AUTHORS are_:
**Rupak Bhattacharya, *Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya MD(cal)
FIC path(Ind), Professor & HOD Dept of Pathology, DCP convener and DLT course
in charge WBUHS, Presently at school of Tropical Medicine Kolkata-73,**Ritwik Bhattacharya
B.com(cal), * Miss Upasana Bhattacharya Student & only daughter of Professor
Pranab kumar Bhattacharya, **Miss Rupsa
Bhattacharya, **Soumayak Bhattacharya MSc HHM(IGNOU) MSC Student PUSHA New Delhi of residence 7/51 Purbapalli, Sodepur, Kol-110
**Ritwik Bhattacharya B.com(cal) , ***Mrs Dalia Mukherjee BA(hons) cal ***Miss Oaindrila
Mukherjee BA (hons) Student ,***Mr Debasis
mukherjee BSC(cal) –of Residence swamiji Nagar South Habra, 24 parganas(North)
WB, India
Unanswered question about our visible
universe in the standard Big bang model is, surprisingly
enough, the contents of the Universe. Obviously, we can only directly `see’
matter that emits light particles, but today it turned out as a fact that most
of the matter in our observable Universe actually does not emit light [ They
are either the dark matter/ or dark energy]. For example, the visible parts the
of galaxies are thought to be surrounded by much larger `haloes’ of dark
matter, with a size up to 30 times that of the visible part. There also exist
dark galaxies as Rupak Bhattacharya told. If all this matter were visible, the
night sky would probably look pretty much like van Gogh’s `Starry night’.
Even though we
can only have indirect evidences for the
existence of this dark matter, we do have a reasonable idea yet of what it is.
About 4%- 5% of the matter of this
Universe is only visible. Another 5% is invisible `normal matter’, that is,
baryons (protons and Neutrons) and electrons. This is probably in the form of
massive compact halo objects, such
as brown dwarfs, white dwarfs, planets and possibly black holes. Roughly 25% of the matter of the
Universe is thought to be `cold dark
matter’ (CDM), that is, heavy non-relativistic exotic particles, such as
axions or WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles). CDM tends to collapse
(or `clump’) into the haloes of galaxies, dragging along the dark baryons with
it. Finally, 65% of the contents of this
Universe is thought to be in the form of a `cosmological constant’, that is, Dark
energy of the vacuum and probably “The gravity”
: this can also be thought of as cosmic antigravity or the weight of space!
Unlike CDM, this never clumps: it tends to make the Universe `blow up’ by making it expanding faster and
faster like a balloon blowing with air( given at bottom of this Blog). In
other words, it forces an accelerated
expansion which, according to recent data, has begun very recently. These data have been taken very skeptically by some
people. In particular, a period of
future acceleration of the Universe, while not posing any problems for cosmologists, would be somewhat problematic
for string theory, as we know it.
However, this is not a basis for judgment: `data’ is not a dirty word,
`assumption’ and `conjecture’ are in fact dirty words to me. These ingredients
are needed for cosmological model building. One may starts with a theoretical model, `adds in’
cosmological parameters such as the age, matter, contents and so forth and
computes its observational consequences. One must then compare notes with
observational cosmologists and see whether the model is in agreement with our
observations: if it does not agree then one had better to start again. In the hope of eliminating
some of the shortcomings of the “Big Bang model or Standard Model of Universe
Creation”, one needs to then generalize the
model, and yet unexplored extra dimensions are a good places to look for
answers.
Strings
and extra dimensions. It is now believed
that the unification of the known fundamental interactions of nature requires
theories with additional space-time dimensions. Indeed, the only known theory
of gravity that is consistent with quantum mechanics is string theory, which is
formulated in at least 10 dimensions (Polchinski 1998)-however we human being
never can experience those Extra
dimensions space time. Only in mathematics and in theory they can exist. It is
not the fault of creator of the universe vaccum ,space time but our eyes and
brain power does not permit to see other spaces. Even though there are at
present no robust ideas about how one can go from these theories to our familiar
low-energy space-time cosmology in four dimensions (three spatial dimensions
plus time), it is clear that such a process will necessarily involve procedures
known as dimensional reduction and compactification. These concepts are
mathematically very elaborate, but physically quite simple to understand. Even
if the true `theory of everything’ is higher dimensional, one must find how
it would manifest itself to observers like us who can only probe four
dimensions. Note that this is more general than simply obtaining low-energy or
other limits of the theory.
On the other hand, given that we only
seem to be able to probe four dimensions, we must figure out why we cannot see
the others or, in other words, why (and how) they are actually hidden from us.
A simple solution is, to make these extra dimensions compact and very small.
What
is Gravity Newton
once discovered that? Of what force/ or what matter is it then composed? Rather the
question may be asked of What Particles the gravity force is made of? Is it the
Dark matter? Is it the Dark Energy? Is it the Higg Boson? Or is a zero mass Rupak particle? Is it simple wrapped up space
-time?
For over a century, since Albert Einstein published his first paper
on his general theory of
relativity in 1905, physicists have struggled to resolve fundamental
differences between quantum theory and the continuum or yang miller field
theory. The field approach should have no singularities [Big bang or Big
crunch]; but the quantum approach has only singularities. Max Planck formulated
quantum theory in 1900, and Einstein could however successfully applied it in
1905 to electromagnetic radiation, when Einstein first hypothesized the photon
particle in Particle Physics, the inheritors of quantum theory, used a paradigm
of ballistic matter in non-reactive flat space, that was originally fashioned
using the Rutherford atomic model for the fixed nucleus and its orbiting
electrons, which was patterned after the solar system by Rutherford to win
Planets highest honor& Prize- a Nobel prize. The laws of conservation of
momentum and energy, and orbital dynamics did not translate well from the very
large realm to the very small, resulting in necessary modifications such as de Broglie waves. Relativity, the successor
to field theory, had been there after repeatedly tested and
was proven using atomic clocks, accelerated particles, and star light
aberration of CS Chandrasekhar NL.
But other than explanations involving passenger trains and observers as
originally presented by Einstein, relativity lacks a working visualization
model like the Rutherford atomic model, to
explain interactions of matter at relativistic speeds approaching "c"
the speed of light. Very little is found in scientific literature regarding
common ground from which both particle physics and relativity can be derived.
All of theoretical physics suffers from the lack of a definitive visualization
model to guide research. The majority of developments in theoretical physics
are driven by purely mathematical concepts and extensions of current theory.
The
most recent attempt at achieving common ground, that of String Theory, fell victim in this struggle and was reduced
to so called Super Symmetry String
Theory ,being reinterpreted as super-short string segments embedded within
the theoretical quark particles. Each miniaturized "super string" is
supposed to have free ends whipping at the speed of light. Exactly where from the required string tension comes from to support
super high frequencies with unrestrained ends, and where the power comes from
to sustain the oscillations, was never
addressed till date. Also left unanswered is any relevance of whipping ends
inside the theoretical sub-atomic quark, to the transmission of light in free
space. Compactifying string theory within the unobserved quark particle
effectively marginalized string theory and ended its threat to the status quo.
What is space time?
In physics, spacetime (or space–time)
is any mathematical model
that combines space and time into a single continuum.
Spacetime is usually interpreted with space being three-dimensional
and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort than
the spatial dimensions. According to certain Euclidean space perceptions, the universe has three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. By
combining space and time into a single manifold, physicists have significantly simplified
a large number of physical theories,
as well as described in a more uniform way the workings of the universe at both
the super galactic
and subatomic levels.
The concept of space-time combines space and time within a single coordinate system, typically with three spatial
dimensions: length, width, height, and one temporal dimension: the time.
Dimensions are components of a coordinate grid typically used to locate a point
in a certain defined "space" as, for example, on the globe by latitude and longitude. In space time, a coordinate grid that
spans the 3+1 dimensions locates "events" (rather than just points in
space), so time is added as another dimension to the grid, and another axis.
This way, you have where and when something is. Unlike in normal spatial
coordinates, there are restrictions for how measurements can be made spatially
and temporally. These restrictions correspond roughly to a particular mathematical
model which differs from Euclidean space in its manifest symmetry. We
live in a 3+1 dimensional space time with symmetry principles^{ }that,
in the case of special relativity, require that the laws^{ }of physics
be invariant under space time transformations. Symmetry^{ }and
asymmetry have been powerful organizing concepts in a host^{ }of
disciplines, including in physiology, biology, art and mathematics. More than a
century^{ }ago, van’t Hoff pointed out a connection between molecular^{
}chirality and the fundamental symmetries in physics . In^{ }the
case of biology, Pasteur was the first to recognize ‘‘symétrie’’^{ }at
the molecular level and concluded from data on (+)- and (-)-tartaric^{ }acid
that they represented non super imposable mirror images of^{ }each
other (Fig. 1). Kelvin later introduced
the term chirality^{ }for this type of asymmetry
Previously, from various important experiments at low
speeds, time was believed to be
independent of motion, progressing only in forward direction, at a fixed rate
in all reference frames;
however, later in early mid 20^{th} century, high-speed experiments
revealed that time can be slowed down at higher speeds (with such slowing
called "time dilation" explained in the theory of
Einstein "special theory of relativity"
). Many powerful experiments later have
confirmed time dilation, such as in atomic clocks, on board a Space Shuttle running slower than synchronized
Earth-bound inertial clocks and at subatomic particles level the relativistic decay
of muons from cosmic ray showers. So time is always variable in space time. The duration of time can
therefore vary for various events and various reference frames.
When dimensions are understood as mere components of a grid system, rather than
physical attributes of space, it is easier to understand the alternate
dimensional views as being simply the result of coordinate
transformations. The term space-time
has taken on a generalized meaning beyond treating space-time events with
the normal 3+1 dimensions (including time). It is really the combination of
space and time. Other proposed spacetime theories include additional
dimensions—normally spatial but there exist some speculative theories that
include additional temporal dimensions and even by some those included some
other dimensions that are neither temporal nor spatial. How many dimensions are needed to describe the visible universe is
still an open question today. Speculative
theories such as string theory suggests
that vibrating strings that exist in 10 dimensions underpin the observable
Universe [string theory no-3] or 26[string theory no-1] dimensions
,when M-theory predicts minimum 11 dimensions: 10 spatial and 1 temporal, but the existence of more than four dimensions
would only appear to make a difference at the subatomic level or micro universe level.
For physical reasons, a spacetime continuum is mathematically defined as a
four-dimensional, smooth, flat connected with Lorentzian manifold
(M,g). This means the smooth Lorentz metric g
has signature . The metric determines the geometry of spacetime, as well as
determining the geodesics of particles and light beams. About
each point (event) on this manifold, coordinate charts are used to represent observers
in reference frames. Usually, Cartesian
coordinates (x,y,z,t)
are used. Moreover, for simplicity's sake, the speed of light c is usually assumed to be unity. A reference frame
(observer) can be identified with one of these coordinate charts; any such
observer can describe any event p. Another
reference frame may be identified by a second coordinate chart about p. Two observers (one in each reference frame) may
describe the same event p but obtain
different descriptions. Usually, many overlapping coordinate charts are needed
to cover a manifold. Given two coordinate charts, one containing p (representing an observer) and another containing
q (representing another observer), the
intersection of the charts represents the region of spacetime in which both
observers can measure physical quantities and hence compare results. The
relation between the two sets of measurements is given by a non-singular coordinate transformation on this
intersection. The idea of coordinate charts as local observers who can perform
measurements in their vicinity also makes good physical sense, as this is how
one actually collects physical data—locally. For example, two observers, one of
whom is on Earth, but the other one who is on a fastest rocket to pluto, may
observe a comet crashing into Jupiter or in pluto (this is the event p). In general, they will disagree about the exact
location and timing of this impact, i.e., they will have different 4-tuples (x,y,z,t) (as they are using
different coordinate systems). Although their kinematic descriptions will
differ, dynamical (physical) laws, such as momentum conservation and the first
law of thermodynamics, will still hold. In fact, relativity theory requires
more than this in the sense that it stipulates these (and all other physical)
laws must take the same form in all coordinate systems. This introduces tensors into relativity, by which all physical
quantities are represented.
Spacetime
in theory of special relativity : The geometry of spacetime in special relativity
theory is described as the Minkowski metric
on R^{4}. This spacetime there is called Minkowski space. The Minkowski
metric is usually denoted by η and can be written as
a four-by-four matrix: where the Landau–Lifshitz spacelike
convention is being used. A basic assumption of relativity is that
coordinate transformations must leave spacetime intervals invariant. Intervals
are invariant under Lorentz transformations.
This invariance property leads to the use of four-vectors (and other tensors) in describing
physics. Strictly speaking, one can also consider events in Newtonian physics
as a single spacetime. This is Galilean-Newtonian relativity, and the
coordinate systems are related by Galilean
transformations. However, since these preserve spatial and temporal
distances independently, such a spacetime can be decomposed into spatial
coordinates plus temporal coordinates, which is not possible in the general
case.
Spacetime in general relativity_: In general relativity theory, it is assumed that
spacetime is curved by the presence of matter (energy), this curvature being
represented by the Riemann’s tensor particles. In special
relativity, the Riemann tensor is identically zero, and so this concept of
"non-curvedness" is sometimes expressed by the statement Minkowski
spacetime is flat. Many space time continua have physical
interpretations which most physicists would consider bizarre or unsettling. Let
me tell you that for example, a compact space-time
has closed, time-like curves, which violate our usual ideas of causality (that
is, future events could affect past ones). For this reason, mathematical(
theoretical) physicists like me usually consider only restricted subsets of all
the possible spacetimes. One way to do this is to study "realistic"
solutions of the equations of general relativity. Another way is to add some
additional "physically reasonable" but still fairly general geometric
restrictions and try to prove interesting things about the resulting
spacetimes. The latter approach has led to some important results, most notably
the Penrose–Hawking singularity of the time which ultimately was disproved
Quantized
spacetime [3+1 spacetime]
or Rogers
Penrose_ S.W Hawking”s Space time
concept In the general theory of relativity, space time
is assumed to be so smooth, flat and
continuous—and not just in the mathematics. In the theory of quantum mechanics,
there is an inherent discreteness present in physics. In attempting to
reconcile these two theories, it was sometimes postulated by some physicists
like Penrose And Hawking that space time
should be quantized also at the very smallest scales. Current theory is focused on the nature of space time at the Planck
scale. Causal sets, loop quantum gravity
string theory, and black hole
thermodynamics , all these
theories predicts a quantized spacetime with agreement order of magnitude. Loop quantum gravity makes precise predictions about the
geometry of spacetime at the Planck
scale. Privileged character of 3+1 spacetime Reasoning about spacetime is always
limited by the scientific evidence and technology available. For example, in
the latter 20th century, experiments with many particle accelerators revealed that protons
gained mass when accelerated to super & super high speeds, and the time required
for particle decay and other physical phenomena rose. Special relativity
predicted this. Authors here are writing before Einstein's discovery of special
relativity were unaware of these facts, so that their views were often
mistaken, even fanciful. In the Universe,^{
}there are two kinds of dimensions, spatial (bidirectional) and temporal (unidirectional). Let the number of spatial dimensions be N and the number of
temporal dimensions be T. That N=3 and T=1, setting aside
the compactified dimensions invoked by string theory and undetectable to date,
can be explained by appealing to the physical consequences of letting N
differ from 3 and T differ from 1.
Immanuel Kant once argued that
3-dimensional space was a consequence of the inverse square law of universal
gravitation. While Kant's argument is historically important, John D. Barrow in 2002 said that it "...gets the
punch-line back to front: it is the three-dimensionality of space that explains
why we see inverse-square force laws in Nature, not vice-versa." This is because the law of
gravitation or any other inverse-square law follows from the concept of
flux, from N=3, and from 3-dimensional soloid objects having surface
areas proportional to the square of their size in a selected spatial dimension.
In particular, a sphere of radius r
has area of 4πr^{2}. More generally, in a space of N
dimensions, the strength of the gravitational attraction between two bodies
separated by a distance of r would be inversely proportional to r^{N}^{-1}.
In 1920, Paul Ehrenfest showed that if we fix T= 1 and let N>3,
the orbit of a planet about its sun cannot remain stable. The same is true of a
star's orbit around the center of its galaxy. Ehrenfest also showed that if N
is even, then the different parts of a wave impulse will travel at different
speeds. If N>3 and odd, then wave impulses become distorted. Only
when N=3 or 1 are both problems avoided. In 1922, Hermann Weyl showed that Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism
works only when N=3 and T=1, writing that this fact "...not
only leads to a deeper understanding of Maxwell's theory, but also of the fact that the world is four
dimensional, which has hitherto always been accepted as merely
'accidental,'become intelligible through it. Finally, Tangherlini showed in
1963 that when N>3, electron orbitals around nuclei cannot be stable; electrons
would either fall into the nucleus or disperse. Max Tegmark expands on the
preceding argument in the following anthropic manner. If T differs from 1, the behavior of physical systems could
not be predicted reliably from knowledge of the relevant partial differential
equations. In such a universe, intelligent life capable of manipulating
technology could not emerge. Moreover,
if T>1, Tegmark maintains that protons and electrons would be
unstable and could decay into particles having greater mass than themselves.
(This is not a problem if the particles have a sufficiently low temperature.)
If N>3, Ehrenfest's argument above holds; atoms as we know them (and
probably more complex structures as well) could not exist. If N<3,
gravitation of any kind becomes problematic, and the universe is probably too
simple to contain observers. For example, when N<3, nerves cannot
overlap without intersecting.In general, it is not clear how physical law could
function if T differed from 1. If T>1, subatomic particles
which decay after a fixed period would not behave predictably, because
time-like geodesics would not be necessarily maximal N=1 and T=3
has the peculiar property that the speed of light in a vacuum is a lower
bound on the velocity of matter; all matter consists of tachyons{
Bhattacharya Rupak & Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar , Bhattacharya Upasana et al
Nature news Particle Breaks
speeds of Light Comment Link] .Hence anthropic and other
arguments rule out all cases except N=3 and T=1—which happens to
describe the world about us. Curiously, the cases N=3 or 4 have the
richest and most difficult geometry and topology. There are, for example,
geometric statements whose truth or falsity is known for all N except
one or both of 3 and 4. N=3 was the last case of the Poincare conjecture
to be proved.For an elementary treatment of the privileged status of N=3
and T=1, see chpt. 10 (esp. Fig. 10.12) of Barrow;for deeper treatments,
see §4.8 of Barrow and Tipler (1986) and Tegmark. Barrow has repeatedly cited
the work of Whitrow.
String theory was built on the hypothesis that
the "universe is wiggly" and theory
hypothesizes that matter and energy are composed of
tiny vibrating strings of various types, most of which are embedded in
dimensions that exist only on a scale no larger than the Planck length.
Hence N=3 and T=1 do not characterize string theory, which a embeds vibrating
strings in coordinate grids having 10, even 26, dimensions .So what about the space
time in the string theory? Space-time is
defined there as an invisible, underlying matrix woven from a double helix
having one atomic diameter cross-section and infinite length, always traveling
at the speed of light "c"
along its axis. It is the power source and
regulator of the entire universe. I can rather call this invisible
double helix the Space-time Helix (STH)
because it defines the limits and dimensions of space by its ubiquitous presence
and extension. It marks time at the most fundamental level by its resulting
crest-to-crest sine wave spacing (wavelength), while traveling at c; and the term
"helix" incorporates its cork-screw shape. The STH
produces all known rotational phenomena without actually rotating. A traveling
helix gives the appearance of rotation without actually rotating, yet it can
induce rotation in an intersecting plane of detection through which it slides.
We tend to think of a helix in terms of the “Archimedes' screw in which a
rotating screw lifts water; the screw turns and the water doesn't. The STH
works in the opposite manner; the STH doesn't rotate but it causes rotation of the
electrons and nucleons formed by two intersecting space-time helices.
If the STH were forced to rotate, it would soon twist into a hopeless knot.As
long as the double helix travels longitudinally at speed c in a balanced
state without lateral displacement or vibration, it remains hidden and does not
intrude into our reality. Once the STH is disturbed laterally or longitudinally, by
being struck or forced out of balance, it is capable of producing all known
vibrational frequency particles, both short-lived and long-lived.
The STH is the hidden power source for all that exists and occurs in the universe.
The STH is described as follows –[ A
Personal Communication with Prof Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya to Robby York And from previously Published Blogs of Professor
Pranab kumar Bhattacharya with 7 all comments “What is Gravity? Is it a Force by Zero mass particle? If it
is a force Why We can not measure Gravity or speed of Gravity?” that
was Published at Extreme Astronomy.com Community Blog List List Blogs By Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya under his user ID there as
“Pranab”
The Ronald Weiss Clopton Model of Space Time{ as he Wrote Prof Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya at Extreme
astronomy.com for proper reference of
his STH model]
1) The
Space-time helix can be illustrated by a ball of twisted yarn or by a twisted
ribbon of crepe paper with unequal edges (see Figure 1) 2) The
inner helix has
"positive proto-charge" and "proto-mass" capable
of producing a proton when physically coupled with the inner helix of another
intersecting Space-time
helix. Such coupling occurred one time only during the opening
one (1) second of the Big Bang event, creating instantly all the protons in the
universe. The sudden appearance of unbalanced, unbridled positive
charge in the ultra-dense compacted universe, which began smaller than a single
pea, provided the mutually repulsive force needed to explode the disassociated
hydrogen H+ nuclei into the ever expanding, cooling universe we know today.
The inner helix
normally has an orbital diameter roughly equal to the nuclear diameter of a
hydrogen H nucleus; but the inner radius of gyration can be momentarily
displaced and expanded in its travels at c by a width ranging up to the
nuclear diameter of the heaviest possible element. - The outer helix has "negative
proto-charge" and "proto-mass" capable of producing an electron
when physically coupled with the outer helix of another intersecting Space-time
helix. The coupling of two inner helices and two
outer helices at a junction point or pair node produces a hydrogen H atom,
with an orbital proton and an orbital electron.
According to the literature, electron coupling first occurred 300,000 years after the Big Bang,
when the rapidly expanding chaotic H+ plasma cooled to the point that the two
outer helices of node-paired Space-time helices could capture each other as
they whipped around the proton-node already formed by the intersecting inner helices.
The outer
helix has an orbital diameter in free space roughly equal to the
single electron orbital diameter of a hydrogen H electron shell. The outer
orbital diameter can be momentarily displaced and expanded in its travels at c
by a width ranging up to the outer electron shell diameter of the heaviest
possible element. The outer helix is somewhat elastic and can assume a higher
or lower orbital diameter as it speeds through an intersecting atom-node. An
imbalance between the radii of gyration of a coupled proton and electron, at
the atom node, may contribute to chemical valence states, and provide some
basis for chemical bonding along the longitudinal axis of either paired helix
(see Figure
1 and Figure 2). The STH travels at
c along its path throughout the universe in a dynamically balanced
state, so that the radii of gyration of the inner and outer helix
members are inversely proportional to their proto masses, which themselves are
proportional to the relative masses of the proton and electron, that being
1836.1 m(proton) :1 m(electron). By extrapolating from the
orbital frequency of a single electron in the hydrogen H atom, given as 6.6
million giga hertz, we can determine that the wave length of the STH at this
present point of universe expansion is about 4.54 x 10^{-6} cm.
Figure 1. .
Schematic of Space-time Helix
[please
enlarge the all pictures by click on individual pictures and
then at format pictures and then on size
icons]
Time is nothing more than fixed periodicity
established at the most primal level. The basic time is the standard of the entire material
universe, shared by every atom, is the rotational frequency of its constituent
electrons, and the corresponding rotational frequency of its nucleons that are
paired to its electrons by the STH structure. Time renormalizes at every electron, proton
and neutron in the universe because an STH imposes its rotational
frequency on an intersecting node-paired STH, which in turn is forced to the
same rotational frequency by the STH it intersects. That is why the universe,
other than for spectral red shift or spectral blue shift does not appear to
radically depart from a common time base.
Relativistic time dilation occurs when a pair node (atom) is accelerated to speeds
approaching the speed of light c. At higher speeds of light such as with
tachyons the two space-time helices are
drawn into a narrow "V" trailing the atom, but each STH
continues to course through the atom from a lagging position toward the leading
position. If one STH is oriented by direction of
flow opposite to the direction of travel of the atom, this opposing STH folds
to trail the atom, for the simple folk reason that it is impossible to
push a rope (see Figure 3). A rope can only be
pulled because it is flexible, just like the STH. The rope, in this case the
STH opposing the direction of travel, folds as the atom drags it along. In normal
space-time, time can flow only in one direction, unless the STH is stiffened by
an intense magnetic field. As the speed of the atom approaches c, both
helices become more aligned in the direction of travel. If it were
possible to move an atom at speed c, the two helices would become
essentially overlaid and could be treated as a single helix with uniform
rotation. Rotation speed of the electron depends upon the differential between
the speed of the pair node (atom) through space, and the speed of the STH which
always travels at speed c. As the differential decreases, the apparent
rotational speed of the electron slows .At speed c, the speed of the
atom and electron would match the speed of the STH, so the STH could no longer
force the electron to rotate; time for the atom and electron would stop, and
the electron would become a stationary node riding the STH. An atom cannot be
pushed to speed c, because of relativistic mass increase which
prevents the atom from reaching speed c. The same behavior would be true
for nucleons in the atom. Time dilation is [shown in Equation as mentioned
bellow]relativistic which relates the
motion of one observer to another without benefit of an underlying matrix
common to both observers. The Clopton Model provides an inertial frame of
reference travelling at speed c that is common to both observers
The given formula for relat_{A}
= t_{B} / sqrt (1- v_{BA}^{2} / c^{2}
)
t_{A} = Time differential as measured by observer A
t_{B} = Time differential as measured by observer B
v_{BA}^{2} = Square of the difference in velocity
between observer A and observer B
Relativistic
mass increase is linked to relativistic time dilation. At
higher speeds the two space-time helices are drawn into a narrow "V"
trailing the atom (see Figure 4).
As the moving atom approaches speed c, the "V" narrows even
more, so that the atom is physically dragging along both of the space-time
helices. It
was entirely possible that the universe is made of only one STH string, wrapped
countless times around the universe like a ball of yarn stretching and
expanding as a shell (see Big Bang and the Shape of the
Universe). As an accelerating atom approaches the speed of light and time
slows for the atom, it becomes mechanically coupled to the space-time helix, so
that the atom is actually attempting to drag the entire universe (see Relativistic Time Dilation,
above). The formula for relativistic mass increase shows that the mass of any
body becomes infinite at speed c, so matter can never be accelerated to
the speed of light. The given formula for relativistic mass increase is shown
in Equation 2.
So what is string theory? Why it is required?
The Great Mathematician, Pythagoras could be however
according myself called the first known string theorist. Pythagoras, an
excellent lyre player, figured out the first known string physics - the
harmonic relationship. Pythagoras could some how realize that vibrating Lyre
strings of equal tensions but of different lengths would produce harmonious
notes (i.e. middle C and high C) if the ratio of the lengths of the
two strings were a whole number. Pythagoras discovered this by
looking and listening. Today that information is more precisely encoded into
mathematics, namely the wave equation for a string with a tension T and a mass
per unit length . If the string is described in coordinates as in the drawing
below, where x is the distance along the string and y is the height of the string,
as the string oscillates in time t, then the
equation of motion is the one-dimensional wave equation will be according to me=
δ^{2 }y(x,t)/ δt^{2 =}√^{ }T/m δ^{2}
y(x,t )/ δx^{2}=v^{2}_{w/} δ^{2} y(x,t )/ δx^{2
}_{ }where v_{w} is the wave velocity along the string. When I was solving the equations of motion, I also need to know the "boundary
conditions" of the string. Let's me suppose that the string is fixed at
each end and has an un stretched length L. The general solution to this
equation can be then written as a sum of "normal modes", here labeled
by the integer n, such that ; y(x,t)=Σ ^{α}_{n=1[}a_{n}
cos nπv_{w t}/L+b_{n}sin nπv_{w}t/L]sinπx/L
.The condition for a normal mode is that the wavelength be some integral
fraction of twice the string length, or
λ_{n} =2L/n. The frequency of the normal mode is then
ƒ_{n}=nv_{w/}2L
. The normal modes are what we hear as notes in a base Guitar. Notice that the
string wave velocity v_{w} increases as the tension of the string is
increased, and so the normal frequency of the string increases as well.. This
is why a base guitar string makes a higher note when it is tightened. But
that's for a non relativistic string, one with a wave velocity much smaller
than the speed of light. How then do I
write the equation for a relativistic string?
According to Centuries
greatest scientist Einstein's theory, a
relativistic equation has to use coordinates that have the proper Lorentz transformation properties. But
then I have to face one problem, because
in the string theory , a string always
oscillates{ who knows why it is always oscillating] in space and time, and as
it goes on oscillates, it sweeps out a
two-dimensional surface in space time that I can call it now a world sheet (compared with the world
line of a particle). In the non relativistic string, So there will be a clear difference between
the space coordinate along the string, and the time coordinate. But in a
relativistic string theory, we wind up having to consider the world sheet
of the string as a two-dimensional space time of its own, where the
division between space and time depends upon the observer.
The classical equation can be then written
as per me
δ^{2}X^{m}(σ,τ)/
δτ^{2}+ c^{2}x
δ^{2}X^{m}(σ,τ)/
δσ^{2} where and
are coordinates on the string world sheet representing space and time along the
string, and the parameter c^{2} is the ratio of the string tension to the
string mass per unit length.
These equations of motion can be derived from Euler-Lagrange
equations from an action based on the string world sheet S= -1/4πά∫
d σd τ√hh^{nm}
δ_{m}X^{m} δ_{n}X_{m}
The
space time coordinates X^{U} of the string in this picture are also
fields X^{U} in a two-dimension field theory defined on the surface that a
string sweeps out as it travels in space. The partial derivatives are with
respect to the coordinates and on the world sheet and h^{mn} is the
two-dimensional metric defined on the string world sheet.
The general solution to the relativistic string equations of
motion looks very similar to the classical non relativistic case above. The
transverse space coordinates can be expanded in normal modes as X^{i}((σ,τ)=x^{i}+X^{.i}^{τ}+i√2ά Σ 1/na^{i}_{n }[
cos nπcτ/L-iSin nπcτ/L] cos nπς/L
The
string solution above is unlike a guitar
string in that it isn't tied down at either end and so travels freely through space time as it oscillates. The string above
is an open string,
with ends that are floppy. For a closed
string, the boundary conditions are periodic, and the
resulting oscillating solution looks like two open string oscillations moving in the opposite
direction
around the string. These two types of closed string modes are called
right-movers and left-movers, and this difference will be
important later in the super symmetric heterotic string theory.
This is classical string. When we add quantum mechanics on string by making the string momentum and position
obey quantum commutation relations, the oscillator mode coefficients have the
commutation relations [a^{m}_{m,} a^{v}_{n}]=md_{m+n }_{h}^{mv}
The
quantized string oscillator modes wind up giving representations of the Poincaré group, through which quantum states of mass and spin can be classified in a relativistic quantum
field theory.
So this is
how & where the elementary particles arise in a string theory.
Particles in
a string theory are like the harmonic notes played on a string with a fixed
tension
T _{string}= 1/2πά
The
parameter a' is called the string parameter and the square root of this number
represents the approximate distance scale at which string effects should become
observable.
In
the generic quantum string theory, there are quantum states with negative norm,
also known as ghosts.
They are made of thus anti particles
This happens because of the minus sign in the space time metric, which implies
that
So there ends up being extra unphysical states in the
string spectrum.
In 26 space time dimensions, these extra unphysical states
wind up disappearing from the spectrum. Therefore. bosonic string quantum
mechanics is only consistent if the dimension of space time is
26 and it appears to me absurd to me. Why we do not then see all those extra Space time dimension if I
exist. Are they Wrapped up. Who then wrapped them up?
By looking at the quantum mechanics of the relativistic
string normal modes, one can deduce that the quantum modes of the string look
just like the particles
we see in space
time, with mass that depends on the spin according to the formula
Please remember that boundary conditions are very important for string
behavior. Strings can be open, with ends that may travel at the speed of light c, or strings
may be closed, with their ends joined in a ring. The
main alternative theory of the origin of the structures (mass) of the universe
are these cosmic strings or super heavy strings which are predicted too form in the early universe by the
Grand Unified Theory (GUT) in
inflationary “ Big Bang model. Loops
of such cosmic strings were then seed of
all the galaxies. They were super heavy strings, formed at phase transition or
condensation that took place when the universe
was cooled after GUTS in the very early universe. Kibble{ Will he get ever the Nobel Prize in physics?- he
should} had once suggested that GUTS
strings played an important role in the evolution
of the Universe and the strings provided the in-homogenity leading to the
formation of galaxies. In the very early universe Strings were predicted to be formed at symmetry breaking
phase transition by those in grand unified theories (GUTS) in which
vacuum ( space Time) had the appropriate topology. Cosmic
Strings were the configuration of the
matter fields, which owe their topology of the space of degenerate
vacuum, produced in the phase transition, in the early universe. Let me ignore the internal structure of the
strings and treat them as one-dimensional object with tension. In the resting
frame of the strings, the mass per unit length μ to the tension. The equality of the line of the density and the tension
caused the typical velocity associated with large vibration on the strings to
be close to speed of light. The strings cannot end but can either
close on themselves or can be extended to infinity. The
closed strings are loops.
Whenever two long strings cross each other, they
exchange ends, or `inter commute' (case (a) in the figure below). We had
already encountered this apparently strange fact when we discussed the strings
in the context of nematic
liquid crystals. In particular, a long string can inter commute with
itself, in which case a loop will be produced (this is case (b) below).
As with any object in tension, strings would also
accelerate so as to try to become straight. Damping of the string motion was
due to their non gravitational interaction with other matter, those become
negligible as soon as the strings were formed. Strings
that extended outside the horizon were conformably stretched by the cosmic
expansion. Thus at a given epoch, these
strings were straight on their length & scale, but were smaller then the
horizon size, but was quiet convoluted on large scale lager then this. The
typical velocity was associated with the straightening of a string and was
close to the speed of light and the velocity field of the string
extending outside the horizon was relativistic and approximately constant over
scale much smaller than a horizon size. Once a loop
entered the horizon it no longer expanded but rather started oscillate with a
period comparable to light travel time across it. This motion was damped by
gravitational radiation causing the size & period of the loop to decrease
approximately linearly with time The Fractional decrease in size, period,& mass of the
strings in one oscillation was given by equation* Gμ where G is Gravitational
constant. A string will decrease to zero
size in a finite amount of time loosing its energy by Gravitational Radiation. The distribution of strings in our universe was not
quite so well understood
Example
1]
These
pictures show
1)
a full three-dimensional simulation of the inter commuting of two cosmic
strings... The reconnection and `exchange of partners' when two strings intersect.
In this three-dimensional simulation, the strings approach each other at half
the speed of light. Notice the radiation of energy and the production of a
small interaction loop in the aftermath of the collision [ Picture By Rupak
Bhattacharya].
2]
The scattering of two
vortices is highly non-trivial; the two vortices approach and form a donut from
which the emerge at right-angles have `exchanged halves'
3]
Both
long cosmic strings and small loops will emit radiation. In most cosmological
scenarios this will be gravitational radiation, but electromagnetic
radiation or axions can also be emitted in some cases (for some specific phase
transitions). Here is a single, oscillating piece of string
4]
Radiation fields from the oscillating shown
above. A transverse cross-section of the fields has been made at the point of
maximum amplitude. Notice the four lobes of the radiation (a quadrupole
pattern) which is characteristic of all cosmic string radiation
5]
The
effect of radiation is much more dramatic for loops, since they lose all their
energy this way, and eventually disappear. Here you can see what happens in the
case of two interlocked loops. This configuration is unlikely to happen in a
cosmological setting, but it is nevertheless quite enlightening. Notice the
succession of compicated dynamic processes before the loop finally disappears
.
After formation, an initially high density string network begins to chop itself
up by producing small loops. These loops oscillate rapidly (relativistically)
and decay away into gravitational waves. The net result is that the strings
become more and more dilute with time as the universe expands. From an
enormous density at formation, mathematical modelling suggests that today there
would only be about 10 long strings stretching across the observed universe,
together with about a thousand small loops!
In
fact the network dynamics is such that the string density will eventually
stabilize at an exactly constant level relative to the rest of the radiation
and matter energy density in the universe. Thus the string evolution is
described as `scaling' or scale-invariant, that is, the properties of
the network look the same at any particular time t if they are scaled
(or multiplied) by the change in the time. This is schematically represented
below:
After
the phase transition, the strings were formed in a random network of
self-avoiding curves/loops. Some of the strings were in closed loops and some
were as infinite strings. The distribution of strings so happened that a
constant number of loops entered the Horizon. If the infinite strings would
simply straighten out, then the numbers of open
strings across the horizon-sized volume would also increase with time and
strings would soon come out to dominate the density. Velenkin
.A [Physics Review D23, p852; 1981] showed
that the geometry produced by the gravitational field near a length of straight
string is that of Minkowski space with a three dimensional wedge taken out of
each space like slice. The vertex of the wedge lies along the length of the
string and the angle subtended by missing wedge lies in rest frame of the
string and is equated asδπGμThe two exposed faces of the strings are thus
identified. Thus the Space Time remained flat everywhere except along the Strings , where it was highly curved. If
Gμ<<1, then the stress energy of the strings would produce only small
(lenier) perturbations from the metric
of rest of the universe. Because
the matter in the Universe did not produce
significant purturbation from the Minkowski metric
Space ,on scale ,less then horizon, the Gravitational field at a point much
closer to a length of a string would be
essentially then the same as gravitational field at a similarly located point in
Minkowski space. In the rest of frame of
the strings, all particles were when passing
, the strings were deflated by an angle 8πG μ
with respect to all particles passing on other side of the strings. The
magnitude of discontinuity in temperature(While
passing of particles) across the string was
δT/T= 8πGβ, where β=Transverse Velocity
of the strings which was typically
was close to Unity. This Jump of temperature persisted on angular
distance away from the string,
corresponding to the present angular size of the radius of curvature of the strings.
The magnitude of temperature jump was then independent of the Red shift (Z) at
which Light Rays reaching to us, passed by the strings. If we calculate the general properties of microwave sky anisotropy in string mode , then let us assume that microwave photons were last scattered at Red shift Z
1s. In a perfectly homogenious
Universe ,the matter became mostly
neutral and optically then at Z˜ 1000. However in a Universe with strings, there will be large
amplitude in homogeneity on small scale and the heat output from objects forming at or before Zγee may re -ionize
the plasma. If the plasma were kept fully
ionized then Z1s>10 and we have 1000>Z1s>10,the angle subtended by a
horizon-sized volume space at Z_{1c} is o_{1s}^{-1/2}<<1.
One would do expect to see on a round patch of sky of strings per
horizon volume at red shift Z, will project to one
length of string of angular size o if z<z1s. These strings will be
moving relativistic ally, as they were
unable to straighten themselves out of these length scale. In the modern Gauge theories of fundamental interaction
of the Vacuum was far from being nothing. Rather it
is now recognized as a dynamical object that was in different state. The current state of vacuum affects the properties such as
masses and interaction of any particles put into it. Although the vacuum is thought to lie in it’s ground
state ,that with the lowest state of energy, this state had not always been the
same. Thus in the early universe when the
particle component [ordinarily matter and radiation] was at a very high temperature, the vacuum adjusted it’s state in doing so modified the properties of particles
so as to minimize the free energy of the entire system. [Vacuum plus particles.
] e i. the vacuum went into higher energy state in order to lower the
energy of hot plasma by even greater
amount. As the universe cooled to keep the
entire system at the lowest possible
energy at a given temperature , the
vacuum had to change eventually, ending up
in it’s present state which is nearby the true or zero temperature vacuum. It was possible in early universe that as the Universe expanded
, the cooling
happened too rapidly for the vacuum
to find it’s true ground state and the vacuum
was frozen into ground state with
defects. Defects that probably
could occur in a three dimensional space could be Zero dimensional (Monopoles),
Two dimensional (Domain walls) or One dimensional (Strings). The Strings are macroscopic objects. In most cases of
cosmological interest they have no ends and are either infinitely long or
closed in a loop
At GUT’s the Strong, Weak and
Electromagnetic forces behaved as if, they had equal strength, much as line defects found in the crystal. They formed as a net work
across the space& time. The GUT”s predicts that strings were formed at a temperature of about 10^{15} to ~10^{16} Gev. at a
Cosmological time of about 10̃ ^{35 }Second. The Cosmic Strings were formed at the mass scale of GUTs
Symmetry breaking (Mx-̃ 2x10^{15} Gev)
was typified
by a mass per unit
length μG/c^{2}̃̃ ~ 2x10 ^{6} in
dimensionless unit.[ G= Gravitational Constant, C= speed of Light, which is
corresponding to μ= ~ 2.6X10 ^{21,}
Kgm^{-1}~ 4x10^{7} MOPC^{-1 } where MO= Mass of Sun . Or in other words the strings were formed with a mass per unit length of about 10^{20} kg^{-1}.
They have a mass per unit length
μ=ε/G [where ε= ~( <φ>/ mp)^{2} is the dimensionless amplitude of their Gravitational potential, mp is the
Plank Mass and the Vaccum Expectation
value of Higgs field is φ.] Because of their
enormous tension ε/G , the net work of the Strings were formed in the phase
transition. In this Theory the Strings
contributed only a small fraction of mass of the Universe. The Galaxies were formed by
Accreating of ordinary matter about the Strings. The Strings were
stretched by subsequent expansion of
the Universe on waves, on a given scale and began to oscillate then. The strings
underwent Oscillation in which the Transverse intertia acted as weight and the restoring forces were
provided by longitudinal tension of the strings. As a result of oscillation in such that the scale entered the particles
horizon and whenever the strings crossed itself and exchanged particle partners and produced closed
Oscillating loops of the Strings with long life(Peebles. P.G. Z- large scale
Structure of the Universe.-
Princeton University
press –1981).
The Strings actually underwent Oscillation in which the
Transverse inertia acted as weight and the
resting force was provided longitudinal tension of the strings. The gravitational field of these strings loops caused
accretion of matter around them. Brosche. P.J in
the journal of Astrophysics stated that angular
momentum of an astronomical object is proportional directly t square of mass
and constant of proportionality is comparable to String Theories, which suggest
that the Universe had evolved through hecrchial breaking of rotating or
oscillating strings and the angular momentum with mass between various classes
of different objects ranging from planets to super clusters (brosche.PZ.J-Astrophysics Vo 57; P143; 1963). For the almost
past three and half decades, a variety
of Grand Unified Theories (GUT’S) had been developed to unify the strong and
electro weak interactions at an energy scale of 10^{16} Gev. GUTs are Gauge invariant
point field theories (yang Mills), which do not incorporate Gravitational
forces and henceforth there remains few theoretical constrains on the
possible internal symmetry group. The most favored
Guts theories are based on the special unitary group Su (5), the special
orthogonal Group SO (10) or the Exceptional Group E_{6}. In such Guts
theories “Quark’ and “Leptons” make up three of these families, are unified in
one family. Super symmetries an important ingredient in Guts. It is a symmetry
that relates to “Fermions” and particles of different spins. But supper symmetry is not an internal symmetry but amounts to
an extension of the Space &time in super space that includes extra
spinorial anti commuting co-ordinates as well ordinary co-ordinates. Super Symmetry requires particles Known as” s-quarks”, s
leptons”, winos, Zinos, R –particles( a
zero mass Rupak Particles} which have yet to be discovered. Super gravity
theories are point field theories that incorporate local or gauged supper
symmetry and thereby enlarging Einstein Theory of relativity. The basic idea of Gauge theory is that a continuous Symmetry or
global invariance properties of Lagaragian field theory that can be made into a
local invariance by introducing compensating gauge field in to the theory. This
means that given a field theory, which possesses symmetry such as U_{1}
(1), Su (2), Su (3) or any other U group. The
theory can be extended to a gauge theory, which has the symmetry at each part
in the space-time individually. The
new symmetry is then called gauge symmetry because it implies that we can
choose our measuring standard gauge differentiate through out space-time
without changing physics of the theory. The
most familiar example of a gauge theory is Electromagnetism. In Quantum Electrodynamics the quantum field
theory of electromagnetic interactions are charged particles and Boson (photon)
is the most successful gauge theory. The behavior of a relativistic String
moving in space-time differs significantly from that of a structure less point
particle. Unlike a point particle, a classical relativistic string has an
infinite number of vibrational modes with arbitrarily high frequencies and
angular momentum. This means that in
quantum theory, a single string has an infinite number of states with masses
sand spins which increases without limit. The string theories were
developed in early 1970s as model of strong interaction physics. A Meson has thought of as a string with a
quark attached to one end while an anti-quark to the other end. The string
tension (T) was supposed to be _1Gev^{2} and the excited states of the
string were supposed to be hadrons. The main theories were “Boson Theory”
[Boson particle are particles in the name of Prof. S.N. Bose of kolkatta, W.B ,
India
and Einstein] which only described Bosons and the spinning theories that
incorporated “Bosons” as well
“Fermions”. These early String theories had several theoretical
inconsistencies according to the present authors of this article, because the
string ground states always turned out to be Tachyons (it is the particle that
moves faster then Light particle in the universe and yet to be discovered). Super string theories, that evolved from
spinning string theories, that incorporated suppersymetry and had no Tachyonic
ground states. Super string theories hence offered the possibility of
constructing a consistent quantum theory that unifies all interactions
including the gravity and natural mass scale set by string tension (T) in Plank
scale [ T^{1/2} =10^{9}Gev]. The excited states were so massive
that they could be taken to be infinitely heavy and the theory can be
approximated by an effective point field theory of the mass less state only. At
energy scale bellow the planks scale the string looks like a point. One of the constrains in
any string theory is that all string theories contain mass less spin-1 and
Spin-2 particles which are associated with
“yang mills Gauge Boson” and
Gravitation. Furthermore
the original “Bosonic String Theory”
required 26 space time dimension whereas
super string theory only ten(10)
dimensional space Time. We live in only
three (3) dimensional Universe and we can at best imagine Four (4) dimensional
space-time. Then where are these Extra Six Dimension in super string theory? Or
extra 22 dimensions Bosonic String theory?
May
be these extra dimensions are curled up
[they may be as large as our three dimension or may be too small to see and
only in mathematical presence] coiled up and finally became very small by
compactification in super string theory.
There are three types of Super String theories. Type 1 super string theory describe the dynamics of open strings that have their free end
points. The string carries quantum numbers in the n-dimensional,
defining representation of a classical group G=S0 (n) or the simplistic group
USP (n) at their end points SU (n). This is similar to the way in which “quark
quantum numbers” were incorporated in the original string picture of mesons.
Inflation was the only way of explaining several of otherwise
extra ordinary initial conditions of the universe. But for fine tuning of
inflation required a critical density of the universe. Thus
at least 85% of the universe could not be then the baryons matter and more then
60% of the matter of this Universe so did not cluster again into galaxies. The
density of the matter on the universe must be greater then the baryonic upper
limit .To make the things a little more difficult, it was said, that” the
special co-relation function of rich cluster of galaxies had revealed strong
clustering of very large scale up to 150 MPC.” This co-relation function of
clustering of galaxies was 18 times stronger then the special co-relation function of galaxies. It was also found that the largest scale of the universe
seem to look filamentous [Strings are filamentous] with large voids and large
clumps . With the GUTs an excellent way appeared to produce the
distribution of size of universe. In normal generation and application of GUTs
[a fluctuational spectrum with equal powering all scale formed naturally] it
was assumed that there was no special co-relation between large scale and small
clumps. They each had a random probability of occurring anywhere in the
universe. On the other hand, it means, that strings
are still being produced in the some spectrum, somewhere, &in some size.
Different proposals so had been put to solve the problem. But no models could
solve it, as long as it was assumed that the primordial fluctuation had random
phases. For example- a model based on Neutrinos produces both critical density
and large-scale structure [filaments, voids, cluster co-relation function] but
did not account for early formation of galaxies (Bachcall.N- J Astrophysics Vol
270; p20; 1983). Models evoking heavy or slow moving particles [like Gev mass
photinos, gravitinos, axions, planetary mass black holes] however fits the
small scale structure galaxy co-relation function, formation of time & so
forth as well as building hierarchal to yield clusters but it do not allow
critical density of the universe to be reached.]. Even the hybrid models, -
with low- mass and huge - mass ions also runs problem, because of low- mass
particles smear out the small-scale structure of universe. A more natural solution of the problem might be non-random
phases of string model. J.E Peebles (Nature Vol-311; P517; 1984) noted that the
non random phases of string model of the Universe yields large scale filaments
and voids, as super heavy strings attract galaxies and cluster and gives string
cluster- cluster co-relation. Work by J.E. Peebles showed that a
model based on clustering of galaxies about filaments [here strings] fit higher
3 and 4 points co-relation function for
galaxies as well as hierarchical clustering. This model also enables density
growth in some areas without producing a large universal background anisotropy
and so could enable baryons to be dark matter on
galaxy and cluster state with non-baryonic stuff being
a critical density background as dark energy. The degree of random
to nonrandom phases in such a model depends
upon density of strings in the space. In the limit of space being completely
filled with strings, the strings picture also gives random phases. Even
if strings densities are large enough to randomize phases, their mere existence
would still alter galaxy –in formation, calculation, because it were the
strings rather then matter that would carry the fluctuation.
The
basic things of string theory say that-:
*we live in
accelerating and expanding universe today** String theory support the inflation theory
where a period of rapid expansion happened in the early universe history.
*** Most of
the theories in the string theory are focused on understanding of theory of
unbroken super-symmetry. ****In string theory De-Sitter Space can arise only when
super-symmetry is broken ( Rupak Bhattacharya& Ritwik Bhattacharya’s( 7/51 of Purbapalli Sodepur Kol-110 W.B
India) Theory). Breaking supper-symmetry in the string theory
requires us to come face to face with
problem of moduli stabilization. In string theory Vacuum with N≥2
super-symmetry, there are many flat direction or modules. The energy as we go
along these direction of space time, there are many flat direction. In field the
space is constant and infact vanishes identically. There are 100 flat
directions in compactification. The flat directions are however very
bad in cosmology.
Flat directions cause however problems in standard model. They ruin the
successful prediction of Big Bang Theory.
The big Question hat one of author of this
article Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya raised “ Does the string theory allows at all De sitter Universe? Vacuum with
negative cosmological constant to anti de-sitter space and Inflation theory of
Big Bang?” This was of course a great question, exactly not yet
solved. Interested readers can read the Threads and discussion at http//www.bautforumtoday.com of BAD Astronomy & Universe Today forum under
the threads “ String theory- De sitter Universe and Inflation’ in astronomy
forum and in thread by Fraser “ Superstrings could be detectable as they decay”
in Universe Today & Story Comments forum
It is known that the de- Sitter space can only
arise if super symmetry is only broken. In string
theory with ≥2 super-symmetry there are many flat directions. The energy as we
go along these spaces is a constant & in fact vanishes identically and
these flat directions are bad news from the part of Big Bang cosmology.
Cosmology flat directions cause problems in standard model of Big Bang and ruin
the successful prediction of Big bang nucleo-synthesis. In these
compactifications besides curling up the extra dimensions preserved in the
string theory to small size, fluxes are also turned on along the compactified
directions. The fluxes includes higher form generalization of magnetic fluxes
in the electromagnetism turning them on charges, the potential in moduli
spaces, so that new minima arise in regions or field space where the potential
can be calculated with control. The value of Cosmological constant in this
minima can also be can also be calculated with a positive value give rise to
De-Sitter universe.
The String theory
started its journey in the
late 1960s as a very important tool
to explain the strong forces between nuclear atomic particles, but was
replaced in the 1970s by the more successful quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory
.String theory went off in its own direction, acquiring ever more baroque
layers of mathematical complexity. Some physicists found it anathema that the
only way the resulting theories could be tested required energies far higher
than those achievable in particle accelerators. But in 2005, string theory did
find its way, albeit indirectly, into one accelerator: the Relativistic Heavy
Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Scientists discovered that string
theory could be as useful as QCD in explaining the strong nuclear forces
involved in a quark–gluon
plasma .This new state of matter, comprising the basic constituents
of protons and neutrons, was created in the hot mash-ups of gold ions generated
at the RHIC. The key to this discovery was a mathematical technique in string
theory that embodies the principles of holography, in which information
contained in a higher dimension can be embedded in one fewer dimensions — just
as a three-dimensional image can be stored within a flat, two-dimensional
hologram.
The latest claim for string theory is that it is a key
tool in explaining the normal behavior of materials that conduct electricity
without any resistance at relatively high temperatures. The theory that
explains conventional superconductivity at temperatures close to absolute zero
is well-developed — but the theory that explains the behavior of a second class
of materials, which can superconduct at temperatures as high as 70K, remains
something of a mystery
Does Symmetry and
asymmetry applicable when in biological
model?-There
remain always a fundamental asymmetry in the distribution of the^{ }constituents
of the universe. That is, there appears to be an^{ }excess of normal
matter over antimatter in the most current^{ }and compelling models of
the universe (cold dark matter [CDM]).^{ }The origin of this asymmetry
remains yet unexplained before us as do
the nature^{ }of both dark matter and dark energy. Dark matter and dark
energy^{ }are required by the latest CDM models that have recently been^{
}shown to be very much in accord with the findings of the cosmic^{ }background
surveys . However, most intriguingly, this fundamental^{ }cosmic asymmetry
appears to manifest itself by way of other^{ }asymmetries observed in
other more complex systems of universe. For example,^{ }there has been
a much discussed thesis that the left-right symmetry^{ }encountered in
simple as well as complex multicellular organisms,^{ }including in human laterality and cerebral symmetry, are
a consequence^{ }of symmetry at the molecular level . This, in turn, is
thought^{ }to arise from asymmetry at the level of elementary
particles.^{ }However, although connecting links between molecular—and^{
}subatomic—chirality and macroscopic handedness and asymmetry^{ }are
not established, the implications of this asymmetry for^{ }biologic
processes and evolution are profound. We today now know that proteins in life
forms consist (almost) exclusively^{ }of L--amino acids, whereas nucleic
acids contain only the D-isomers^{ }of ribose or deoxyribose. Although
there exists considerable controversy^{ }concerning the questions of
when and how this homochirality^{ }arose in world, but it appears to be
the fundamental, but incompletely^{ }tested, assumption that life as we
know it could not have arisen^{ }without it. Much less attention seems
to have been paid in recent^{ }years to the reasons for homochirality
and its connection to^{ }the origin of life. Older studies have held
that the structure-destabilizing^{ }effects of ‘‘chiral defects’’
(i.e.,^{ }the incorporation of D-amino acids or L-nucleotides into
their^{ }respective polymers would render them incapable or unable to^{
}participate in ‘‘biology’’). However,^{ }although newer studies
confirm some destabilization, they also^{ }indicate that there is more
ability to accommodate unnatural^{ }enantiomers than was previously
appreciated. These findings^{ }provide new insights into the
constraints imposed on life’s^{ }origin with respect to chiral purity.
We should note, however,^{ }that this is a subject that has attracted
considerable interest^{ }and has been reviewed in the past . Indeed,
one can^{ }even use one’s nose
and establish that stereoisomers can^{ }smell different
Or on a more tragic note, the story^{ }of
thalidomide where the R isomer is a teratogen( However the R Isomer are recently used as drugs with
FDA approval in treatment of Refractory Multiple Myeloma- a type cancer of
plasma cells disorders ] while the S^{ }isomer is a tranquilizer. The
primary amino acid sequence determines the structure and^{ }function of
a protein. The two most common structural motifs^{ }are the -helix and ß-sheet. Although -helices are^{ }now
more abundant in proteins than ß-sheets, it is^{ }thought that the
ß-sheet occurred earlier during chemical^{ }evolution . Generally,
L-amino acids form a right-handed^{ }helix; a right-handed helix
exhibits optical rotation of its^{ }own. Similarly, ß-sheets are not
flat but, if made^{ }of L-amino acids, exhibit a right-handed twist
when viewed along^{ }their strands. This right-handedness of turn
arises from energetic^{ }constraints in the bonding of L-amino acids; a
chain consisting^{ }of D-amino acids would produce sheets with a
left-handed twist^{ }.^{ }Indeed, the circular dichroism (CD)
spectrum produced by the^{ }all-D enantiomer of the full-length
ß-amyloid peptide^{ }(42 amino acid residues) was a mirror image of the
spectrum^{ }obtained with the natural all-L enantiomer, indicating that^{
}the two enantiomers had opposite optical rotation . Furthermore,^{ }there
are indications that such mirror image conformation translates^{ }into
functional stereospecificity. When the D- and the L-enantiomer^{ }of
the complete enzyme HIV-1 protease were chemically synthesized,^{ }they
were found to have identical covalent structure and CD^{ }spectra of
equal, but opposite, optical rotation . These^{ }data suggest that the
folded forms of the D- and L-protease^{ }enzymes are mirror images when
viewed in three dimension
. Most notably, the enantiomers exhibited
reciprocal^{ }chiral specificity, the L-enzyme cleaving only the
L-substrate^{ }and the D-enzyme showing activity only for the
D-substrate.^{ }Although protein macromolecules are carriers of
function, DNA^{ }macromolecules are the transgenerational informational
carriers^{ }of most contemporary organisms . RNA plays the role of an^{
}intermediary between DNA and proteins in eukaryotes and can^{ }take
on both informational as well as functional roles. As in^{ }proteins,
the monomeric units of DNA and RNA are homochiral,^{ }each of the
nucleotides containing either D-ribose or D-deoxyribose.^{ }Also like
proteins, nucleic acids are able of taking on a variety^{ }of secondary
structures, most famous among them the double helix.^{ }Both RNA and
DNA are matrices for the assembly of a complementary^{ }replica, and
homochirality has been postulated to be an absolute^{ }necessity for
complementarity . Molecular modeling was interpreted^{ }as indicating
that incorporation of a single T of the opposite^{ }chirality in
double-stranded poly(A)/poly(T) would prevent base^{ }coupling, thereby
destroying the template property and the ability^{ }to act as an
information carrier . This does not, however,^{ }appear to be entirely
correct. An NMR study with a dodecadeoxynucleotide^{ }containing a
single nucleotide with a L-deoxyribose (the G4^{ }residue) formed a
stable base pair with the natural C-9 residue^{ }within a right-handed
B-form conformation . Similarly, although^{ }substitution of a
D-nucleotide with an L-nucleotide somewhat^{ }destabilized a short DNA
duplex, the D-isomer could nonetheless^{ }be accommodated via changes
in some of the backbone torsion^{ }angles around the phosphates and the
glycosidic bond . Others^{ }have confirmed that cooperative binding
between mixed L/D-oligodeoxynucleotides^{ }and single-stranded DNA and
RNA is possible despite the destabilizing^{ }effect of L-substitutions
. The magnitude of this destabilization^{ }was found to depend on the
position and type of the nucleotide^{ }. In addition, there appears to
be a limit to the n umber^{ }of substitutions that a sequence can
tolerate .^{ }
STH and Gravity
Gravity however
may be defined as an invisible, underlying matrix woven from a double helix
having one atomic diameter cross-section and infinite length, always traveling
at the speed of light "c" along its axis. Gravity is probably the real power source and
regulator of the entire our visible universe.
Space-time helix interactions, I can call this invisible double
helix the Space-time Helix (STH) ,because it defines the limits and dimensions
of space by its ubiquitous presence and extensions. It marks time at the most
fundamental level by its resulting crest-to-crest sine wave spacing
(wavelength), while traveling at c; and the term "helix"{
Reference-1} incorporates its cork-screw shape{1}. The STH produces all
known rotational phenomena without actually rotating. A traveling helix
gives the appearance of rotation without actually rotating, yet it can induce
rotation in an intersecting plane of detection through which it slides. We tend
to think of a helix in terms of the “Archimedes' screw in which a rotating
screw lifts water; the screw turns and the water doesn't. The STH works in the
opposite manner; the STH doesn't rotate but it causes rotation of the electrons
and nucleons formed by two intersecting space-time helices. If the STH were
forced to rotate, it would soon twist into a hopeless knot. As long as the
double helix travels longitudinally at speed c in a balanced state
without lateral displacement or vibration, it remains hidden and does not
intrude into our reality. Once the STH is disturbed laterally or
longitudinally, by being struck or forced out of balance, it is capable of
producing all known vibrational frequency particles, both short-lived and
long-lived[1}. The STH is the hidden power source for all that exists and
occurs in the universe[1]. The Gravity and Gravitation is that hidden power force for all that exists
and occurs in the universe as per authors view^{ }. There are four
forces
commonly recognized in particle physics: strong nuclear force, electromagnetic
force, weak nuclear force, and gravitational force, in descending order of
their relative strength. To that list, I would like to add gyroscopic force, as
an expression of the right hand rule. The Clopton Model does not require boson
particles to transmit force because the invisible STH acts directly on coupled
matter. Force is the direct interaction of the space-time helix with long lived
and short lived particles. The space-time helix is the answer to Einstein’s
concerns about "action at a distance." Specific forces will be
discussed in the sections that follow.Like magnetism, gravity is indeed the result of warped
space-time; but in the case of gravity, the STH flow is bi-directional,
or more properly, multi-directional. Space-time is a double helix;
and matter or light which is composed of the STH will follow the path laid out
by the STH, not because it is the least path, but because it is the only path.
Zero-rest-mass photons ride the space-time helices as modulated distortions.
Space-time helices are deflected and warped by the lens effect of matter
through which they pass, yielding gravity and magnetism. Light photons can be
stripped from one STH and applied to another STH at a pair node. Light can
therefore be deflected near a planet or a star by free floating pair nodes (e.g.,
hydrogen atoms) held in the gravity of the heavenly body. Both the deflection
of space-time helices, and the renormalization between STH pairs, contribute to
the apparent bending of light near a star or planet. Newton who worked out so many useful formulas to apply
when working with the actions of gravity was pressed for an explanation as to
how gravity works he stated that the force of gravity is due to God himself.
Prof. Albert Einstein NL considered
gravity and came up finally with theories of “General Relativity” which is the
notion that gravity is due to a "bend" in space time and was able to
present the situation such that gravity had no "force” Ie not any particle.
Light
from a distant object (like a galaxy) gets bent by the gravity of a second
object that lies along the line of sight between us and the first object as light is a photon
particle and particles mast have a mass. The
simplest of example is Einstein rings. We decided
Gravity is an 'Is' and the force of Gravity is Gravitation. So OK science can
measure the force - Gravitation - but it can't measure Gravity because it just
'Is'. If
God is an entity so is Gravity. Thus Gravity is the same as God our at
least a partner in God's doings.^{}
Unlike the familiar ‘normal’ matter that makes up
stars, gas and dust, ‘dark’ matter is invisible but its presence can be
inferred through its gravitational influence on its surroundings. Physicists
believe that it makes up 22% of the mass of the Universe (compared
with the 4% of normal matter and 74% comprising the most mysterious ‘dark
energy’- dark energy makes up a
large part of the Universe, more than 70 %, and it is an enigma, perhaps the
greatest in physics today]. But,
despite its pervasive influence, no-one is sure what dark matter consists of
and it is still a hypothetical matter but whose presence in the universe could
be inferred from observed gravitational effect. Dark matter could be 85% of the
total observable matter in the universe.
The ‘true nature’ of dark matter could be revealed by new computer modeling
work. The modeling, published in Science, suggests in a universe
dominated by “warm” dark matter the first stars could have formed from
fragments of filaments thousands of light-years long (study
abstract, commentary).
“The filaments would have been about 9,000 light years long, which is about a
quarter the size of the Milky Way galaxy,” according to study leader Liang Gao
of Durham University in the UK. “They
would have fragmented in a huge burst of star formation, a spectacular event to
contemplate.”{The Great Beyond Nature.com Posted by Daniel cressey on 17^{th}
Sept 2007]
Is Gravity Dark Matter? or Dark Energy? or
WAMP or made of zero mass particle or a
new particle as authors called it Graviton? Is Gravity made of Peter Higgs particle that gave mass to all particles in the
universe( Few days ago in july 2^{nd} 2012 both CERN LHC and Tetravon
experiment Declared they found particles in the proton proton collider that
gave mass in Tev though the particles behavior not exactly similar to Professor Peter Higgs Particles or neutrinos
particle?[ Neutrinos are not however zero mass particle at all. if it
would be zero mass particle then it would not oscillate] or is Gravity the Dark Energy?. The same unexplained force—dark energy—that causes
the universe to fly apart at an accelerating pace is also stifling the growth
of galaxy clusters, new research shows. These clusters, cloudlike swarms that
are the largest accumulations of matter in the universe, grew rapidly during
the first 10 billion years of cosmic time but, due to the dark energy, they can
no longer continue to grow.
[Picture-:Inter
stellar Cold dark matter condensing into interconnected Strings and filaments
in newly forming star region]
A giant hole”
in the universe had been discovered recently by astronomers from Minnesota. Investing an
area of the sky known as the WMAP Cold Spot, Lawrence Rudnick and his
colleagues found a very large void empty of stars, gas and even dark matter
which is nearly 6 billion trillion miles of emptiness or void .Astronomers had
long known that there are big voids in the universe, and think they can explain
them with their theories as to how large scale structures first formed. But
those theories are very hard put to
describe a void of such a huge void in
the large-scale evolution of the Universe
even by gravitational collapse
One common
view of cosmological constants is as asymptotic states. For example, the speed
of light c is (in special relativity) the maximum velocity of a massive
particle moving in ®at space-time. The gravitational constant G de nes the
limiting potential for a mass that does not form a black hole in curved
space-time. The reduced Planck constant ~ ² h=2º is the universal quantum of
action (and hence de nes a minimum uncertainty). Similarly, in string theory
there is also a fundamental unit of length (the characteristic size of the
strings). So for any physical theory we know of, there Cosmology with
varying constants 2683should be one such constant. This view is acceptable
in practice,[Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (2002) on March 2, 2010 rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org] .Gravity may be also called the electromagnetic
force- a force terms like nuclear forces the " in classical or is it just
a distortion of space as per general theory of relativity?
How does gravity work? " In general theory of relativity gravity is defined as the
warping of the space-time due to the presence of matter and energy. This seems
to imply that space/time has some form of fabric matrix. Can we not detect the
gravity directly? Do we not have a gravity meter? The real answer is
“No”. But why not? if it is a
measurable force. The gravity is made of a particle may be called Gravitons. I assume the gravitons of
all mass in our local universe, are in touch with one another. As we move
farther graviton communication between masses stops. As the universe is and
farther away from our local universe, at what point (distance or velocity) does
expanding faster than speed of light, it seems to me there will be no graviton
communication with masses outside of our local universe (distant galaxies).
Personally, I like the thought of gravitons of all mass in the entire universe
being in constant communication with one another. If one mass moves anywhere in
the universe, all of the other mass gravitons will know its movement. ""I like it
too but wonder if the gravitons communicate instantly or at C. no one has yet detected a graviton or a
gravitational wave.
Is Gravity is
made of a particle that gave mass to other particle like Rupak Particle-a zero
mass particle/ or newly discovered
particle at LHC that gave mass or Higgs
particles?
Gravity should
then has ‘Speed of Gravity". There seem to be a general agreement the
speed of gravity is the speed of light, but may be less. We do not know yet. Do
any one Knows? Why then can we not measure it ? I can measure light intensity. I can measure velocity of Light as it is a particle and has wave length .I
can calculate recession velocity by red shift. I can see the spectrum of
elements detected. There are all sorts of cleaver methods of detecting what we
did not previously know.If a distant galaxy mass can be seen as visible light emitted. Why can I not
measure then gravity? Is a big question before me
Now our Cosmos is growing for this Gravity-:
It was not the first time that an astronomical
discovery had revolutionized our ideas, understanding about
our observable Universe. Think ! Just only a hundred years ago!, Our
Universe was then considered to be a
calm and peaceful place, no larger and nothing beyond than our own galaxy, “the
Milky Way”. The cosmological clock was ticking reliably and steadily and the
Universe was then eternal. Soon, however, a radical shift resulted changed our
believed picture. At the beginning of the 20th century, If I am not wrong
enough , one amateur American astronomer, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, could find a
way of measuring distances to far away stars then our galaxy. At the time,
women astronomers were denied access to viewing through the large telescopes,
but they were frequently employed for the cumbersome tasks of analyzing
photographic plates. Henrietta Leavitt, studied thousands of such pulsating
stars, she called them Cepheids, and found that the
brighter ones had longer pulses. Using this information, Leavitt could
calculate the intrinsic brightness of Cepheids. If the distance of just one of
the Cepheid stars is known, the distances to other Cepheids can be established easily– the dimmer its light, so the farther away the star-she told. A
reliable standard candle was born, a first mark on the cosmic yardstick that is
still used today. By making use of Cepheids, astronomers soon concluded that the “Milky Way” is just
one of many billions of galaxies in the Universe. And in the
1920s, the astronomers got access to the world’s then-largest telescope Mount
Wilson in California,
so they were able to show that almost all galaxies are moving away from us. Why ? They were then studying the so-called redshift (Z) that
occurs when a source of light is receding from us. What we Cardiologists and
radiologists see as Doppler effect. The light’s wavelength gets stretched, and
the longer the wave, the redder its colour. The conclusion then came that the
galaxies are rushing away from us and from each other, and the farther away
they are, the faster they move – this is known finally established as Hubble’s law.
So the Universe is growing and Expanding Rapidly.
The coming and going of the
cosmological constant what was observed in space had already been suggested by
theoretical calculations. In 1915, The great Prof Albert Einstein N.L published his “General
Theory of Relativity”, which turned later as the foundation stone of our
understanding of the Universe ever since. The theory described ,what I did
understand whether a Universe that has to either shrink or to expand as essence
of the theory. This was a very disturbing conclusion before the physicists.
This disturbing conclusion was finally reached about a decade before the
discovery of the ever-fleeing galaxies. Not even Einstein could reconcile the
fact that the Universe was not static ( J.B Narlieker &Hoyel Steady State
Universe theory). Expansion of universe is not in fact wanted by scientists and
the concept was troublesome. So in order to stop the unwanted cosmic expansion
by then scientists, Einstein added further a constant to his equations that he
called it as” the cosmological constant”. Later, Einstein considered the insertion of the cosmological constant was a big mistake by him. However, with the
observations made in 1997–1998 that was awarded this year’s Nobel Prize, we
can conclude that Einstein’s cosmological constant – put in for the wrong
reasons – was actually brilliant. The discovery of the expanding Universe was a
groundbreaking first step towards the now standard view that the Universe was
created in the Big Bang almost 14 billion years ago. Both time and space began
that very moment-. Ever since, the Universe has been expanding; like raisins in
a raisin cake swelling in the oven, galaxies are moving away from each other
due to the cosmological expansion. But where are we heading? When Einstein got rid of the cosmological constant
and surrendered to the idea of a non-static Universe, he related the
geometrical shape of the Universe to its fate. Is it open or closed, or is it
something in between – a flat Universe?
An open Universe is
one where the gravitational force of matter is not large enough to prevent the
expansion of the Universe. All matter is then diluted in an ever larger, ever
colder and ever more empty space. In a closed Universe, on the other hand, the
gravitational force is strong enough to halt and even reverse the expansion. So
the Universe eventually would stop expanding and fall back together in a hot
and violent ending, a Big Crunch. Most cosmologists, however, would prefer to live in the most simple and
mathematically elegant Universe: a flat one, where the expansion is
believed to decline. The Universe would thus end neither in fire nor in ice.
But there is no choice. If there is a cosmological constant, the expansion will
continue to accelerate, even if the Universe is flat.
From here to eternity
So what is it that is speeding up the
Universe? It is called dark energy and is a challenge for physics, a riddle that no one has
managed to solve yet. Several ideas have been however proposed. The simplest is
to reintroduce Einstein’s cosmological constant, which he once rejected. At
that time, he inserted the cosmological constant as an anti-gravitational force
to counter the gravitational force of matter and thus create a static Universe.
Today, the cosmological constant instead appears to make the expansion of the
Universe to accelerate. The cosmological constant is, of course, constant, and
as such does not change over time. So dark energy becomes dominant when matter,
and thus its gravity, gets diluted due to expansion of the Universe over
billions of years. According to scientists, that would account for why the
cosmological constant entered the scene so late in the history of the Universe,
only five to six billion years ago. At about that time, the gravitational force
of matter had weakened enough in relation to the cosmological constant. Until
then, the expansion of the Universe had been The cosmological constant could have its source in the vacuum, empty
space that, according to quantum physics, is never completely empty. Instead,
the vacuum is a bubbling quantum soup where virtual particles of matter and
antimatter pop in and out of existence and give rise to energy. However, the
simplest estimation for the amount of dark energy does not correspond at all to
the amount that has been measured in space, which is about 10^{120} times larger (10 followed by 120
zeros). This constitutes a gigantic and still unexplained gap between theory
and observation – on all the beaches of the world there are no more than 1020 (1
followed by 20 zeros) grains of sand. It may be that the dark energy is not
constant after all. Perhaps it changes over time. Perhaps an unknown force
field only occasionally generates dark energy. In physics there are many such
force fields that collectively go by the name quintessence, after the
Greek name for the fifth element. Quintessence could speed up the Universe, but
only sometimes. That would make it impossible to foresee the fate of the
Universe. Whatever dark energy is, it seems to be here to stay. It fits very
well in the cosmological puzzle that physicists and astronomers have been
working on for a long time. According to current consensus, about three
quarters of the Universe consist of dark energy. The rest is matter. But the
regular matter, the stuff that galaxies, stars, humans and flowers are made of,
is only five percent of the Universe. The remaining matter is called dark
matter and is so far hidden from us. The dark matter is yet another mystery
in our largely unknown cosmos. Like dark energy, dark matter is invisible. So
we know both only by their effects – one is pushing, the other one is pulling.
They only have the adjective “dark” in common.
References
2] Nobels in Science:2011 Science and Culture
Vol77 NO11 November-December 20-11 p521-525.
3]
,[Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (2002) on March 2, 2010 rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org]
4] http//www.bautforumtoday.com of BAD Astronomy & Universe Today forum under
the threads “ String theory- De sitter Universe and Inflation’ By Pranab
Please note it very carefully that, The Copy Right of this article belongs only to Professor Pranab kumarBhattacharya MD(cal) FIC path(Ind) the 2^{nd}
author here, as per copy right rules of IPR1996 applicable in India-2006
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also this article will be under RDF
Copy Right rules of IPR of Prof PK Bhattacharya. No person from any
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of India or of Indian origin are for ever authorized by Professor Pranab kumar
Bhattacharya to use any scientifically meaningful syllables/words /sentences from this published blog article in
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spot.com without his / future copy
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SD/ Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya.
This article was once published in http://www.extremeastronomy.comblog/11/entry/319-what
is gravity-i
on 7th June 2010 as Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya’s blogs(here
2^{nd} authors) Posted by “Pranab” as user name with then 8 comments Posted by others including “Ronald Weiss Clopon” himself Who is world famous for his paper “ the nature and
Dissolution of matter. The Site www.extremeastronomy.com
was sold and now if present there is no content can be viewed on this site either
in forum discussion and as Blogs” The hard copy is preserved with the 2^{nd} authors
And the
same was asked As “Question For David
Gross in Nobelprize.org in the section Ask a Nobel Laureate David Gross The
Nobel Laureate in the Cheltenham Science Festival in Nobelprize org face book
on June 13 2010
3] Personal communication of” Ronald Weiss
Clopton” of Website www.space timehelix.com with Professor Pranab KumarBhattacharya on 30^{th} august 2010 at 10.24 AM about his 2 pages view on standard Big Bang Model,
STH, Space time and according him the light is the only thing that can
penetrate and effect on the STH and with highest speed in Universe, and No
particle can break the limit of light
speed…. it is the chaos in stellar furnace that protects the STH…., the proton
nots in Urenium or other Molecule gives mass properties to the STH structure, our universe is in pure vibration mode, and there
is no need of a Zero mass particle concept (graviton) for the Gravity as a
force. According him longitudinal display of STH can create zero mass photon which conveys all
forces particle”
Acknowledgement All the authors of this articles great fully acknowledges
contributions of Miss Upasana Bhattacharya- only daughter of Prof Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya , late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharya
B.Com(cal), FCA, SAS(India.)- his diseased retired Father [whose name in fact
gained immortality in the history of
village “Sodepur” at District North 24 parganas, State- West Bengal,
Country India], Late Mrs. Bani
Bhatacharya, his diseased mom, and his youngest twin brothers Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya Bsc(cal)
Msc(JU), Mr. Ritwik Bhattacharya B.Com(cal), of their residence 7/51 purbapalli, PO-Sodepur, Dist
24 Parganas(north) , KOl-110, West Bengal,
Mrs Dalia mukherjee BA(hons) cal, and Mr. Debasis Mukherjee BSC(cal) of
Swamiji Road, Po- South Habra, 24 Parganas(north) and of Miss Upasana
Bhattacharya- his only sweet daughter as he[ the First author of this article] took many of
their concept and discussions to write this letter to Robbie York
See the Published article in 2016 June 16th From MIT News Office