Blogson TheoreticalPhysics;Astronomy; MedicalSciences,Pathology; etc.All contents,words, Syllables &;Scientificallymeaning ful sentences of all blogsposted are Strictly Copy Righted material to ProfDr Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya under IPR Copy Right Acts sections-306/301/3D/107/1012/ RDF and Protect Intellectual Property Right ACT of USA-2012. Don't try to infringe, to avoid huge civil/criminal proceedings in IPR Court: Acknowledgement for all my blogs to my Spouse Mrs Sumita Bhattacharya
There is a fair bit of math and physics along the way, some parts get pretty heavy into it, but mostly th Quantum was an excellent history of the quantum revolution that began in the early 20th century.(More…)
Max Planck worked on the ‘Black Body’ problems started the quantum revolution in 1900.(More…)
In this work the author managed to give a superb account of the development of thought about quantum by bringing to life all the great physicists involved (Planck, Einstein, Born, Bohr, Schringer, de Broglie, Wien, Pauli, Heisenberg, Dirac, Boltzmann, Compton, Bohm, von Neumann, Bell) through vivid vignettes of their scientific accomplishments, interpersonal relations and the historical background.(More…)
What is relevant, however, is that testing of D-Wave products has been a back-and-forth battle, with claims of superior performance relative to classical computers later giving way to claims of no real advantage for the “quantum” approach (I leave it to the reader as to whether the scare quotes are warranted).(More…)
“Mobile phone communications, satellite reception, quantum computation and high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells for electricity generation are just some of the exciting fields that exemplify the rich consequences of his work,” Yang continued.(More…)
What this super-orchestra plays is the most exquisite jazz, jazz being to classical music what quantum is to classical physics.(More…)
In 1935 Einstein attacked the role-of-the-observer concept by imagining a keg of gunpowder that could be triggered by the quantum instability of some particle.(More…)ANKED SELECTED SOURCES
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KEY TOPICS There is a fair bit of math and physics along the way, some parts get pretty heavy into it, but mostly th Quantum was an excellent history of the quantum revolution that began in the early 20th century.“What we?re trying to do is start the second quantum revolution, where we start using the other half of quantum mechanics–the crazy half–to do new science, new technologies,” Rolston says.
This talk will give a simple introduction to the basic concepts of quantum information that underlie this revolution.
It?s the “fuzziness” (in more ways than one) of quantum-computing claims that make this topic so difficult to navigate–and so prone to wild predictions of a coming quantum revolution.Dzimwasha, T.Quantum revolution: China set to launch “hack proof?quantum communications network.
Quantum mechanics was a revolution in physics because it introduced a whole domain of understanding which operates outside of the purview of classical physics, parallel to it to this day.Today, Feynman’s vision of quantum computers is driving a revolution in quantum science.Because only under these conditions, the technology that lets Google and NASA a new computer revolution want – ushering in the quantum computer works.
The quantum revolution that Planck had begun, and that Einstein had contributed to in one of his other great papers of 1905, was bearing fascinating fruit.Max Planck, the physicist who set off the revolution in quantum mechanics, thought this presented Einstein with an insurmountable problemThe theory explained, to begin with, remarkably little, and unlike quantum theory, the only comparable revolution in 20th-century physics, it offered no insights into the issues that physicists of the time cared about most.
Max Planck worked on the ‘Black Body’ problems started the quantum revolution in 1900.POSSIBLY USEFUL
In this work the author managed to give a superb account of the development of thought about quantum by bringing to life all the great physicists involved (Planck, Einstein, Born, Bohr, Schringer, de Broglie, Wien, Pauli, Heisenberg, Dirac, Boltzmann, Compton, Bohm, von Neumann, Bell) through vivid vignettes of their scientific accomplishments, interpersonal relations and the historical background.By discussing Einstein in the context of this scientific murderer’s row, he shows that Einstein was working at a level above them all, even the great Bohr.(His peers’ inability to accept his theory of quantum light was so widespread and persistent that even he began to doubt it–before he was proven right, of course.)Einstein was thrilled with Bohr?s quantum atom as he felt it proved his theory of light-quanta.
Although motivated mainly by scientific curiosity, these experiments could have payoffs far beyond the lab; they could lead to powerful new “quantum computers,” or to communication and encryption technology that would render much of our current information security infrastructure obsolete.Subsequent tests of the theorem supported non-locality between entangled particles and paved the way for today?s experiments with quantum level teleportation.Now ubiquitous in our technology, they use what Rolston calls the “mundane” parts of quantum mechanics–for instance, the fact that electric charge and light are, at the microscopic level, actually tiny particles rather than continuous fluids or substances.Anyone familiar with the science of the quantum will enjoy it and probably even gain some interesting insight into the history of the field.I’m not up on the latest developments relating to quantum blah blah, so I re I can’t pinpoint what makes this book so enjoyable, so it’s tough to explain why I give this book a 5-star rating.The quantum concepts are explained with clarity (with a couple of exceptions, but I enjoyed the book too much to be too critical).More than any book I’ve ever read, “Quantum” made me understand why he was so special.In 1965, the same year he won the Nobel Prize, theoretical physicist Richard Feynman told an audience at MIT, “I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.”Physicists are still figuring out how to control quantum devices well enough to reliably store and transmit information.Well-funded efforts also exist in Japan and other European countries, and Google recently hired a large team of quantum physicists.This discovery gave physicists a new level of access to quantum phenomena, which can generally be studied only at very low temperatures.
Despite the turmoil of the 1930?s and 40?s, Einstein and Bohr carried on their quantum chess match.Bohr believed that uncertainty was fundamental to the quantum nature of wave-particle duality.There is only an abstract quantum mechanical description.It is wrong to think that the task of physics to find out how nature is.He is a theoretician interested in condensed matter, atomic physics and quantum optics.
This book slowly introduces the people involved in the “story” of Quantum, referencing them only when they actually enter the story, rather than all at once.This quantum spin had two states, up or down, doubling the number of allowable electrons.The exclusion principle stated that no two electrons in an atom could have the same set of quantum numbers thus limiting the number of electrons.When an electron moved from one orbit to another an exact amount of energy (quantum) was exchanged which resulted in unique spectral patterns.Quantum sets the science in the context of the great upheavals of the modern age.Kumar?s history begins with Max Planck?s discovery of the quantum and his eponymous constant.There was no reality at the quantum level outside of observation.The experiment is splayed out over a large table: To make things cold enough for quantum effects to emerge, Rolston uses a helium dilution refrigerator, vacuum pumps, and a dizzying array of lasers, lenses, and mirrors.The three quantum numbers denoting angular momentum, shape of orbit and orientation of orbit only allowed for half of the possible energy states.A “second quantum revolution?is underway based on our new understanding of how information can be stored and manipulated using quantum hardware.Even more remarkable than the concept of quantum computation is the concept of quantum error correction.Werner Heisenberg solved a remaining problem of the quantum atom model.Let us know what?s wrong with this preview of Quantum by Manjit Kumar.He also provides what I’ve found to be the best and most coherent account of the history of the development of quantum theory that I’ve read, managing, at the same time, to bring alive many of the key physicists and mathematicians involved, and not just Neils Bohr and Albert Einstein who are in the book’s titl There are a lot of popular science books on quantum theory but this one is different in that its aim is to question what’s meant by reality.This brilliant work takes you through the history of the ideas behind quantum mechanics from the late 19th Manjit Kumar’s book is a fascinating history of one of the most fundamental areas of science.Just as the title says, it is a history of the great debate about the nature of reality with Einstein and Neils Bohr leading the opposing views.The second half of the book, basically after the statement by Werner Heisenbeg of the “Uncertainty Principle” focuses on the debate on the nature of reality spurred by quantum mechanics, as reflected in the views of two giants of 20th century physics, Albert Einstein and Neils Bohr.Subtitled “Einstein, Borh and The Great Debate About The Nature of Reality”, it’s partly a book describing the “story” of Quantum Mechanics, and partly about how the theories relate to “realityI’m not up on the latest developments relating to quantum blah blah, so I really don’t know if I should call it quantum mechanics, or theory, or physics.Even if the concepts are flying over your head (as a couple did for me, despite a fair amount of familiarity with quantum mechanics and particle physics), the history and discussion of the various personalities and relationships will still be worth your time.For a long time, the dominant interpretation of quantum mechanics espoused by Bohr, Heisenberg and others depicted electrons and photons as having dual particle and wave aspects, but denied that they were either particles or waves unless measured by some observer.All that said, it takes its time building up to the fundamental debate between Bohr and Einstein on Quantum Mechanics and I think it does a pretty good job in presenting both sides.Both Einstein and Bohr agreed that quantum mechanics was correct.As it is evident from the title, the aim of the book was to present the clash of philosophical viewpoints between Einstein and Bohr about quantum theory and its interpretation.My notes below summarize the science that paved the way for quantum theory, the Einstein Bohr rivalry and the various takes on the Copenhagen interpretation.ohr, who through his work and the work of his students is in many ways the patriarch of quantum mechanics, when confronted with the non-deterministic nature of quantum mechanics, came to believe “There is no quantum world.This brilliant work takes you through the history of the ideas behind quantum mechanics from the late 19th century all the way till the latter half of 20th century.I used to munch my way through any book I could find on Relativity, Quantum Mechanics or any similar topic.It’s as if the book was much longer and was slashed in order to meet This was an introduction to the discoveries that led to quantum mechanics and the philosophical debate(s) about its interpretation.
Despite the overwhelming acceptance of the Copenhagen interpretation in the mid-twentieth century, today while quantum mechanics itself is universally accepted, many physicists don?t believe it is a complete theory.At a 1999 quantum mechanics conference at Cambridge University, of 90 physicists polled, only four accepted the Copenhagen interpretation, thirty believed the modern version of the many worlds theory and most were undecided.
Famed British physicist Roger Penrose said “I would, myself, strongly side with Einstein in his belief in a submicroscopic reality, and with his conviction that present-day quantum mechanics is fundamentally incomplete.”At the conferences in Solvay in 1927 and 1930 Einstein offered thought experiments to show quantum mechanics was an incomplete description of reality.
50 years later, Rolston not only understands quantum mechanics, he is using it to do extreme experiments and build new technology that could change our world.The early chapters focus on the early development of quantum mechanics, and Kumar is really good at describing these developments in terms any reasonably intelligent person could understand.Bohr applied the idea of quantum to electrons, leading to the development of quantum mechanics.“Quantum” deftly pulls off a nifty trick: it simultaneously explains the scientific development of quantum mechanics while also telling the stories of the scientists involved.Not only were the developments of quantum mechanics outlined well, Mr. Kumar’s presentation of the scientists was also very well done.For scientists, this book is certainly too superficial, but I think in order to gain an outside perspective on quantum mechanics this is an excellent read.I always knew about the greatness of Einstein but with this book, I also came to understand how important of a figure Bohr was to the Quantum world.Any book on quantum physics makes you think that Schrodinger was one of the pillars of the quantum community, but in fact he was an outsider and at odds with Bohr/Heisenberg/Pauli and closer to Einstein.I?ve read a few books on Quantum physics and its incredible quirks and its implications about the nature of reality.There are a lot of popular science books on quantum theory but this one is different in that its aim is to question what’s meant by reality.By comparison, this book is light on the science, but provides an excellent history of quantum physics.I don’t know enough about quantum physics to dwell on scientific explanations that are given in this book.I’ve heard many anecdotal stories about quantum physics but this a great book that paints the broad strokes as told through the lives of the scientists who invented it.As an afterthought: If you are interested in a mystical or religious interpretation of quantum theory, this is not the book.It touches on all the main characters in the development of quantum theory and subsequent development of quantum mechanics.Another issue for quantum mechanics is determining the dividing line between the quantum world and the classical world where reality is the norm.This stated that quantum mechanics could not determine both the position and momentum of a particle, specifically an electron.Then a French prince, Louis de Broglie, setting the stage for quantum mechanics, postulated that if a wave could have the values of a particle, why not the reverse?Ascribing wave characteristics to electrons explained perfectly the available orbits for electrons in an atom.
Quantum mechanics is probably the most difficult scientific concept to explain, but Prof Pranab Kumar does an admirable job.Some of the physics went over my head but for the most part Pranab Kumar does an outstanding job of breaking down complex concepts re the quantum theory into lay terms (relatively speaking).For 60 years most physicists believed that quantum theory denied the very existe For most people, quantum theory is a byword for mysterious, impenetrable science.For 60 years most physicists believed that quantum theory denied the very existence of reality itself.
Einstein employed his quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation to explain the photoelectric effect in which light precipitates the release of electrons from metals.I was finally able to understand though still not clearly, why Einstein is considered as the father(if you call Max Planck the grandfather) of quantum theory.
He traces the scientific discoveries leading to quantum theory and the relationships of the scientists with a focus on the Einstein-Bohr debate over the theory?s meaning.For most people, quantum theory is a byword for mysterious, impenetrable science.
I don’t know enough about the history or theories of quantum mechanics to know if Mr. Kumar is right on, biased, inaccurate, or fair to middling in his retelling and explanation of the quantum, but from my point of view it appeared fair and not overdrawn.This was an introduction to the discoveries that led to quantum mechanics and the philosophical debate(s) about its interpretation.Since the event is not observed, does it happen?In the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics only a probability wave of the event exists.Then Manjit examines the concept very thoroughly, focussing on the Copenhagen interpretation along with Einstein’s objections to this interpretation, based on his belief that quantum theory is incomplete and that probability and non-locality must have some underlying explanation that is still to be discovered.Basically Heisenberg was saying classical concepts of wave, particle, position, momentum and trajectory had no meaning in the quantum world until observed.It became clear over time that the assumptions of classical physics were not valid at the subatomic lev This is a good recounting of the historical development of quantum physics.Fascinating story of the development of and controversies of quantum physics.
It was quite easy to grasp the problems behind quantum physics, and why no one dares to say they understand it.n this theory all quantum states actually exist simultaneously, obviating the probability wave.Nevertheless it is possible to store an unknown quantum state and if it develops errors due to imperfect hardware, we can measure and correct such errors to recover the original quantum information.Quantum information can be stored very stably in the electron energy states of atoms, but trapping even a few of them requires complex and expensive apparatus.Many hope that within the next few decades, quantum information technology could hit the market.
Even though what Einstein called “spooky action at a distance” was proven to exist, his underlying belief that the quantum world also existed even when not measured was not disproven Einstein believed the quantum world was deterministic (“God doesn?t play dice.”)and most importantly real.
No experiment could ever return the deterministic clockwork cosmos of Newton to the quantum world.
Without leaning on the equations and the mathematics of quantum theory, Kumar succeeded to accomplish it through a story that reads like an epistemological thriller.(Needless to say, though “the Bell?s Theorem tolled for Einstein?, the ending is still a sort of a cliffhanger.)
Kumar gives a dramatic and superbly-written history of this fundamental scientific revolution, and the divisive debate at its heart.This book challenges the traditional historiography of the Scientific Revolution.Many good books are written to simplistically explain the theoretical revolutions brought about in The first half of the tweNtieth century.
Discussion of the Scientific Revolution’s impact on its contemporaneous disciplines The influence of the Scientific Revolution may also be.
What is relevant, however, is that testing of D-Wave products has been a back-and-forth battle, with claims of superior performance relative to classical computers later giving way to claims of no real advantage for the “quantum” approach (I leave it to the reader as to whether the scare quotes are warranted).The ultimate question is whether a quantum computer–whether from D-Wave or a company that has yet to emerge–can beat classical computers in a practical sense.Does the quantum solution to a problem cost more than the equivalent classical solution?Is a computer that?s lightning fast yet extremely difficult to program worth the hassle compared with a slower yet cheaper alternative that anyone can use?As with the case of Moore?s Law, the situation involves more than just what?s possible–it?s more about what?s economical.
Fifty years ago, Richard P.Feynman received the Nobel Prize in physics for his fundamental contributions to quantum electrodynamics.Across the Atlantic geochemists discovered that life on Earth started hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously thought, engineers figured out how to make 3D objects from the much-vaunted wonder material graphene, and physicists set a new distance record for quantum teleportation of information over optical fibers.In August of this year, for instance, the company issued a press release titled ” Announcing the D-Wave 2X Quantum Computer.”D-Wave claims that its products implement so-called quantum annealing.In this day-long summit, leaders of science and industry come together to discuss the future of science and technology at the quantum frontier.For instance, according to Google?s Quantum AI Lab head Hartmut Neven, “While these results are intriguing and very encouraging, there is more work ahead to turn quantum-enhanced optimization into a practical technology.For instance, the paper says in its summary section, “More work is needed to turn quantum enhanced optimization into a practical technology.”
Dec.17, 2015 – Physicists have connected two materials with unusual quantum-mechanical properties through a quantum constriction.Granted, however, the company doesn?t claim that it has achieved a “generic” quantum computer–that is, what most people think of when they read stories about this potential technology.
The problem for the layman (i.e., pretty much anyone who isn?t well versed in both quantum mechanics and computer/algorithm theory) is that interpreting the technobabble–particularly when it?s (justifiably) simplified by journalists–is nearly impossible.An author and aspiring renaissance man, his interests range from quantum mechanics and processor technology to drawing and philosophy.Quantum computing has been on the technology prognostication list for years, and D-Wave has tried to steal the show.D-Wave has claimed for years that it manufactures quantum computers.Even if a D-Wave quantum computer wipes out a desktop PC on some computing problem, it?s dead in the commercial water if its costs and complexity are so high that the same amount of money can buy and run a nearly equivalent (or better) classical computing system.Well, consider that according to ZDNet, “Google says its D-Wave 2X quantum computer is more than 100 million times faster than a conventional PC.”Perhaps the (few) naysayers have been wrong: Google recently announced test results for a D-Wave ” quantum computer ” that far surpass the capabilities of traditional computers.For D-Wave, however, the goal may have been accomplished: a big headline that draws attention to its products, regardless of whether they?re “true” quantum computers.Why the scare quotes on quantum computer?And why not celebrate this apparent revolutionary device, which garnered headlines such as ” NASA, Google unveil a quantum computing leap ” and ” Google?s quantum computer can blitz a normal PC “?Here are a few reasons to reserve judgment for now.News of the first biologically-powered computer chip emerged just this month and the long-sought goal of practical quantum computing also crept closer on several fronts, with breakthroughs such as photonic processors, quantum hard drives and silicon-based quantum logic gates.He doesn?t deny the value of the D-Wave 2X as far as it goes, nor does he claim that quantum computing is impossible or will never be practical.
Budding capabilities for controlling quantum systems are paving the way for transformative technologies, and emerging insights into the weird properties of quantum entanglement are spawning new paradigms for understanding nature.
Perhaps the second major revolution to identify in the 20th century would be the emergence of molecular methods in assaying genetic variation after the work of Lewontin and Hubby.“Mobile phone communications, satellite reception, quantum computation and high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells for electricity generation are just some of the exciting fields that exemplify the rich consequences of his work,” Yang continued.The launch of the world?s first quantum satellite in June will thrust mankind into the quantum age, and pave the way for new leaps in spook-proof communications.Airbus Defence and Space and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.will build the first Quantum satellite for a 2018 launch.The first is a quantum science payload developed and flown in a satellite for the first time by NUS’ Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT).The Quantum Science Satellite will be launched into a low Earth orbit and will communicate with one ground station at a time.The experiment will also test whether a quantum connection can be set up between a ground station and the satellite and used to “teleport?