From the planet the earth here towards eternity?

So what is it that is speeding up the Universe? It is called dark energy and is still probably a challenge for particle physics, a riddle, that no one has managed to solve yet of what it is composed of. Several ideas have been however proposed. Within the framework of the standard cosmological model, the acceleration is generally believed to be caused by the vacuum energy (sometimes called ”dark energy”) which – based on concordant data from the S Ne, the observations of the anisotropies in the CMB and surveys of the clustering of galaxies – accounts for about 73% of the total energy density of the Universe. Of the remainder, about 23% is due to an unknown form of matter (called ”dark matter”).  Only about 4% of the energy density corresponds to ordinary matter like atoms in everyday life, the effects of the vacuum energy are tiny but measurable – observed for instance in the form of shifts of the energy  levels of the hydrogen atom, the Lamb shift. The evolution of the Universe is described by Einstein’s theory of general relativity. In relativistic field theories, the vacuum energy contribution is given by an expression mathematically similar to the famous cosmological constant  in Einstein’s theory.  Our question is so question of whether  the vacuum energy term is truly time independent like the cosmological constant, or varies with time,.  
The simplest is to reintroduce Ein­stein’s cosmological constant, which he once rejected. At that time, he inserted the cosmological constant as an anti-gravitational force to counter the gravitational force of matter and thus create a static Universe. Today, the cosmological constant instead appears to make the expansion of the Universe to accelerate. The cosmological constant is, of course, constant, and as such does not change over time. So  dark energy becomes dominant when matter, and thus its gravity, gets diluted due to expansion of the Universe over billions of years. According to scientists, that would account for why the cosmological constant entered the scene so late in the history of the Universe, only five to six billion years ago. At about that time, the gravitational force of matter had weakened enough in relation to the cosmological constant. Until then, the expansion of the Universe had been decelerating. The cosmological constant could have its source in the vacuum, empty space that, according to quantum physics, is never completely empty. Instead, the vacuum is a bubbling quantum soup where vir­tual particles of matter and antimatter pop in and out of existence and give rise to energy. However, the simplest estimation for the amount of dark energy does not correspond at all to the amount that has been measured in space, which is about 10120 times larger (1 followed by 120 zeros). This constitutes a gigantic and still unex­plained gap between theory and observation – on all the sea beaches of the world there are no more than 1020 (1 followed by 20 zeros) grains of sand. It may be that the dark energy is not constant after all. Perhaps it changes over time. Perhaps an unknown force field only occasionally generates dark energy. In physics there are many such force fields that collectively go by the name quintessence, after the Greek name for the fifth element. Quintessence could speed up the Universe, but only sometimes. That would make it impossible to foresee the fate of the Universe. Whatever dark energy is, it seems to be here to stay. It fits very well in the cosmological puzzle that physicists and astronomers have been working on for a long time. Accord­ing to current consensus, about three quarters of the Uni­verse consist of dark energy. The rest is matter. But the regular matter, the stuff that galaxies, stars, humans and flowers are made of, is only five percent of the Universe. The remaining matter is called dark matter and is so far hidden from us. The dark matter is yet another mystery in our largely unknown cosmos. Like dark energy, dark matter is invisible. So we know both only by their effects – one is pushing, the other one is pulling. They only have the adjective “dark” in common.[2]

The study of distant supernovae according to us authors may constitutes a crucial contribution to cosmology. Together with galaxy clustering and the CMB  anisotropy measurements,  it allows precise determination of cosmological parameters. The observations present us with a challenge, however: What is the source of  the dark energy  that drives the accelerating expansion of the Universe? Or is our understanding of gravity as described by general relativity insufficient?  Or was Einstein’s  “mistake” of  introducing  the cosmological constant one more stroke of his genius? Many new experimental efforts are underway to help shed light on these questions. 

 So Our Questions to readers of my blogs 

1] Universe has been expanding; like raisins in a raisin cake swelling in the oven, But No body still answered what is beyond that Planck’s moment of Big Bang Creation of our universe. Was there another universe? Was there multiple Universe? Or Multi electrical universe?—

 2] Question Yet remains  to us  how these supernovas explode? What is the mechanism behind it?  No physics probably answered it yet. Here may be  some explanations by my brothers Rupak Bhattacharya and Ritwik Bhattacharya  the authors— Our Question No –(2)

What is the Mechanism of Explosion in Supernova ( our Question NO-3)

Mechanism of Explosion in Supernova-a mechanism proposed by Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya  Mr, Rupak Bhattacharya_: How much correct it is

3] So what is it that is speeding up the Universe? It is called dark energy and is still a challenge for physics, a riddle, that no one has managed to solve yet of what it is composed of
4] .  Our question is question of whether  the vacuum energy term is truly time independent like the cosmological constant, or varies with time,.  

 Do you know the answer?  If yes please contact


1]” Did our universe started in a Big Bang gospel or Just Be?” Authors: Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya,  Mr. Ritwik Bhattacharya  Mrs. Dalia Mukherjee & Miss Upasana Bhattacharya in the chapter” Fate of a Star” once published at as E book in July 2004. The Website  had been surrendered to star Dust Company in 2010 and the same E book No more available there.

2]Written in the stars: THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 2011

 By Science Editors Lars Bergström, Olga Botner, Lars Brink, Börje Johansson, The Nobel Committee for Physics/The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesEditor: Annika Moberg The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 2011 THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES HTTP://KVA.SE

Links to see other sites?
1] Runaway Universe,

2] Appell, D. (2008) Dark Forces at Work, Scientific American,

Acknowledgement & Tribute - To our diseased parent late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharya Univ) FCA(Ind.) SAS and  late Mrs Bani Bhattacharya of residence 7/51 Purbapalli, Po-Sodepur, Dist 24 parganas (north) , Kolkata-110,WestBengal, India,  for their initial teaching  for us about the Universe, Big Bang and eternity 
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