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Friday, 27 July 2012

We have Probably observed a new boson with a mass of 125.3 ± 0.6 GeV at 4.9 sigma significance” in LHC. Did that mean it was Higgs particle? Or simple Higgs humor? could it c be one of the missing super symmetric particle. The last missing ingredient of the Standard Model of Big Bang theory in particle Physics is the zero mass particles and the particle that gave mass to that zero mass particle”.

*Professor Pranab KumarBhattacharya MD(cal), FIC Path(Ind),  Professor and Head, Dept. of Pathology , convener &In-charge DCP  Course WBUHS and DLT course ; **
 *Dept of Pathology,  School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata, 108, C.R avenue Kolcutta-73, W.B , India** 7/51 Purbapalli; Sodepur; 24 Parganas(north) Kolkata-110 W.B, India ; Miss Upasana Bhattacharya-only Daughter of Prof PK Bhattacharya, Mr Rupak Bhattacharya  , Mr Ritwik Bhattacharya of 7/51 Pubapalli, PO Sodepur, Dist 24 Pargnas(North) West Bengal; India
 The Basic things in the LHC-2011 experiments and its data analysis in the months of April and June 2012 was to find out  Higgs particle or the particle that actually gave mass to this whole universe in  the Tera Volt  temperature(Tev)  &   provide mass to what ever matter we see around us including probably the Dark energy and Dark matter. In our real Universe, baryonic matter has only about  5% of its total mass, with most of the rest being either  in the dark matter or and  in the dark energy(2).  However, the favorite candidates for dark matter do not get their masses from the Higgs mechanism, and the nature of dark energy is even more obscure today, though they also unlikely to get mass from the Higgs mechanism according me. The inflation-making field in the early Universe likewise likely does not get its mass from the Higgs mechanism also according to me.
The Standard “Big Bang” Model successfully could describe all of the elementary particles in the particle physics, we know to exist in mathematically at least and how they interact with one another. But our understanding of Nature and  its governing laws of this universe yet remained incomplete to me/ and to many highly intelligent physicists and mathematicians. In particular, the Standard Model could never answer me or my brother Rupak Bhattacharya(2) one most basic question : “Why do most of these elementary particles have masses?” and “where from mass actually came?” Without mass, our universe would be a very different place than this one we think . For example, let me consider a very much hypothetical situation, that if the electron or proton had no mass at all,  then there would be  no formation of atoms at all. Hence there would be no formation of  ordinary matter( we call   ordinary matter hadrons) as we know it,  there would be no chemistry, no biology, no people, no trees, no animals, no flowers, no biological substances even no unicellular organism amoeba or virus in this planet The Earth. There would be no planets at all. No sun, No Stars No galaxies. In addition, look at our Sun shines in the blue sky.   My Thanks to a delicate interplay among the fundamental forces of Nature, which would be completely upset, if some of those force particles did not have large masses? At first sight the concept of mass seems not to fit into the Standard Model of particle physics. Two of the forces the model was then described –  The electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force – and they can be described by a single theory, that of the electroweak force. Scientists have subjected the electroweak theory to many experimental tests, which it has passed with flying colours. However, According to me, the basic equations of that theory seem to require that all elementary particles must be mass less. Scientists needed a way out of this conundrum. Several Important Physicists, including Professor Peter Higgs Emeritus Professor of  Theoretical Physics at Edinburgh University, discovered  then a mechanism that, if added to the equations, would allow particles to have masses. This is  today known as the `“Higgs mechanism”. What actually is then Higgs mechanism? According to Professor  W. Peter Higgs who predicted his theory in 1964, Published in the science journal of AAAS and in Nature  as to the origin of mass, he predicted the “Higgs particles makes it by having a non-zero lowest-energy field value. So every particle that interacts with it, continually experiences its presence, and that drags those particles and gives those particles their masses. And to give the mass a particle must have some kind of spin and oscillation movement. Without the Higgs particle, every other Standard-Model particle would be mass less Rupak (2)- my youngest brother Told me Such in 1993- I do remember.
The Higgs non - zero-field lowest-energy state can be thus explained with an analogy example of a marble in a bowl. In a "normal" one, the marble must settle down in the center, and if you like to push it, it will oscillate back and forth  but around the center. But in a bowl with a hump in the center, like a juice-squeezer bowl, the marble will settle down in the trough around the central hump, at a non- zero distance from the center. It will then only oscillate inward and outward, but move at constant speed in the trough. That trough-motion mode is called a "Goldstone mode", and in elementary particles, it would show up as a mass less mode. Peter Higgs and others discovered that such mass less modes could disappear into “photon like fields” that were made massive from symmetry breaking, thus avoiding excess mass less particles which is now  has to be seen in Large Hadron Collider(LHC). One must  also Remember that the LHC is still now  running at about half of its power right now. As to the mass of baryonic matter, what we know? The mass that we observe in the world around us and in ourselves, about 98% of it is due to a side effects of an effect called color confinement in quarks particles. From their mutual interactions, “quarks' and gluons' interactions with each other become very strong at distances much above 10(-15) m, the size of a nucleon (proton or neutron). So they can't get much further apart from each other than about that distance. That's what gives nucleon the ‘size’. Since gluons are also considered once as mass less and up and down quarks are not much more massive than an electron, most of ‘quarks' and ‘gluons' energy in nucleons is  then kinetic and interaction energy. Thus, by E = mc2, most of the ‘mass’ of ‘nucleons’ should come from that energy.  What I want to mean here, about 98% of nucleons' masses’ is due to color-confinement-induced quark and gluon kinetic and interaction energy, 1% due to electromagnetic effects, and 1% due to quark (rest) masses. The electron's mass is 0.05% that of a nucleon. Nuclear binding energies are typically a little less than 1% of a nucleon mass, electron binding energies in atoms much less, and molecular binding energies even less. Then where from rest of mass?  Where from the electrons, quarks  got their masses also? Electrons, up quarks, and down quarks all had their masses by the above stated ‘Higgs mechanism’, and their mass values are important in determining the structure of the baryonic parts of our Universe. In our Universe, as I told  earlier baryonic matter has only about 5% of its total mass, with most of the rest being dark matter and dark energy. The favorite candidates for dark matter do not get their masses from the Higgs mechanism, and the nature of Dark energy is even today more obscure though, it is also unlikely to get mass from the Higgs mechanism. The inflation-making field in the early Universe likewise likely does not get its mass from the Higgs mechanism(2).
Integrating it into the Standard Model, allowed scientists to make predictions of various quantities,  including the mass of the heaviest known particle, in the quantum physics” the top quark”. Experimentalists found this particle just where equations using the Higgs mechanism predicted it should be. According to theory, the Higgs mechanism works as a medium that exists every where in space time. Particles according him gain mass by interacting with this medium. Prof.Peter Higgs pointed out  in the year 1964, that the  Higgs mechanism required the existence of an  yet unseen particle, which we now  and call the Higgs Particles . So the Higgs particle became the fundamental component of the Higgs medium, much as the photon is the fundamental component of light.  Every particle is either a boson or a fermion. Higgs effect is the fundamental mechanism for fermionic mass generation. The important thing is having some mechanism that generates mass in the first place. All known particles spin like  a small top spin, with the known bosons that carry the fundamental interactions – such as the photon, the quantum of light that carries the electromagnetic force – spinning at twice the rate of the fermion particles that make up matter particles such as electrons and quarks. The Higgs particle is the only particle predicted by the Standard Model that has not yet been seen by the experiments. The Higgs mechanism does not predict the mass of the Higgs particle itself but rather a range of massesWhat I mean there may be many kinds of Higgs particles with different masses. Fortunately, the Higgs  particles  leave brhind a unique particle footprint depending on its mass in a  particle collider. So scientists know what to look for and would be able to calculate its mass from the particles they saw in the LHC detector. And Higgs Particles do not spin. A Zero rest mass particle (2) must not spin also. different kinds of Higgs & Bosons. If any of these scenarios turn out to be true, finding the Higgs boson could be a gateway to discovering new physics, such as super-particles Experimentalists might find that the Higgs  Particle is different from the simplest version the Standard Model predicts. Many theories that describe physics beyond the Standard Model, such as super -symmetry and composite models, suggest the existence of a zoo of new particles, including or dark matter. On the other hand, finding no Higgs particle at the LHC would give credence to another class of theories that explain the Higgs mechanism in different ways.
Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator which started taking data in 1981,When the SPS first operated as a proton–antiproton collider. At the time, one of the hottest challenges in particle physics was the  search for the force-carrier particles predicted by electroweak theory. Named the W and Z bosons, these were heavy particles. So finding them  required an accelerator that could reach an unprecedented level of energy. The discovery was so important that the two key scientists behind the discovery received the Nobel Prize in Physics only a year later. The  Nobel prize  went to Carlo Rubbia, instigator of the accelerator’s conversion and spokesperson of the UA1 experiment, and to Simon van der Meer, whose technology was vital to the collider’s operation. This was a significant achievement in physics that further validated the electroweak theory. It also helped to secure the decision to build CERN’s next big accelerator, the Large Electron Positron collider(LEP), whose job was to mass-produce Z and W bosons for further studies. In the 1960s three physicists, Steven Weinberg, late Abdus Salam  of  Pakistan and Sheldon Glashow, proposed a theory.  What did they believe  then that two of the four basic fundamental forces of the universe – the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force – were in fact different facets of the same force. Under high-energy level conditions (such as in a particle accelerator), the two will then merge into the electroweak force. No scientific theory can finally become established without a solid grounding of experimental proof which is usually done much & much later. The first evidence in support of the three scientists  theory emerged when the Gargamelle detector at CERN of Geneva found the neutral current, an essential ingredient to the electroweak theory. Further observations followed to secure the above three theorists a Nobel Prize in 1979 almost 19 years later they proposed their theory. However, there were still three hypothetical force-carrier particles described by that theory that no one had managed to find. The W+, W- and the Z0 bosons remained tantalisingly out of reach until an accelerator could be built with much high enough energy to carry out their search – a problem  that was solved by the conversion of the SPS accelerator to LHC. So Large Hadron Collider came into existence. Two 4 TeV Proton beams were brought into collision at the LHC’s four interaction points. This signals the start of physics data taking by the LHC experiments for 2012. The experience of two good years of running at 3.5 TeV per beam gave  CERN Scientists the confidence to increase the energy further  for this year2012  without any significant risk to the LHC machineitself(1),” Although the increase in collision energy is relatively modest, it translates to an increased discovery potential that can be several times higher for certain hypothetical particles. Some such particles, for example those predicted by super-symmetry, would be produced much more copiously at the higher energy. Super-symmetry is a theory in the particle physics that goes beyond the current Standard Model, and could account for the dark matter of the Universe. Standard Model Higgs particles, if they exist, will also be produced more copiously at 8 TeV than at 7 TeV, but background processes that mimic the Higgs signal will also increase. That means that the full year’s running will still be necessary to convert the tantalising hints seen in 2011 into a discovery, or to rule out the Standard Model Higgs particle altogether. In LHC Initially at 3.5 Tev per beam(when the quench happened) and now at 4 Tev per beam. It's not until the 'long slumber' that it will get the upgrades (rebuild going into 2014-2015) to get up to 7 Tev per beam. The LHC is now scheduled to run until the end of 2012, when it will go into its first long shutdown in preparation for running at an energy of 6.5 TeV per beam as of late 2014, with the ultimate goal of ramping up to the full design energy of 7 TeV. The ATLAS and CMS of LHC in CERN experiments delivered their preliminary results of their 2012 data analysis on 18 June after a very successful first period of LHC running in 2012 i.e the search for the Higgs particle,”. What did CERN physicists told on 4th July 2012?  They Said “we have observed a new boson with a mass of 125.3 ± 0.6 GeV at 4.9 sigma significance”  Did it meant it was Higgs particle?  O r Higgs humor? For approx 10 million readers from different Medias and so?. To establish it as Higgs particle the main thing to look at is spin. It needs to be spin-0 and must not decay to be the Higgs.  Checking of the decay routes seen goes against  Higgs theory. Since the newly discovered particle decays into pairs of known bosons, it is certainly also a boson. we also see that it does not spin the same way as a photon. If it were a Higgs particle, it would not spin at all and it would be the first elementary scalar boson ever seen Well, one of the options is that if it is not the Higgs particles they could it could be one of the missing super symmetric Particles? There is also a chance it could be a mixed neutralino or slepton, also in the range between 100-150 GeV. In fact they all remain missing, where "all" refers to a number that may be as low as zero. if Higgs can only explain about just the 4% the matter we know about the Universe, which doesn't include dark matter and dark energy, why do physicists call it fundamental to the whole universe ( matter +dark matter+dark energy)? The Higgs mechanism provides a fundamental way to generate the mass for massive vector bosons
2) The Higgs mechanism is critical to explaining how electroweak unification works
3) Similar to the strong force (the strong force holds colour charged quarks together but a second order effect known as the residual strong force holds non-colour-charged nucleaons together too
) it is perfectly possible that a 'residual' there should exist in nature a boson of zero charge, zero spin, and zero mass. No such particle was known. If it existed and interacted with other matter as it was expected to do, it could hardly have escaped detection  it is perfectly possible that a In the further future there is some excitement building for the idea of a Higgs factory, a muon-muon collider. There are considerable technical challenges to do with this, however

SM Higgs production cross sections at √s = 7 TeV (2012 update)

Higgs Mass range
step size
# of points
[ 90,110] GeV
5 GeV
5 points
[110,140] GeV
0.5 GeV
60 points
[140,160] GeV
1 GeV
20 points
[160,290] GeV
2 GeV
65 points
+ 165, 175, 185, 195 GeV (4 points)
[290,350] GeV
5 GeV
12 points
[350,400] GeV
10 GeV
5 points
[400,1000] GeV
20 GeV
30 points
+ 450, 550, 650, 750, 850, 950 GeV (6 points).
 So the last missing ingredient of the Standard Model of Big Bang theory in particle Physics is the zero mass particles and the particle that gave mass to the zero mass. The Standard Model gives an extraordinarily precise picture of the matter that makes up all the visible universe, and the forces that govern its behavior, but there are good reasons to believe that this is not the end of the story. The Final of the Theory there  must exist in nature a  particle of zero charge, zero spin, and zero mass. No such particle is known yet.. If it existed and interacted with other matter as it was expected to do, it could hardly have escaped detection Higgs is a boson with no charge and no spin, but its mass could be as much as hundreds of GeV.
1] ChiaraMariotti and ReiTanaka - 24-Dec-2010LHCPhysics Web
2} Rupak Bhattacharya of 7/51Purbapalli PO= Sodepur Dist 24 Parganas(north) Kolkata-110 West Bengal, India
 3] Observation of a New Particle with a Mass of 125 GeV2012-07-04, by Lucas Taylor
4] CMS search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in LHC data from 2010 and 2011

5]About the Higgs Boson

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Thursday, 5 July 2012

What is Gravity? Is it a force Generated by a Zero mass particle ! If it is a force then why we can not measure Gravity or speed of Gravity?

AUTHORS are_: 
**Rupak Bhattacharya, *Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya MD(cal) FIC path(Ind), Professor & HOD  Dept of Pathology, DCP convener and DLT course in charge WBUHS,  Presently at  school of Tropical Medicine Kolkata-73,**Ritwik Bhattacharya, * Miss Upasana Bhattacharya Student & only daughter of Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya,  **Miss Rupsa Bhattacharya, **Soumayak Bhattacharya MSc HHM(IGNOU) MSC Student PUSHA New Delhi  of residence 7/51 Purbapalli, Sodepur, Kol-110 **Ritwik Bhattacharya ,  ***Mrs Dalia Mukherjee BA(hons) cal ***Miss Oaindrila Mukherjee  BA (hons) Student ,***Mr Debasis mukherjee BSC(cal) –of Residence swamiji Nagar South Habra, 24 parganas(North) WB, India

 Unanswered question about our visible universe in the   standard Big bang model is, surprisingly enough, the contents of the Universe. Obviously, we can only directly `see’ matter that emits light particles, but today it turned out as a fact that most of the matter in our observable Universe actually does not emit light [ They are either the dark matter/ or dark energy]. For example, the visible parts the of galaxies are thought to be surrounded by much larger `haloes’ of dark matter, with a size up to 30 times that of the visible part. There also exist dark galaxies as Rupak Bhattacharya told. If all this matter were visible, the night sky would probably look pretty much like van Gogh’s `Starry night’.
Even though we  can only have indirect evidences for the existence of this dark matter, we do have a reasonable idea yet of what it is. About 4%-  5% of the matter of this Universe is only visible. Another 5% is invisible `normal matter’, that is, baryons (protons and Neutrons) and electrons. This is probably in the form of massive compact halo objects, such as brown dwarfs, white dwarfs, planets and possibly black holes. Roughly 25% of the matter of the Universe is thought to be `cold dark matter’ (CDM), that is, heavy non-relativistic exotic particles, such as axions or WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles). CDM tends to collapse (or `clump’) into the haloes of galaxies, dragging along the dark baryons with it. Finally, 65% of the contents of this Universe is thought to be in the form of a `cosmological constant’, that is, Dark energy of the vacuum and probably  “The gravity” : this can also be thought of as cosmic antigravity or the weight of space! Unlike CDM, this never clumps: it tends to make the Universe `blow up’ by making it expanding faster and faster like a balloon blowing with air( given at bottom of this Blog). In other words, it forces an accelerated expansion which, according to recent data, has begun very recently. These data have been taken very skeptically by some people. In particular, a period of future acceleration of the Universe, while not posing any problems for cosmologists, would be somewhat problematic for string theory, as we know it. However, this is not a basis for judgment: `data’ is not a dirty word, `assumption’ and `conjecture’ are in fact dirty words to me. These ingredients are needed for cosmological model building. One  may starts with a theoretical model, `adds in’ cosmological parameters such as the age, matter, contents and so forth and computes its observational consequences. One must then compare notes with observational cosmologists and see whether the model is in agreement with our observations: if it does not agree then one had better  to start again. In the hope of eliminating some of the shortcomings of the “Big Bang model or Standard Model of Universe Creation”, one needs to  then generalize the model, and yet unexplored extra dimensions are a good places to look for answers.
Strings and extra dimensions. It is  now believed that the unification of the known fundamental interactions of nature requires theories with additional space-time dimensions. Indeed, the only known theory of gravity that is consistent with quantum mechanics is string theory, which is formulated in at least 10 dimensions (Polchinski 1998)-however we human being never  can experience those Extra dimensions space time. Only in mathematics and in theory they can exist. It is not the fault of creator of the universe vaccum ,space time but our eyes and brain power does not permit to see other spaces. Even though there are at present no robust ideas about how one can go from these theories to our familiar low-energy space-time cosmology in four dimensions (three spatial dimensions plus time), it is clear that such a process will necessarily involve procedures known as dimensional reduction and compactification. These concepts are mathematically very elaborate, but physically quite simple to understand. Even if the true `theory of everything’ is higher dimensional, one must ­ find how it would manifest itself to observers like us who can only probe four dimensions. Note that this is more general than simply obtaining low-energy or other limits of the theory.
On the other hand, given that we only seem to be able to probe four dimensions, we must ­figure out why we cannot see the others or, in other words, why (and how) they are actually hidden from us. A simple solution is, to make these extra dimensions compact and very small.
What is Gravity Newton once discovered that? Of what force/ or what  matter is it then composed? Rather the question may be asked of What Particles the gravity force is made of? Is it the Dark matter? Is it the Dark Energy? Is it the Higg Boson? Or is a zero mass  Rupak particle? Is it simple wrapped up space -time?
             What is Space-time
For over a century, since Albert Einstein published his first paper on  his general  theory of   relativity in 1905, physicists have struggled to resolve fundamental differences between quantum theory and the continuum or yang miller field theory. The field approach should have no singularities [Big bang or Big crunch]; but the quantum approach has only singularities. Max Planck formulated quantum theory in 1900, and Einstein could however successfully applied it in 1905 to electromagnetic radiation, when Einstein first hypothesized the photon particle in Particle Physics, the inheritors of quantum theory, used a paradigm of ballistic matter in non-reactive flat space, that was originally fashioned using the Rutherford atomic model for the fixed nucleus and its orbiting electrons, which was patterned after the solar system by Rutherford to win Planets highest honor& Prize- a Nobel prize. The laws of conservation of momentum and energy, and orbital dynamics did not translate well from the very large realm to the very small, resulting in necessary modifications such as de Broglie waves. Relativity, the successor to field theory, had been there after repeatedly tested and was proven using atomic clocks, accelerated particles, and star light aberration of  CS Chandrasekhar NL. But other than explanations involving passenger trains and observers as originally presented by Einstein, relativity lacks a working visualization model like the Rutherford atomic model, to explain interactions of matter at relativistic speeds approaching "c" the speed of light. Very little is found in scientific literature regarding common ground from which both particle physics and relativity can be derived. All of theoretical physics suffers from the lack of a definitive visualization model to guide research. The majority of developments in theoretical physics are driven by purely mathematical concepts and extensions of current theory.
The most recent attempt at achieving common ground, that of String Theory, fell victim in this struggle and was reduced to so called Super Symmetry String Theory ,being reinterpreted as super-short string segments embedded within the theoretical quark particles. Each miniaturized "super string" is supposed to have free ends whipping at the speed of light. Exactly where from the required string tension comes from to support super high frequencies with unrestrained ends, and where the power comes from to sustain the oscillations,  was never addressed till date. Also left unanswered is any relevance of whipping ends inside the theoretical sub-atomic quark, to the transmission of light in free space. Compactifying string theory within the unobserved quark particle effectively marginalized string theory and ended its threat to the status quo.
 What is space time?
 In physics, spacetime (or space–time) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum. Spacetime is usually interpreted with space being three-dimensional and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort than the spatial dimensions. According to certain Euclidean space perceptions, the universe has three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. By combining space and time into a single manifold, physicists have significantly simplified a large number of physical theories, as well as described in a more uniform way the workings of the universe at both the super galactic and subatomic levels. The concept of space-time combines space and time within a single coordinate system, typically with three spatial dimensions: length, width, height, and one temporal dimension: the time. Dimensions are components of a coordinate grid typically used to locate a point in a certain defined "space" as, for example, on the globe by latitude and longitude. In space time, a coordinate grid that spans the 3+1 dimensions locates "events" (rather than just points in space), so time is added as another dimension to the grid, and another axis. This way, you have where and when something is. Unlike in normal spatial coordinates, there are restrictions for how measurements can be made spatially and temporally. These restrictions correspond roughly to a particular mathematical model which differs from Euclidean space in its manifest symmetry. We live in a 3+1 dimensional space time with symmetry principles that, in the case of special relativity, require that the laws of physics be invariant under space time transformations. Symmetry and asymmetry have been powerful organizing concepts in a host of disciplines, including in physiology, biology, art and mathematics. More than a century ago, van’t Hoff pointed out a connection between molecular chirality and the fundamental symmetries in physics . In the case of biology, Pasteur was the first to recognize ‘‘symétrie’’ at the molecular level and concluded from data on (+)- and (-)-tartaric acid that they represented non super imposable mirror images of each other (Fig. 1Go). Kelvin later introduced the term chirality for this type of asymmetry
Previously, from various important experiments at low speeds, time was believed to be independent of motion, progressing only in forward direction, at a fixed rate in all reference frames; however, later in early mid 20th century, high-speed experiments revealed that time can be slowed down at higher speeds (with such slowing called "time dilation" explained in the theory of Einstein "special theory of relativity" ). Many powerful experiments  later have confirmed time dilation, such as in atomic clocks, on board a Space Shuttle running slower than synchronized Earth-bound inertial clocks and at subatomic particles level the relativistic decay of muons from cosmic ray showers. So time is always variable in space time. The duration of time can therefore vary for various events and various reference frames. When dimensions are understood as mere components of a grid system, rather than physical attributes of space, it is easier to understand the alternate dimensional views as being simply the result of coordinate transformations. The term space-time has taken on a generalized meaning beyond treating space-time events with the normal 3+1 dimensions (including time). It is really the combination of space and time. Other proposed spacetime theories include additional dimensions—normally spatial but there exist some speculative theories that include additional temporal dimensions and even by some those included some other dimensions that are neither temporal nor spatial. How many dimensions are needed to describe the visible universe is still an open question today. Speculative theories such as string theory suggests that vibrating strings that exist in 10 dimensions underpin the observable Universe  [string theory no-3] or 26[string theory no-1] dimensions ,when M-theory predicts minimum 11 dimensions: 10 spatial and 1 temporal, but the existence of more than four dimensions would only appear to make a difference at the subatomic level or micro universe level. For physical reasons, a spacetime continuum is mathematically defined as a four-dimensional, smooth, flat connected with Lorentzian manifold (M,g). This means the smooth Lorentz metric g has signature . The metric determines the geometry of spacetime, as well as determining the geodesics of particles and light beams. About each point (event) on this manifold, coordinate charts are used to represent observers in reference frames. Usually, Cartesian coordinates (x,y,z,t) are used. Moreover, for simplicity's sake, the speed of light c is usually assumed to be unity. A reference frame (observer) can be identified with one of these coordinate charts; any such observer can describe any event p. Another reference frame may be identified by a second coordinate chart about p. Two observers (one in each reference frame) may describe the same event p but obtain different descriptions. Usually, many overlapping coordinate charts are needed to cover a manifold. Given two coordinate charts, one containing p (representing an observer) and another containing q (representing another observer), the intersection of the charts represents the region of spacetime in which both observers can measure physical quantities and hence compare results. The relation between the two sets of measurements is given by a non-singular coordinate transformation on this intersection. The idea of coordinate charts as local observers who can perform measurements in their vicinity also makes good physical sense, as this is how one actually collects physical data—locally. For example, two observers, one of whom is on Earth, but the other one who is on a fastest rocket to pluto, may observe a comet crashing into Jupiter or in pluto (this is the event p). In general, they will disagree about the exact location and timing of this impact, i.e., they will have different 4-tuples (x,y,z,t) (as they are using different coordinate systems). Although their kinematic descriptions will differ, dynamical (physical) laws, such as momentum conservation and the first law of thermodynamics, will still hold. In fact, relativity theory requires more than this in the sense that it stipulates these (and all other physical) laws must take the same form in all coordinate systems. This introduces tensors into relativity, by which all physical quantities are represented.
Spacetime in  theory of special relativityThe geometry of spacetime in special relativity theory is described as the Minkowski metric on R4. This spacetime there is called Minkowski space. The Minkowski metric is usually denoted by η and can be written as a four-by-four matrix: where the Landau–Lifshitz spacelike convention is being used. A basic assumption of relativity is that coordinate transformations must leave spacetime intervals invariant. Intervals are invariant under Lorentz transformations. This invariance property leads to the use of four-vectors (and other tensors) in describing physics. Strictly speaking, one can also consider events in Newtonian physics as a single spacetime. This is Galilean-Newtonian relativity, and the coordinate systems are related by Galilean transformations. However, since these preserve spatial and temporal distances independently, such a spacetime can be decomposed into spatial coordinates plus temporal coordinates, which is not possible in the general case.
 Spacetime in general relativity_: In general relativity theory, it is assumed that spacetime is curved by the presence of matter (energy), this curvature being represented by the Riemann’s tensor particles. In special relativity, the Riemann tensor is identically zero, and so this concept of "non-curvedness" is sometimes expressed by the statement Minkowski spacetime is flat. Many space time continua have physical interpretations which most physicists would consider bizarre or unsettling. Let me tell you that for example, a compact  space-time has closed, time-like curves, which violate our usual ideas of causality (that is, future events could affect past ones). For this reason, mathematical( theoretical) physicists like me usually consider only restricted subsets of all the possible spacetimes. One way to do this is to study "realistic" solutions of the equations of general relativity. Another way is to add some additional "physically reasonable" but still fairly general geometric restrictions and try to prove interesting things about the resulting spacetimes. The latter approach has led to some important results, most notably the Penrose–Hawking singularity of the time which ultimately was disproved
Quantized spacetime [3+1 spacetime] or Rogers Penrose_  S.W Hawking”s Space time concept   In the general theory of relativity, space time is assumed to be so  smooth, flat and continuous—and not just in the mathematics. In the theory of quantum mechanics, there is an inherent discreteness present in physics. In attempting to reconcile these two theories, it was sometimes postulated by some physicists like Penrose And Hawking  that space time should be quantized also at the very smallest scales. Current theory is focused on the nature of space time at the Planck scale. Causal sets, loop quantum gravity  string theory, and black hole thermodynamics , all these theories predicts a quantized spacetime with agreement order of magnitude. Loop quantum gravity makes precise predictions about the geometry of spacetime at the Planck scale. Privileged character of 3+1 spacetime   Reasoning about spacetime is always limited by the scientific evidence and technology available. For example, in the latter 20th century, experiments with many  particle accelerators revealed that protons gained mass when accelerated to super  & super high speeds, and the time required for particle decay and other physical phenomena rose. Special relativity predicted this. Authors here are writing before Einstein's discovery of special relativity were unaware of these facts, so that their views were often mistaken, even fanciful. In the Universe, there are two kinds of dimensions, spatial (bidirectional) and temporal (unidirectional). Let the number of spatial dimensions be N and the number of temporal dimensions be T. That N=3 and T=1, setting aside the compactified dimensions invoked by string theory and undetectable to date, can be explained by appealing to the physical consequences of letting N differ from 3 and T differ from 1. Immanuel Kant  once argued that 3-dimensional space was a consequence of the inverse square law of universal gravitation. While Kant's argument is historically important, John D. Barrow  in 2002 said that it "...gets the punch-line back to front: it is the three-dimensionality of space that explains why we see inverse-square force laws in Nature, not vice-versa." This is because the law of gravitation or any other inverse-square law follows from the concept of flux, from N=3, and from 3-dimensional soloid objects having surface areas proportional to the square of their size in a selected spatial dimension. In particular, a sphere of radius r has area of 4πr2. More generally, in a space of N dimensions, the strength of the gravitational attraction between two bodies separated by a distance of r would be inversely proportional to rN-1. In 1920, Paul Ehrenfest showed that if we fix T= 1 and let N>3, the orbit of a planet about its sun cannot remain stable. The same is true of a star's orbit around the center of its galaxy. Ehrenfest also showed that if N is even, then the different parts of a wave impulse will travel at different speeds. If N>3 and odd, then wave impulses become distorted. Only when N=3 or 1 are both problems avoided. In 1922, Hermann Weyl showed that Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism works only when N=3 and T=1, writing that this fact "...not only leads to a deeper understanding of Maxwell's theory, but also of the fact that the world is four dimensional, which has hitherto always been accepted as merely 'accidental,'become intelligible through it. Finally, Tangherlini showed in 1963 that when N>3, electron orbitals around nuclei cannot be stable; electrons would either fall into the nucleus or disperse. Max Tegmark expands on the preceding argument in the following anthropic manner. If T differs from 1, the behavior of physical systems could not be predicted reliably from knowledge of the relevant partial differential equations. In such a universe, intelligent life capable of manipulating technology could not emerge. Moreover, if T>1, Tegmark maintains that protons and electrons would be unstable and could decay into particles having greater mass than themselves. (This is not a problem if the particles have a sufficiently low temperature.) If N>3, Ehrenfest's argument above holds; atoms as we know them (and probably more complex structures as well) could not exist. If N<3, gravitation of any kind becomes problematic, and the universe is probably too simple to contain observers. For example, when N<3, nerves cannot overlap without intersecting.In general, it is not clear how physical law could function if T differed from 1. If T>1, subatomic particles which decay after a fixed period would not behave predictably, because time-like geodesics would not be necessarily maximal N=1 and T=3 has the peculiar property that the speed of light in a vacuum is a lower bound on the velocity of matter; all matter consists of tachyons{ Bhattacharya Rupak & Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar , Bhattacharya Upasana  et al  Nature news   Particle Breaks speeds of Light  Comment  Link] .Hence anthropic and other arguments rule out all cases except N=3 and T=1—which happens to describe the world about us. Curiously, the cases N=3 or 4 have the richest and most difficult geometry and topology. There are, for example, geometric statements whose truth or falsity is known for all N except one or both of 3 and 4. N=3 was the last case of the Poincare conjecture to be proved.For an elementary treatment of the privileged status of N=3 and T=1, see chpt. 10 (esp. Fig. 10.12) of Barrow;for deeper treatments, see §4.8 of Barrow and Tipler (1986) and Tegmark. Barrow has repeatedly cited the work of Whitrow.
String theory was built on the hypothesis that the "universe is wiggly" and theory hypothesizes that matter and energy are composed of tiny vibrating strings of various types, most of which are embedded in dimensions that exist only on a scale no larger than the Planck length. Hence N=3 and T=1 do not characterize string theory, which a embeds vibrating strings in coordinate grids having 10, even 26, dimensions .So what about the space time in the string theory? Space-time is defined there as an invisible, underlying matrix woven from a double helix having one atomic diameter cross-section and infinite length, always traveling at the speed of light "c" along its axis. It is the power source and regulator of the entire universe. I can rather call this invisible double helix the Space-time Helix (STH) because it defines the limits and dimensions of space by its ubiquitous presence and extension. It marks time at the most fundamental level by its resulting crest-to-crest sine wave spacing (wavelength), while traveling at c; and the term "helix" incorporates its cork-screw shape. The STH produces all known rotational phenomena without actually rotating. A traveling helix gives the appearance of rotation without actually rotating, yet it can induce rotation in an intersecting plane of detection through which it slides. We tend to think of a helix in terms of the “Archimedes' screw in which a rotating screw lifts water; the screw turns and the water doesn't. The STH works in the opposite manner; the STH doesn't rotate but it causes rotation of the electrons and nucleons formed by two intersecting space-time helices. If the STH were forced to rotate, it would soon twist into a hopeless knot.As long as the double helix travels longitudinally at speed c in a balanced state without lateral displacement or vibration, it remains hidden and does not intrude into our reality. Once the STH is disturbed laterally or longitudinally, by being struck or forced out of balance, it is capable of producing all known vibrational frequency particles, both short-lived and long-lived. The STH is the hidden power source for all that exists and occurs in the universe. The STH is described as follows –[  A Personal Communication with Prof Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya to Robby York And  from previously Published Blogs of Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya with 7 all  comments “What is Gravity? Is it a Force by Zero mass particle? If it is a force Why We can not measure Gravity or speed of Gravity?”  that  was Published at  Extreme  Community Blog List  List Blogs By  Professor Pranab  Kumar Bhattacharya under his user ID there as “Pranab”
The  Ronald Weiss Clopton Model of Space Time{ as he Wrote Prof Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya at Extreme for  proper reference of his STH model]
1)   The Space-time helix can be illustrated by a ball of twisted yarn or by a twisted ribbon of crepe paper with unequal edges (see Figure 1) 2)   The inner helix  has "positive proto-charge" and "proto-mass" capable of producing a proton when physically coupled with the inner helix of another intersecting Space-time helix. Such coupling occurred one time only during the opening one (1) second of the Big Bang event, creating instantly all the protons in the universe. The sudden appearance of unbalanced, unbridled positive charge in the ultra-dense compacted universe, which began smaller than a single pea, provided the mutually repulsive force needed to explode the disassociated hydrogen H+ nuclei into the ever expanding, cooling universe we know today.   The inner helix normally has an orbital diameter roughly equal to the nuclear diameter of a hydrogen H nucleus; but the inner radius of gyration can be momentarily displaced and expanded in its travels at c by a width ranging up to the nuclear diameter of the heaviest possible element.  - The outer helix has "negative proto-charge" and "proto-mass" capable of producing an electron when physically coupled with the outer helix of another intersecting Space-time helix. The coupling of two inner helices and two outer helices at a junction point or pair node produces a hydrogen H atom, with an orbital proton and an orbital electron. According to the literature, electron coupling first occurred 300,000 years after the Big Bang, when the rapidly expanding chaotic H+ plasma cooled to the point that the two outer helices of node-paired Space-time helices could capture each other as they whipped around the proton-node already formed by the intersecting inner helices. The outer helix has an orbital diameter in free space roughly equal to the single electron orbital diameter of a hydrogen H electron shell. The outer orbital diameter can be momentarily displaced and expanded in its travels at c by a width ranging up to the outer electron shell diameter of the heaviest possible element. The outer helix is somewhat elastic and can assume a higher or lower orbital diameter as it speeds through an intersecting atom-node. An imbalance between the radii of gyration of a coupled proton and electron, at the atom node, may contribute to chemical valence states, and provide some basis for chemical bonding along the longitudinal axis of either paired helix (see Figure 1 and Figure 2).     The STH travels at c along its path throughout the universe in a dynamically balanced state, so that the radii of gyration of the inner and outer helix members are inversely proportional to their proto masses, which themselves are proportional to the relative masses of the proton and electron, that being 1836.1 m(proton) :1 m(electron). By extrapolating from the orbital frequency of a single electron in the hydrogen H atom, given as 6.6 million giga hertz, we can determine that the wave length of the STH at this present point of universe expansion is about 4.54 x 10-6 cm.
Figure 1. . Schematic of Space-time Helix

[please enlarge  the all  pictures by click on individual pictures and then at  format pictures and then on size icons]
Time is nothing more than fixed periodicity established at the most primal level. The basic time is the standard of the entire material universe, shared by every atom, is the rotational frequency of its constituent electrons, and the corresponding rotational frequency of its nucleons that are paired to its electrons by the STH structure. Time renormalizes at every electron, proton and neutron in the universe because an STH imposes its rotational frequency on an intersecting node-paired STH, which in turn is forced to the same rotational frequency by the STH it intersects. That is why the universe, other than for spectral red shift or spectral blue shift does not appear to radically depart from a common time base.
Relativistic time dilation occurs when a pair node (atom) is accelerated to speeds approaching the speed of light c. At higher speeds of light such as with tachyons the two space-time helices are drawn into a narrow "V" trailing the atom, but each STH continues to course through the atom from a lagging position toward the leading position. If one STH is oriented by direction of flow opposite to the direction of travel of the atom, this opposing STH folds to trail the atom, for the simple folk reason that it is impossible to push a rope (see Figure 3). A rope can only be pulled because it is flexible, just like the STH. The rope, in this case the STH opposing the direction of travel, folds as the atom drags it along. In normal space-time, time can flow only in one direction, unless the STH is stiffened by an intense magnetic field. As the speed of the atom approaches c, both helices become more aligned in the direction of travel. If it were possible to move an atom at speed c, the two helices would become essentially overlaid and could be treated as a single helix with uniform rotation. Rotation speed of the electron depends upon the differential between the speed of the pair node (atom) through space, and the speed of the STH which always travels at speed c. As the differential decreases, the apparent rotational speed of the electron slows .At speed c, the speed of the atom and electron would match the speed of the STH, so the STH could no longer force the electron to rotate; time for the atom and electron would stop, and the electron would become a stationary node riding the STH. An atom cannot be pushed to speed c, because of relativistic mass increase which prevents the atom from reaching speed c. The same behavior would be true for nucleons in the atom. Time dilation is [shown in  Equation as mentioned bellow]relativistic  which relates the motion of one observer to another without benefit of an underlying matrix common to both observers. The Clopton Model provides an inertial frame of reference travelling at speed c that is common to both observers

 The given formula for relatA = tB / sqrt (1- vBA2 / c2 )      
  tA = Time differential as measured by observer A
  tB = Time differential as measured by observer B
  vBA2 = Square of the difference in velocity between observer A and observer B

Relativistic mass increase is linked to relativistic time dilation. At higher speeds the two space-time helices are drawn into a narrow "V" trailing the atom (see Figure 4). As the moving atom approaches speed c, the "V" narrows even more, so that the atom is physically dragging along both of the space-time helices. It was entirely possible that the universe is made of only one STH string, wrapped countless times around the universe like a ball of yarn stretching and expanding as a shell (see Big Bang and the Shape of the Universe). As an accelerating atom approaches the speed of light and time slows for the atom, it becomes mechanically coupled to the space-time helix, so that the atom is actually attempting to drag the entire universe (see Relativistic Time Dilation, above). The formula for relativistic mass increase shows that the mass of any body becomes infinite at speed c, so matter can never be accelerated to the speed of light. The given formula for relativistic mass increase is shown in Equation 2.
So what is string theory? Why it is required?
 The Great Mathematician, Pythagoras could be however according myself called the first known string theorist. Pythagoras, an excellent lyre player, figured out the first known string physics - the harmonic relationship. Pythagoras could some how realize that vibrating Lyre strings of equal tensions but of different lengths would produce harmonious notes (i.e. middle C and high C) if the ratio of the lengths of the two strings were a whole number. Pythagoras discovered this by looking and listening. Today that information is more precisely encoded into mathematics, namely the wave equation for a string with a tension T and a mass per unit length . If the string is described in coordinates as in the drawing below, where x is the distance along the string and y is the height of the string, as the string oscillates in time t, then the equation of motion is the one-dimensional wave equation will be according to me=
 δ2 y(x,t)/ δt2 = T/m δ2 y(x,t )/ δx2=v2w/ δ2 y(x,t )/ δx2  where vw is the wave velocity along the string. When  I was solving the equations of motion,  I also need to know the "boundary conditions" of the string. Let's me suppose that the string is fixed at each end and has an un stretched length L. The general solution to this equation can be then written as a sum of "normal modes", here labeled by the integer n, such that ; y(x,t)=Σ αn=1[an cos nπvw t/L+bnsin nπvwt/L]sinπx/L  .The condition for a normal mode is that the wavelength be some integral fraction of twice the string length, or   λn =2L/n. The frequency of the normal mode is then
ƒn=nvw/2L . The normal modes are what we hear as notes in a base Guitar. Notice that the string wave velocity vw increases as the tension of the string is increased, and so the normal frequency of the string increases as well.. This is why a base guitar string makes a higher note when it is tightened. But that's for a non relativistic string, one with a wave velocity much smaller than the speed of light. How then do  I write the equation for a relativistic string?
   According to  Centuries greatest  scientist Einstein's theory, a relativistic equation has to use coordinates that have the proper Lorentz transformation properties. But then  I have to face one problem, because  in the string theory , a string always oscillates{ who knows why it is always oscillating] in space and time, and as it  goes on oscillates, it sweeps out a two-dimensional surface in space time that  I can  call it   now a  world sheet (compared with the world line of a particle).  In the non relativistic string,  So there will be a clear difference between the space coordinate along the string, and the time coordinate. But in a relativistic string theory, we wind up having to consider the world sheet of the string as a two-dimensional space time of its own, where the division between space and time depends upon the observer.
The classical equation can be  then written as per me
δ2Xm(σ,τ)/ δτ2+ c2x δ2Xm(σ,τ)/ δσ2 where  and  are coordinates on the string world sheet representing space and time along the string, and the parameter c2 is the ratio of the string tension to the string mass per unit length.
   These equations of motion can be derived from Euler-Lagrange equations from an action based on the string world sheet   S= -1/4
πά∫ d σd τ√hhnm δmXm δnXm  
The space time coordinates XU of the string in this picture are also fields XU in a two-dimension field theory defined on the surface that a string sweeps out as it travels in space. The partial derivatives are with respect to the coordinates  and  on the world sheet and hmn is the two-dimensional metric defined on the string world sheet.
   The general solution to the relativistic string equations of motion looks very similar to the classical non relativistic case above. The transverse space coordinates can be expanded in normal modes as      Xi(
(σ,τ)=xi+X.iτ+i√2ά Σ 1/nain [ cos nπcτ/L-iSin nπcτ/L] cos nπς/L
The string solution above is unlike a guitar string in that it isn't tied down at either end and so travels freely through space time as it oscillates. The string above is an open string, with ends that are floppy.  For a closed string, the boundary conditions are periodic, and the resulting oscillating solution looks like two open string oscillations moving in the opposite direction around the string. These two types of closed string modes are called right-movers and left-movers, and this difference will be important later in the super symmetric heterotic string theory.
 This is classical string. When we add quantum mechanics on string  by making the string momentum and position obey quantum commutation relations, the oscillator mode coefficients have the commutation relations     [
amm, avn]=mdm+n hmv
The quantized string oscillator modes wind up giving representations of the Poincaré group, through which quantum states of mass and spin  can be classified in a relativistic quantum field theory.
    So this is how & where the elementary particles arise in a string theory. Particles in a string theory are like the harmonic notes played on a string with a fixed tension
T string= 1/2πά
The parameter a' is called the string parameter and the square root of this number represents the approximate distance scale at which string effects should become observable.
   In the generic quantum string theory, there are quantum states with negative norm, also known as ghosts. They are made of  thus anti particles This happens because of the minus sign in the space time metric, which implies that
   So there ends up being extra unphysical states in the string spectrum.
   In 26 space time dimensions, these extra unphysical states wind up disappearing from the spectrum. Therefore. bosonic string quantum mechanics is only consistent if the dimension of space time is 26 and it appears to me absurd to me. Why we do not then see  all those extra Space time dimension if I exist. Are they Wrapped up. Who then wrapped them up?
   By looking at the quantum mechanics of the relativistic string normal modes, one can deduce that the quantum modes of the string look just like the particles we see in space time, with mass that depends on the spin according to the formula
Regge formula
    Please remember that boundary conditions are very important for string behavior. Strings can be open, with ends that  may travel at the speed of light c, or strings may be closed, with their ends joined in a ring. The main alternative theory of the origin of the structures (mass) of the universe are these cosmic strings or super heavy strings which are predicted too form in the early universe by the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) in inflationary “ Big Bang model. Loops of such cosmic strings were then seed of  all the galaxies. They were super heavy strings, formed at phase transition or condensation that took place when the universe was cooled after GUTS in the very early universe. Kibble{ Will he get ever the Nobel Prize in physics?- he should} had  once suggested that GUTS strings played an important role in the evolution of the Universe and the strings provided the in-homogenity leading to the formation of galaxies. In the very early universe Strings were predicted to be formed at symmetry breaking phase transition by those in grand unified theories (GUTS) in which vacuum ( space Time) had the appropriate topology. Cosmic Strings were the configuration of the matter fields, which owe their topology of the space of degenerate vacuum, produced in the phase transition, in the early universe. Let  me ignore the internal structure of the strings and treat them as one-dimensional object with tension. In the resting frame of the strings, the mass per unit length μ to the tension. The equality of the line of the density and the tension caused the typical velocity associated with large vibration on the strings to be close to speed of light. The strings cannot end but can either close on themselves or can be extended to infinity. The closed strings are loops.
Whenever two long strings cross each other, they exchange ends, or `inter commute' (case (a) in the figure below). We had already encountered this apparently strange fact when we discussed the strings in the context of nematic liquid crystals. In particular, a long string can inter commute with itself, in which case a loop will be produced (this is case (b) below).

As with any object in tension, strings would also accelerate so as to try to become straight. Damping of the string motion was due to their non gravitational interaction with other matter, those become negligible as soon as the strings were formed. Strings that extended outside the horizon were conformably stretched by the cosmic expansion. Thus at a given epoch, these strings were straight on their length & scale, but were smaller then the horizon size, but was quiet convoluted on large scale lager then this. The typical velocity was associated with the straightening of a string and was close to the speed of light and the velocity field of the string extending outside the horizon was relativistic and approximately constant over scale much smaller than a horizon size. Once a loop entered the horizon it no longer expanded but rather started oscillate with a period comparable to light travel time across it. This motion was damped by gravitational radiation causing the size & period of the loop to decrease approximately linearly with time The Fractional decrease in size, period,& mass of the strings in one oscillation was given by equation* Gμ where G is Gravitational constant. A string will decrease to zero size in a finite amount of time loosing its energy by Gravitational Radiation. The distribution of strings in our universe was not quite so well understood
These pictures show
1) a full three-dimensional simulation of the inter commuting of two cosmic strings... The reconnection and `exchange of partners' when two strings intersect. In this three-dimensional simulation, the strings approach each other at half the speed of light. Notice the radiation of energy and the production of a small interaction loop in the aftermath of the collision [ Picture By Rupak Bhattacharya].
The scattering of two vortices is highly non-trivial; the two vortices approach and form a donut from which the emerge at right-angles have `exchanged halves'
Both long cosmic strings and small loops will emit radiation. In most cosmological scenarios this will be gravitational radiation, but electromagnetic radiation or axions can also be emitted in some cases (for some specific phase transitions). Here is a single, oscillating piece of string
4]  Radiation fields from the oscillating shown above. A transverse cross-section of the fields has been made at the point of maximum amplitude. Notice the four lobes of the radiation (a quadrupole pattern) which is characteristic of all cosmic string radiation
5]  The effect of radiation is much more dramatic for loops, since they lose all their energy this way, and eventually disappear. Here you can see what happens in the case of two interlocked loops. This configuration is unlikely to happen in a cosmological setting, but it is nevertheless quite enlightening. Notice the succession of compicated dynamic processes before the loop finally disappears
. After formation, an initially high density string network begins to chop itself up by producing small loops. These loops oscillate rapidly (relativistically) and decay away into gravitational waves. The net result is that the strings become more and more dilute with time as the universe expands. From an enormous density at formation, mathematical modelling suggests that today there would only be about 10 long strings stretching across the observed universe, together with about a thousand small loops!
In fact the network dynamics is such that the string density will eventually stabilize at an exactly constant level relative to the rest of the radiation and matter energy density in the universe. Thus the string evolution is described as `scaling' or scale-invariant, that is, the properties of the network look the same at any particular time t if they are scaled (or multiplied) by the change in the time. This is schematically represented below:
After the phase transition, the strings were formed in a random network of self-avoiding curves/loops. Some of the strings were in closed loops and some were as infinite strings. The distribution of strings so happened that a constant number of loops entered the Horizon. If the infinite strings would simply straighten out, then the numbers of open strings across the horizon-sized volume would also increase with time and strings would soon come out to dominate the density. Velenkin .A [Physics Review D23, p852; 1981] showed that the geometry produced by the gravitational field near a length of straight string is that of Minkowski space with a three dimensional wedge taken out of each space like slice. The vertex of the wedge lies along the length of the string and the angle subtended by missing wedge lies in rest frame of the string and is equated asδπGμThe two exposed faces of the strings are thus identified. Thus the Space Time remained flat everywhere except along the Strings , where it was highly curved. If Gμ<<1, then the stress energy of the strings would produce only small (lenier) perturbations  from the metric of  rest of the universe. Because the matter in the Universe did not produce significant purturbation from the Minkowski metric Space ,on scale ,less then horizon, the Gravitational field at a point much closer  to a length of a string would be essentially  then the same  as gravitational field  at a similarly located point in Minkowski  space. In the rest of frame of the strings, all particles  were  when passing , the strings were deflated  by an angle  8πG μ with respect to all particles passing on other side of the strings. The magnitude of discontinuity in temperature(While passing of particles) across the string was δT/T= 8πGβ, where β=Transverse Velocity  of the strings which was typically  was close to Unity. This Jump of temperature persisted on angular distance  away from the string, corresponding to the present angular size of the radius of curvature of the strings. The magnitude of temperature jump was then independent of the Red shift (Z) at which Light Rays  reaching to us,  passed by the strings. If we calculate   the general properties of microwave  sky anisotropy  in string mode , then let us assume  that microwave  photons were last scattered at Red shift Z 1s. In a perfectly homogenious  Universe ,the matter became mostly neutral and optically  then at Z˜ 1000. However in a Universe with strings, there will be large amplitude in homogeneity on small scale and the heat output from objects forming at or before Zγee may re -ionize the plasma. If the plasma were kept fully ionized then Z1s>10 and we have 1000>Z1s>10,the angle subtended by a horizon-sized volume space at Z1c is o1s-1/2<<1. One would do expect to see on a round patch of sky of strings per horizon volume at red shift Z, will project to one length of string of angular size o if z<z1s. These strings will be moving relativistic ally, as they were unable to straighten themselves out of these length scale. In the modern Gauge theories of fundamental interaction of the Vacuum was far from being nothing. Rather it is now recognized as a dynamical object that was in different state. The current state of vacuum affects the properties such as masses and interaction of any particles put into it. Although the vacuum is thought to lie in it’s ground state ,that with the lowest state of energy, this state had not always been the same. Thus in the early universe when the particle component  [ordinarily matter and radiation] was at a very high temperature, the vacuum adjusted it’s state in doing so modified  the properties of particles so as to minimize the free energy of the entire system. [Vacuum plus particles. ] e i. the vacuum went into higher energy state in order to lower the energy  of hot plasma by even greater amount. As the universe cooled to keep the entire system  at the lowest possible energy  at a given temperature , the vacuum had to change  eventually, ending up in it’s present state which is nearby the true or zero temperature vacuum. It was possible in early universe that as the Universe expanded , the cooling  happened too rapidly for the vacuum to find it’s true ground state and the vacuum was frozen  into ground state with defects. Defects  that probably could occur in a three dimensional space could be Zero dimensional (Monopoles), Two dimensional (Domain walls) or One dimensional (Strings). The Strings are macroscopic objects. In most cases of cosmological interest they have no ends and are either infinitely long or closed in a loop

At GUT’s the Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic forces behaved as if, they had equal strength, much as line defects found in the crystal. They formed as a net work  across the space& time. The GUT”s predicts that strings were   formed at a temperature of about  1015 to ~1016 Gev. at a Cosmological time of about 10
̃ 35 Second. The Cosmic Strings  were formed at the mass scale of GUTs Symmetry  breaking (Mx-̃ 2x1015 Gev) was typified  by a mass  per unit length μG/c2̃̃ ~ 2x10 6 in dimensionless unit.[ G= Gravitational Constant, C= speed of Light, which is corresponding  to μ= ~ 2.6X10 21, Kgm-1~ 4x107 MOPC-1  where MO= Mass of Sun . Or in other words the strings were formed with a mass  per unit length of about  1020 kg-1. They have a mass per unit length  μ=ε/G  [where ε= ~( <φ>/ mp)2  is the dimensionless amplitude  of their Gravitational potential, mp is the Plank Mass and the Vaccum Expectation  value of Higgs field is φ.] Because of their enormous tension  ε/G , the net work of the Strings were formed in the phase transition. In this Theory the Strings contributed   only a small  fraction of mass  of the Universe. The Galaxies were formed  by  Accreating of ordinary matter about the Strings.  The Strings were stretched   by subsequent expansion of the Universe  on waves,   on a given scale  and began to oscillate then. The strings underwent Oscillation in which the Transverse intertia  acted as weight and the restoring forces were provided by longitudinal tension of the strings.   As a result of oscillation  in such that the scale entered the particles horizon and whenever the strings crossed itself and exchanged  particle partners and produced closed Oscillating loops of the Strings with long life(Peebles. P.G. Z- large scale Structure of the Universe.- Princeton University press –1981).
The Strings actually underwent Oscillation in which the Transverse inertia acted as weight and the resting force was provided longitudinal tension of the strings. The gravitational field of these strings loops caused accretion of matter around them. Brosche. P.J in the journal of Astrophysics stated that angular momentum of an astronomical object is proportional directly t square of mass and constant of proportionality is comparable to String Theories, which suggest that the Universe had evolved through hecrchial breaking of rotating or oscillating strings and the angular momentum with mass between various classes of different objects ranging from planets to super clusters (brosche.PZ.J-Astrophysics Vo 57; P143; 1963). For the almost past  three and half decades, a variety of Grand Unified Theories (GUT’S) had been developed to unify the strong and electro weak interactions at an energy scale of 1016 Gev. GUTs are Gauge invariant point field theories (yang Mills), which do not incorporate Gravitational forces and henceforth there remains few theoretical constrains on the possible internal symmetry group. The most favored Guts theories are based on the special unitary group Su (5), the special orthogonal Group SO (10) or the Exceptional Group E6. In such Guts theories “Quark’ and “Leptons” make up three of these families, are unified in one family. Super symmetries an important ingredient in Guts. It is a symmetry that relates to “Fermions” and particles of different spins. But supper symmetry is not an internal symmetry but amounts to an extension of the Space &time in super space that includes extra spinorial anti commuting co-ordinates as well ordinary co-ordinates. Super Symmetry requires particles Known as” s-quarks”, s leptons”, winos, Zinos, R –particles(  a zero mass Rupak Particles} which have yet to be discovered. Super gravity theories are point field theories that incorporate local or gauged supper symmetry and thereby enlarging Einstein Theory of relativity. The basic idea of Gauge theory is that a continuous Symmetry or global invariance properties of Lagaragian field theory that can be made into a local invariance by introducing compensating gauge field in to the theory. This means that given a field theory, which possesses symmetry such as U1 (1), Su (2), Su (3) or any other U group. The theory can be extended to a gauge theory, which has the symmetry at each part in the space-time individually. The new symmetry is then called gauge symmetry because it implies that we can choose our measuring standard gauge differentiate through out space-time without changing physics of the theory. The most familiar example of a gauge theory is Electromagnetism.  In Quantum Electrodynamics the quantum field theory of electromagnetic interactions are charged particles and Boson (photon) is the most successful gauge theory. The behavior of a relativistic String moving in space-time differs significantly from that of a structure less point particle. Unlike a point particle, a classical relativistic string has an infinite number of vibrational modes with arbitrarily high frequencies and angular momentum. This means that in quantum theory, a single string has an infinite number of states with masses sand spins which increases without limit. The string theories were developed in early 1970s as model of strong interaction physics. A Meson has thought of as a string with a quark attached to one end while an anti-quark to the other end. The string tension (T) was supposed to be _1Gev2 and the excited states of the string were supposed to be hadrons. The main theories were “Boson Theory” [Boson particle are particles in the name of Prof. S.N. Bose of kolkatta, W.B , India and Einstein] which only described Bosons and the spinning theories that incorporated “Bosons” as well  “Fermions”. These early String theories had several theoretical inconsistencies according to the present authors of this article, because the string ground states always turned out to be Tachyons (it is the particle that moves faster then Light particle in the universe and yet to be discovered). Super string theories, that evolved from spinning string theories, that incorporated suppersymetry and had no Tachyonic ground states. Super string theories hence offered the possibility of constructing a consistent quantum theory that unifies all interactions including the gravity and natural mass scale set by string tension (T) in Plank scale [ T1/2 =109Gev]. The excited states were so massive that they could be taken to be infinitely heavy and the theory can be approximated by an effective point field theory of the mass less state only. At energy scale bellow the planks scale the string looks like a point. One of the constrains in any string theory is that all string theories contain mass less spin-1 and Spin-2 particles which are associated with  “yang mills Gauge   Boson” and Gravitation. Furthermore the original  “Bosonic String Theory” required 26 space time dimension whereas  super string theory  only ten(10) dimensional space Time. We live in only three (3) dimensional Universe and we can at best imagine Four (4) dimensional space-time. Then where are these Extra Six Dimension in super string theory? Or extra 22 dimensions Bosonic String theory? May be these extra dimensions are curled up [they may be as large as our three dimension or may be too small to see and only in mathematical presence] coiled up and finally became very small by compactification in super string theory.
There are three types of Super String theories. Type 1 super string theory describe the dynamics of open strings that have their free end points. The string carries quantum numbers in the n-dimensional, defining representation of a classical group G=S0 (n) or the simplistic group USP (n) at their end points SU (n). This is similar to the way in which “quark quantum numbers” were incorporated in the original string picture of mesons.
The string is locally invariant under two super symmetries n=2, and the free ends boundaries condition breaks down this just to one. (N=1) super symmetry. The mass less open strings states are the usual state of Super symmetry of Yang Mills theory, in ten dimension with Gauge” group G” The two open strings can interact when two ends touch and join to form one open string or co- inversely one string can split in two One important thing is that the two end points of a single string can join to form a closed string and thus the mass less state of a closed string form a super gravity and do not carry Yang Mills quantum numbers
Type II Super String theory only involve the closed strings. These can have an orientation associated with fact that waves can run around the strings in two possible directions. The two orientations allows for two chiral Super symmetries. So these theories are invariant under ten (10) dimensions. In type II (a) theory the two super charges have opposite chirality’s and so the theory has actually no chirality’s and therefore it is not a very important theory. It is rather a low energy point field theory whose Dimension D=10, n=2nonchirial super gravity. In type II (b) Theory has super charges of the same chirality’s. It’s low energy point field theory limit is the chirial dimension D=10, n=2 super gravity. This theory is a remarkable theory in being chiral and yet not having any gravitational anomalies [a very important thing of any super string theory is that it must give rise to observed chirality’s of our three dimensional world i.e. it must maintain parity with law of physics]
Type III Super String Theory also called Heteriotic string theory. It is based on closed strings only, although it carries a Yang mills Gauge group G and has super symmetry n=1. In this theory, instead of the Yang Mills charges residing at the ends of the string, there is a charge density along the whole string. (Gross. D, Hurvey.J, Martinec E, Rohm.R –Physics Rev.Lett. Vol54; P502, 1984 (David Gross Received Nobel prize in physics) ). This type III super string theory by Gross et al based on either E8xE8  of type I super string theory or S0 (32). It has been speculated in this theory, if the Gauge Group G is E8 X E8` the E8—E8` symmetry may persist even in dimensionally reduced theory and in that case there will be two types of matter whose interaction will be described be E8. One type of matter will exactly mirrors the other i.e. matter and antimatter or one can call them shadow matter.  This shadow matter or antimatter interacts gravitationally with ordinary matter. But the Heteriotic string theory involve original twenty six (26) dimension with Sixteen (16) dimension being the maximal tours of one or other of the two groups and thus this theory leaves us in ten (10) dimension space time.
It was Kulza in 1922 and oscar in 1926 who showed that if a person assume general relativity in five dimension, where one dimension was curled up the resulting theory then would look a four dimensional theory of electromagnetism & gravity. Electromagnetism emerges as a gravity in the 5th dimension. Wien had identified the momentum of particles moving around the 5th  dimension as electric charge. Bosonic String theory (typeIII string theory) requires 26 space time dimensions when superstring theory contains 10. so in the string theory at least there are six(6) or 7(seven) extra dimensional space time remains. One can imagine that these dimensions are curled up to form small main fold and remarkably such six or seven dimensions compacttification can produce a world remarkably like ours own world in which shape of extra dimension determine the complete matter content and all the forces of nature  as seen a four dimensional observer
So the strings could occur as voitics in gauge theories in analogues manner to the formation of Abrikosov magnetic filaments in super conditions and such vortex was formed in phase transition in very early universe in the Peter Higg’s field. The strings then broke down or chopped of mesh at about 10 8 second (3 years) after the initial Big Bang. The spontaneous broken theory with  Peter Higgs field says μ =1M2X /4α G ∫π n2∫ G, where n= is the vacuum expectation value of Higgs field, Mx= Mass of the associated Vector Boson, G= g2/4π is the Gauge field coupling constant and ∫G= is the geometrical fraction for the Abelian Higg’s model.. If MH = MX where MH is the mass of scalar Higg’s particle then ∫ G=1. Then electro weak strings with α ~ 10-2 and Mx~100Gev and the string mass μew ̃~2x10-5g cm-1~2x10-33 c2/G. For Grand Unification Strings αG ~10-2  And Mx ~ 10-15 Gev, yielding μ Gvγs~ 2x1021gcm-1~2x10-7c2/G where C= speed of light [ Velenkin .A. – Physics Review letter Vol 46; p1169; 1981] which shows that  value of μ   for astronomical strings is much closer  GUT’S strings. So Brosche and Tassie’s { L.T.Tassie – Nature Vol 323; p40; 1986] theory suggested a very different evolution of Universe and Galaxies. According to them, some time in the early past of the Universe the Strings constituted all or nearly all of the mass of Universe and that astronomical objects were originally were formed from the strings, in such a way that a large piece of strings which eventually corresponded to super cluster and galaxies broke into smaller pieces of strings corresponding to cluster of galaxies. These pieces  of strings in turn broke into further smaller pieces of strings corresponding to Galaxies. They again broke into further smaller pieces of strings corresponding to stars and so on. At each stage of hierarchy breaking of strings ,the new pieces  of strings  might have some vibrational  energy  and the vibrational energy  was large  compared  with mass to come on. Eventually the pieces of strings transformed either by phase transition or by some form of rapid breaking into ordinary matter and thus became planet, satellites, asteroids etc. that we see now. But many other theory says that seeding of galactic matter and radiation densities the universe passed the state of equal matter and radiation densities some about 1011 second (3000years) later than galactic strings loops chopped of meshes ie about 108second(3 Years) after the Initial Big Bang
So the Idea that the super heavy Strings were formed at phase transition in the very early universe that provides us an explanation of origin of galaxies. GUTS formed strings at symmetry breaking phase transition in the very early universe, in, which vacuum was the appropriate topology. They have well known analogous in the condensed matter physics. Much as the line defect, the strings formed a net work across the whole space. In some theories, strings were formed after a period of inflation. They were then stretched by the subsequent expansion of the universe and waved on a given scale, begin to oscillate as the scale entered the particle horizon. Whenever the strings crossed itself an exchange of partner occurred and produced crossed oscillating loops of strings with long life times. The gravitational force of these loops caused matter to accrue around the strings. Thus the strings could be the primordial density fluctuation needed in the early universe to explain the eventual formation of galaxies. Now the question stands how such strings would produce density fluctuation on broad range of scale which was responsible for formation of galaxies? Galaxy formation from the Dark Matter was an extremely active area of study. From the Big Bang Nuecleosynthesis it was known that Baryons accounted for less then 15% of the Critical Cosmological Density. Observation of the dynamics of galaxies suggest us that matter clustered with galaxies is 60% of the Critical Density and the lower end of the observed range is consistent with baryon limit. Thus the dynamical Dark Matter could be Baryon. They are however two arguments which drive us to look for other candidate. The first is the Inflation. And the second is the anisotropy of 3K Microwave Back ground.
Inflation was the only way of explaining several of otherwise extra ordinary initial conditions of the universe. But for fine tuning of inflation required a critical density of the universe. Thus at least 85% of the universe could not be then the baryons matter and more then 60% of the matter of this Universe so did not cluster again into galaxies. The density of the matter on the universe must be greater then the baryonic upper limit .To make the things a little more difficult, it was said, that” the special co-relation function of rich cluster of galaxies had revealed strong clustering of very large scale up to 150 MPC.” This co-relation function of clustering of galaxies was 18 times stronger then the special co-relation  function of galaxies. It was also found that the largest scale of the universe seem to look filamentous [Strings are filamentous] with large voids and large clumps . With the GUTs an excellent way appeared to produce the distribution of size of universe. In normal generation and application of GUTs [a fluctuational spectrum with equal powering all scale formed naturally] it was assumed that there was no special co-relation between large scale and small clumps. They each had a random probability of occurring anywhere in the universe. On the other hand, it means, that strings are still being produced in the some spectrum, somewhere, &in some size. Different proposals so had been put to solve the problem. But no models could solve it, as long as it was assumed that the primordial fluctuation had random phases. For example- a model based on Neutrinos produces both critical density and large-scale structure [filaments, voids, cluster co-relation function] but did not account for early formation of galaxies (Bachcall.N- J Astrophysics Vol 270; p20; 1983). Models evoking heavy or slow moving particles [like Gev mass photinos, gravitinos, axions, planetary mass black holes] however fits the small scale structure galaxy co-relation function, formation of time & so forth as well as building hierarchal to yield clusters but it do not allow critical density of the universe to be reached.]. Even the hybrid models, - with low- mass and huge - mass ions also runs problem, because of low- mass particles smear out the small-scale structure of universe. A more natural solution of the problem might be non-random phases of string model. J.E Peebles (Nature Vol-311; P517; 1984) noted that the non random phases of string model of the Universe yields large scale filaments and voids, as super heavy strings attract galaxies and cluster and gives string cluster- cluster co-relation. Work by J.E. Peebles showed that a model based on clustering of galaxies about filaments [here strings] fit higher 3 and 4 points  co-relation function for galaxies as well as hierarchical clustering. This model also enables density growth in some areas without producing a large universal background anisotropy and so could enable baryons to be dark matter on galaxy and cluster state with non-baryonic stuff being   a critical density background as dark energy. The degree of random to nonrandom phases in such a model depends upon density of strings in the space. In the limit of space being completely filled with strings, the strings picture also gives random phases. Even if strings densities are large enough to randomize phases, their mere existence would still alter galaxy –in formation, calculation, because it were the strings rather then matter that would carry the fluctuation.
The basic things of string theory say that-:
*we live in accelerating and expanding universe today** String theory support the inflation theory where a period of rapid expansion happened in the early universe history. *** Most of the theories in the string theory are focused on understanding of theory of unbroken super-symmetry. ****In string theory De-Sitter Space can arise only when super-symmetry is broken ( Rupak Bhattacharya& Ritwik Bhattacharya’s( 7/51  of Purbapalli Sodepur Kol-110  W.B  India) Theory). Breaking supper-symmetry in the string theory requires us to  come face to face with problem of moduli stabilization. In string theory Vacuum with N≥2 super-symmetry, there are many flat direction or modules. The energy as we go along these direction of space time, there are many flat direction. In field the space is constant and infact vanishes identically. There are 100 flat directions in compactification. The flat directions are however very bad in cosmology. Flat directions cause however problems in standard model. They ruin the successful prediction of Big Bang Theory.
 The big Question hat one of author of this article Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya raised “ Does the string theory allows  at all De sitter Universe? Vacuum with negative cosmological constant to anti de-sitter space and Inflation theory of Big Bang?” This was of course a great question, exactly not yet solved. Interested readers can read the Threads and discussion at http//   of BAD Astronomy & Universe Today forum under the threads “ String theory- De sitter Universe and Inflation’ in astronomy forum and in thread by Fraser “ Superstrings could be detectable as they decay” in Universe Today & Story Comments forum
 It is known that the de- Sitter space can only arise if super symmetry is only broken. In string theory with ≥2 super-symmetry there are many flat directions. The energy as we go along these spaces is a constant & in fact vanishes identically and these flat directions are bad news from the part of Big Bang cosmology. Cosmology flat directions cause problems in standard model of Big Bang and ruin the successful prediction of Big bang nucleo-synthesis. In these compactifications besides curling up the extra dimensions preserved in the string theory to small size, fluxes are also turned on along the compactified directions. The fluxes includes higher form generalization of magnetic fluxes in the electromagnetism turning them on charges, the potential in moduli spaces, so that new minima arise in regions or field space where the potential can be calculated with control. The value of Cosmological constant in this minima can also be can also be calculated with a positive value give rise to De-Sitter universe.
The String theory started its journey  in the late 1960s as a very important tool  to explain the strong forces between nuclear atomic particles, but was replaced in the 1970s by the more successful quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory .String theory went off in its own direction, acquiring ever more baroque layers of mathematical complexity. Some physicists found it anathema that the only way the resulting theories could be tested required energies far higher than those achievable in particle accelerators. But in 2005, string theory did find its way, albeit indirectly, into one accelerator: the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Scientists discovered that string theory could be as useful as QCD in explaining the strong nuclear forces involved in a quark–gluon plasma .This new state of matter, comprising the basic constituents of protons and neutrons, was created in the hot mash-ups of gold ions generated at the RHIC. The key to this discovery was a mathematical technique in string theory that embodies the principles of holography, in which information contained in a higher dimension can be embedded in one fewer dimensions — just as a three-dimensional image can be stored within a flat, two-dimensional hologram. The latest claim for string theory is that it is a key tool in explaining the normal behavior of materials that conduct electricity without any resistance at relatively high temperatures. The theory that explains conventional superconductivity at temperatures close to absolute zero is well-developed — but the theory that explains the behavior of a second class of materials, which can superconduct at temperatures as high as 70K, remains something of a mystery
 Does Symmetry and asymmetry applicable  when in biological model?-There remain always a fundamental asymmetry in the distribution of the constituents of the universe. That is, there appears to be an excess of normal matter over antimatter in the most current and compelling models of the universe (cold dark matter [CDM]). The origin of this asymmetry remains  yet unexplained before us as do the nature of both dark matter and dark energy. Dark matter and dark energy are required by the latest CDM models that have recently been shown to be very much in accord with the findings of the cosmic background surveys . However, most intriguingly, this fundamental cosmic asymmetry appears to manifest itself by way of other asymmetries observed in other more complex systems of universe. For example, there has been a much discussed thesis that the left-right symmetry encountered in simple as well as complex multicellular organisms, including  in human laterality and cerebral symmetry, are a consequence of symmetry at the molecular level . This, in turn, is thought to arise from asymmetry at the level of elementary particles. However, although connecting links between molecular—and subatomic—chirality and macroscopic handedness and asymmetry are not established, the implications of this asymmetry for biologic processes and evolution are profound. We today now know that proteins in life forms consist (almost) exclusively of L-{alpha}-amino acids, whereas nucleic acids contain only the D-isomers of ribose or deoxyribose. Although there exists considerable controversy concerning the questions of when and how this homochirality arose in world, but it appears to be the fundamental, but incompletely tested, assumption that life as we know it could not have arisen without it. Much less attention seems to have been paid in recent years to the reasons for homochirality and its connection to the origin of life. Older studies have held that the structure-destabilizing effects of ‘‘chiral defects’’ (i.e., the incorporation of D-amino acids or L-nucleotides into their respective polymers would render them incapable or unable to participate in ‘‘biology’’). However, although newer studies confirm some destabilization, they also indicate that there is more ability to accommodate unnatural enantiomers than was previously appreciated. These findings provide new insights into the constraints imposed on life’s origin with respect to chiral purity. We should note, however, that this is a subject that has attracted considerable interest and has been reviewed in the past . Indeed, one  can even use one’s nose and establish that stereoisomers can smell different
Or on a more tragic note, the story of thalidomide where the R isomer is a teratogen( However  the R Isomer are recently used as drugs with FDA approval  in treatment of  Refractory Multiple Myeloma- a type cancer of plasma cells disorders ] while the S isomer is a tranquilizer. The primary amino acid sequence determines the structure and function of a protein. The two most common structural motifs are the {alpha}-helix and ß-sheet. Although {alpha}-helices are now more abundant in proteins than ß-sheets, it is thought that the ß-sheet occurred earlier during chemical evolution . Generally, L-amino acids form a right-handed helix; a right-handed helix exhibits optical rotation of its own. Similarly, ß-sheets are not flat but, if made of L-amino acids, exhibit a right-handed twist when viewed along their strands. This right-handedness of turn arises from energetic constraints in the bonding of L-amino acids; a chain consisting of D-amino acids would produce sheets with a left-handed twist . Indeed, the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum produced by the all-D enantiomer of the full-length ß-amyloid peptide (42 amino acid residues) was a mirror image of the spectrum obtained with the natural all-L enantiomer, indicating that the two enantiomers had opposite optical rotation . Furthermore, there are indications that such mirror image conformation translates into functional stereospecificity. When the D- and the L-enantiomer of the complete enzyme HIV-1 protease were chemically synthesized, they were found to have identical covalent structure and CD spectra of equal, but opposite, optical rotation . These data suggest that the folded forms of the D- and L-protease enzymes are mirror images when viewed in three dimension

. Most notably, the enantiomers exhibited reciprocal chiral specificity, the L-enzyme cleaving only the L-substrate and the D-enzyme showing activity only for the D-substrate. Although protein macromolecules are carriers of function, DNA macromolecules are the transgenerational informational carriers of most contemporary organisms . RNA plays the role of an intermediary between DNA and proteins in eukaryotes and can take on both informational as well as functional roles. As in proteins, the monomeric units of DNA and RNA are homochiral, each of the nucleotides containing either D-ribose or D-deoxyribose. Also like proteins, nucleic acids are able of taking on a variety of secondary structures, most famous among them the double helix. Both RNA and DNA are matrices for the assembly of a complementary replica, and homochirality has been postulated to be an absolute necessity for complementarity . Molecular modeling was interpreted as indicating that incorporation of a single T of the opposite chirality in double-stranded poly(A)/poly(T) would prevent base coupling, thereby destroying the template property and the ability to act as an information carrier . This does not, however, appear to be entirely correct. An NMR study with a dodecadeoxynucleotide containing a single nucleotide with a L-deoxyribose (the G4 residue) formed a stable base pair with the natural C-9 residue within a right-handed B-form conformation . Similarly, although substitution of a D-nucleotide with an L-nucleotide somewhat destabilized a short DNA duplex, the D-isomer could nonetheless be accommodated via changes in some of the backbone torsion angles around the phosphates and the glycosidic bond . Others have confirmed that cooperative binding between mixed L/D-oligodeoxynucleotides and single-stranded DNA and RNA is possible despite the destabilizing effect of L-substitutions . The magnitude of this destabilization was found to depend on the position and type of the nucleotide . In addition, there appears to be a limit to the n umber of substitutions that a sequence can tolerate .  
 STH and Gravity
 Gravity however may be defined as an invisible, underlying matrix woven from a double helix having one atomic diameter cross-section and infinite length, always traveling at the speed of light "c" along its axis. Gravity is probably the real power source and regulator of the entire  our visible universe. Space-time helix interactions, I can call this invisible double helix the Space-time Helix (STH) ,because it defines the limits and dimensions of space by its ubiquitous presence and extensions. It marks time at the most fundamental level by its resulting crest-to-crest sine wave spacing (wavelength), while traveling at c; and the term "helix"{ Reference-1} incorporates its cork-screw shape{1}. The STH produces all known rotational phenomena without actually rotating. A traveling helix gives the appearance of rotation without actually rotating, yet it can induce rotation in an intersecting plane of detection through which it slides. We tend to think of a helix in terms of the “Archimedes' screw in which a rotating screw lifts water; the screw turns and the water doesn't. The STH works in the opposite manner; the STH doesn't rotate but it causes rotation of the electrons and nucleons formed by two intersecting space-time helices. If the STH were forced to rotate, it would soon twist into a hopeless knot. As long as the double helix travels longitudinally at speed c in a balanced state without lateral displacement or vibration, it remains hidden and does not intrude into our reality. Once the STH is disturbed laterally or longitudinally, by being struck or forced out of balance, it is capable of producing all known vibrational frequency particles, both short-lived and long-lived[1}. The STH is the hidden power source for all that exists and occurs in the universe[1]. The Gravity and  Gravitation is that hidden power force for all that exists and occurs in the universe as per authors view . There are four forces commonly recognized in particle physics: strong nuclear force, electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force, and gravitational force, in descending order of their relative strength. To that list, I would like to add gyroscopic force, as an expression of the right hand rule. The Clopton Model does not require boson particles to transmit force because the invisible STH acts directly on coupled matter. Force is the direct interaction of the space-time helix with long lived and short lived particles. The space-time helix is the answer to Einstein’s concerns about "action at a distance." Specific forces will be discussed in the sections that follow.Like magnetism, gravity is indeed the result of warped space-time; but in the case of gravity, the STH flow is bi-directional, or more properly, multi-directional. Space-time is a double helix; and matter or light which is composed of the STH will follow the path laid out by the STH, not because it is the least path, but because it is the only path. Zero-rest-mass photons ride the space-time helices as modulated distortions. Space-time helices are deflected and warped by the lens effect of matter through which they pass, yielding gravity and magnetism. Light photons can be stripped from one STH and applied to another STH at a pair node. Light can therefore be deflected near a planet or  a star by free floating pair nodes (e.g., hydrogen atoms) held in the gravity of the heavenly body. Both the deflection of space-time helices, and the renormalization between STH pairs, contribute to the apparent bending of light near a star or planet. Newton who worked out so many useful formulas to apply when working with the actions of gravity was pressed for an explanation as to how gravity works he stated that the force of gravity is due to God himself. Prof. Albert Einstein NL  considered gravity and came up finally with theories of “General Relativity” which is the notion that gravity is due to a "bend" in space time and was able to present the situation such that gravity had no "force” Ie not any particle. Light from a distant object (like a galaxy) gets bent by the gravity of a second object that lies along the line of sight between us and the first object as light is a photon particle and particles mast have a mass. The simplest of example is Einstein rings.   We decided Gravity is an 'Is' and the force of Gravity is Gravitation. So OK science can measure the force - Gravitation - but it can't measure Gravity because it just 'Is'. If God is an entity so is Gravity. Thus Gravity is the same as God our at least a partner in God's doings.
Unlike the familiar ‘normal’ matter that makes up stars, gas and dust, ‘dark’ matter is invisible but its presence can be inferred through its gravitational influence on its surroundings. Physicists believe that it makes up 22% of the mass of the Universe (compared with the 4% of normal matter and 74% comprising the most mysterious ‘dark energy’-  dark energy makes up a large part of the Universe, more than 70 %, and it is an enigma, perhaps the greatest in physics today]. But, despite its pervasive influence, no-one is sure what dark matter consists of and it is still a hypothetical matter but whose presence in the universe could be inferred from observed gravitational effect. Dark matter could be 85% of the total observable matter in the universe.
The ‘true nature’ of dark matter could be revealed by new computer modeling work. The modeling, published in Science, suggests in a universe dominated by “warm” dark matter the first stars could have formed from fragments of filaments thousands of light-years long (study abstract, commentary). “The filaments would have been about 9,000 light years long, which is about a quarter the size of the Milky Way galaxy,” according to study leader Liang Gao of Durham University in the UK.  “They would have fragmented in a huge burst of star formation, a spectacular event to contemplate.”{The Great Beyond Posted by Daniel cressey on 17th Sept 2007]
Is Gravity Dark Matter? or Dark Energy? or WAMP or  made of zero mass particle or a new particle  as authors called it  Graviton? Is Gravity made of  Peter Higgs particle that gave mass to all particles in the universe( Few days ago in july 2nd 2012 both CERN LHC and Tetravon experiment Declared they found particles in the proton proton collider that gave mass in Tev though the particles behavior not exactly similar to   Professor Peter Higgs Particles or neutrinos particle?[ Neutrinos are not however zero mass particle at all. if it would be zero mass particle then it would not oscillate] or is Gravity the Dark Energy?. The same unexplained force—dark energy—that causes the universe to fly apart at an accelerating pace is also stifling the growth of galaxy clusters, new research shows. These clusters, cloudlike swarms that are the largest accumulations of matter in the universe, grew rapidly during the first 10 billion years of cosmic time but, due to the dark energy, they can no longer continue to grow.
SPIRE_PACS_big.jpg[Picture-:Inter stellar Cold dark matter condensing into interconnected Strings and filaments in newly forming star region]
A giant hole” in the universe had been discovered recently by astronomers from Minnesota. Investing an area of the sky known as the WMAP Cold Spot, Lawrence Rudnick and his colleagues found a very large void empty of stars, gas and even dark matter which is nearly 6 billion trillion miles of emptiness or void .Astronomers had long known that there are big voids in the universe, and think they can explain them with their theories as to how large scale structures first formed. But those theories are  very hard put to describe a void of such a  huge void in the large-scale evolution of the Universecoldspot.jpg even by gravitational collapse
One common view of cosmological constants is as asymptotic states. For example, the speed of light c is (in special relativity) the maximum velocity of a massive particle moving in ®at space-time. The gravitational constant G de­ nes the limiting potential for a mass that does not form a black hole in curved space-time. The reduced Planck constant ~ ² h=2º is the universal quantum of action (and hence de­ nes a minimum uncertainty). Similarly, in string theory there is also a fundamental unit of length (the characteristic size of the strings). So for any physical theory we know of, there Cosmology with varying constants 2683should be one such constant. This view is acceptable in practice,[Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (2002) on March 2, 2010] .Gravity may be also called the electromagnetic force- a force terms like nuclear forces the " in classical or is it just a distortion of space as per general theory of relativity?
How does gravity work? "  In general theory of relativity gravity is defined as the warping of the space-time due to the presence of matter and energy. This seems to imply that space/time has some form of fabric matrix. Can we not detect the gravity directly? Do we not have a gravity meter? The  real answer is  “No”.  But why not? if it is a measurable force. The gravity is made of a  particle may be  called Gravitons. I assume the gravitons of all mass in our local universe, are in touch with one another. As we move farther graviton communication between masses stops. As the universe is and farther away from our local universe, at what point (distance or velocity) does expanding faster than speed of light, it seems to me there will be no graviton communication with masses outside of our local universe (distant galaxies). Personally, I like the thought of gravitons of all mass in the entire universe being in constant communication with one another. If one mass moves anywhere in the universe, all of the other mass gravitons  will know its movement. ""I like it too but wonder if the gravitons communicate instantly or at C.  no one has yet detected a graviton or a gravitational wave.

Is Gravity is made of a particle that gave mass to other particle like Rupak Particle-a zero mass particle/ or newly  discovered particle at LHC that gave mass or  Higgs particles?

Gravity should then has ‘Speed of Gravity". There seem to be a general agreement the speed of gravity is the speed of light, but may be less. We do not know yet. Do any one Knows? Why then can we not measure it ? I can measure light intensity.  I can measure velocity of Light  as it is a particle and has wave length .I can calculate recession velocity by red shift. I can see the spectrum of elements detected. There are all sorts of cleaver methods of detecting what we did not previously know.If a distant galaxy mass can be seen as visible light emitted. Why can I not measure then gravity? Is a big question before me

 Now  our Cosmos is growing for this Gravity-:
 It was not the first time that an astronomical discovery had revolutionized our ideas, understanding  about  our observable Universe. Think ! Just only a hundred years ago!, Our Universe was  then considered to be a calm and peaceful place, no larger and nothing beyond than our own galaxy, “the Milky Way”. The cosmological clock was ticking reliably and steadily and the Universe was then eter­nal. Soon, however, a radical shift resulted changed our believed picture. At the beginning of the 20th century, If I am not wrong enough , one amateur American astronomer, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, could find a way of measuring distances to far away stars then our galaxy. At the time, women astronomers were denied access to viewing through the large telescopes, but they were frequently employed for the cumbersome tasks of analyzing photographic plates. Henrietta Leavitt, studied thousands of such pulsating stars,  she called  them Cepheids, and found that the brighter ones had longer pulses. Using this information, Leavitt could calculate the intrinsic brightness of Cepheids. If the distance of just one of the Cepheid stars is known, the distances to other Cepheids can be established  easily– the dimmer its light,  so the farther away the star-she told. A reliable standard candle was born, a first mark on the cosmic yardstick that is still used today. By making use of Cepheids, astronomers  soon concluded that the “Milky Way” is just one of many  billions  of galaxies in the Universe. And in the 1920s, the astronomers got access to the world’s then-largest telescope Mount Wilson in California, so they were able to show that almost all galaxies are moving away from us.  Why ? They were then  studying the so-called redshift (Z) that occurs when a source of light is receding from us. What we Cardiologists and radiologists see as Doppler effect. The light’s wavelength gets stretched, and the longer the wave, the redder its colour. The conclusion then came that the galaxies are rushing away from us and from each other, and the farther away they are, the faster they move – this is known finally established  as Hubble’s law.
So the Universe is growing and Expanding Rapidly.
The coming and going of the cosmological constant what was observed in space had already been suggested by theoretical calculations. In 1915, The great  Prof Albert Einstein N.L published his “General Theory of Relativity”, which turned later as the foundation stone of our understanding of the Uni­verse ever since. The theory described ,what I did understand whether a Universe that has to either shrink or to expand as essence of the theory. This was a very disturbing conclusion before the physicists. This disturbing conclusion was finally reached about a decade before the discovery of the ever-fleeing galaxies. Not even Einstein could reconcile the fact that the Universe was not static ( J.B Narlieker &Hoyel Steady State Universe theory). Expansion of universe is not in fact wanted by scientists and the concept was troublesome. So in order to stop the unwanted cosmic expansion by then scientists, Einstein added further a constant to his equations that he called it as” the cosmological constant”. Later, Einstein  considered  the insertion of the cosmological constant  was a big mistake by him. However, with the obser­vations made in 1997–1998 that was awarded this year’s Nobel Prize, we can conclude that Einstein’s cosmo­logical constant – put in for the wrong reasons – was actually brilliant. The discovery of the expanding Universe was a groundbreaking first step towards the now standard view that the Universe was created in the Big Bang almost 14 billion years ago. Both time and space began that very moment-. Ever since, the Universe has been expanding; like raisins in a raisin cake swelling in the oven, galaxies are moving away from each other due to the cosmological expansion. But where are we heading? When Einstein got rid of the cosmological constant and surrendered to the idea of a non-static Universe, he related the geometrical shape of the Universe to its fate. Is it open or closed, or is it something in between – a flat Universe?
An open Universe is one where the gravitational force of matter is not large enough to prevent the expansion of the Universe. All matter is then diluted in an ever larger, ever colder and ever more empty space. In a closed Universe, on the other hand, the gravitational force is strong enough to halt and even reverse the expansion. So the Universe eventually would stop expanding and fall back together in a hot and violent ending, a Big Crunch. Most cosmologists, however, would prefer to live in the most simple and mathematically elegant Universe: a flat one, where the expansion is believed to decline. The Universe would thus end neither in fire nor in ice. But there is no choice. If there is a cosmological constant, the expansion will continue to accelerate, even if the Universe is flat.
From here to eternity
So what is it that is speeding up the Universe? It is called dark energy and is a challenge for physics, a riddle that no one has managed to solve yet. Several ideas have been however proposed. The simplest is to reintroduce Ein­stein’s cosmological constant, which he once rejected. At that time, he inserted the cosmological constant as an anti-gravitational force to counter the gravitational force of matter and thus create a static Universe. Today, the cosmological constant instead appears to make the expansion of the Universe to accelerate. The cosmological constant is, of course, constant, and as such does not change over time. So dark energy becomes dominant when matter, and thus its gravity, gets diluted due to expansion of the Universe over billions of years. According to scientists, that would account for why the cosmological constant entered the scene so late in the history of the Universe, only five to six billion years ago. At about that time, the gravitational force of matter had weakened enough in relation to the cosmological constant. Until then, the expansion of the Universe had been The cosmological constant could have its source in the vacuum, empty space that, according to quantum physics, is never completely empty. Instead, the vacuum is a bubbling quantum soup where vir­tual particles of matter and antimatter pop in and out of existence and give rise to energy. However, the simplest estimation for the amount of dark energy does not correspond at all to the amount that has been measured in space, which is about 10120 times larger (10 followed by 120 zeros). This constitutes a gigantic and still unex­plained gap between theory and observation – on all the beaches of the world there are no more than 1020 (1 followed by 20 zeros) grains of sand. It may be that the dark energy is not constant after all. Perhaps it changes over time. Perhaps an unknown force field only occasionally generates dark energy. In physics there are many such force fields that collectively go by the name quintessence, after the Greek name for the fifth element. Quintessence could speed up the Universe, but only sometimes. That would make it impossible to foresee the fate of the Universe. Whatever dark energy is, it seems to be here to stay. It fits very well in the cosmological puzzle that physicists and astronomers have been working on for a long time. Accord­ing to current consensus, about three quarters of the Uni­verse consist of dark energy. The rest is matter. But the regular matter, the stuff that galaxies, stars, humans and flowers are made of, is only five percent of the Universe. The remaining matter is called dark matter and is so far hidden from us. The dark matter is yet another mystery in our largely unknown cosmos. Like dark energy, dark matter is invisible. So we know both only by their effects – one is pushing, the other one is pulling. They only have the adjective “dark” in common.

1]Introducing the Space time Helix and possible destruction of all matter and introducing the space Time Helix(STH) by Ronald Weiss Clopton and

 2]  Nobels in Science:2011 Science and Culture Vol77 NO11 November-December 20-11 p521-525.

3] ,[Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (2002) on March 2, 2010]

4] http//   of BAD Astronomy & Universe Today forum under the threads “ String theory- De sitter Universe and Inflation’ By Pranab

Please note  it very carefully that, The Copy Right of this article belongs only to Professor Pranab kumarBhattacharya MD(cal) FIC path(Ind)  the 2nd author here, as per copy right rules of IPR1996 applicable in India-2006 sections 3D/107/2012 and PIP Acts of US 2012, SPARC authors amended Copy Right rules-2006  of US  when & if accepted for any other blogs, as a reference, or publication  or Research  or  reference material  or published as paper or article in open access journals as a commissioned article  and then  also this article will be under RDF  Copy Right rules of IPR of Prof PK Bhattacharya. No person from any states of  country India or any citizen of India or of Indian origin are for ever authorized by Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya to use  any  scientifically meaningful syllables/words  /sentences from this published blog article in the Blogs of Prof Pranab kumar Bhattacharya MD(cal) FIC path(ind.) in Blog  without his / future copy right  owner ‘s written permission  & copy Right clearance, even for any one’s personal or for his/her fair use even/ dissemination of  any information( Will be considered  then as Plagiarism) , [except such all permission is always remain granted to other authors ,their first degree blood relatives in what ever manner they want to use this article  for ever from the date of publication in ProfPranab Kumars Bhattacharya MD(cal) FIC path(ind)  Blog at blog   or for digital preservation of  the article in National Level Science Library(NSDL) US or of other countries.- by declaration- SD/ Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya.
  This article was once published in http://www.extremeastronomy.comblog/11/entry/319-what is gravity-i on 7th  June 2010 as  Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya’s blogs(here 2nd authors) Posted by “Pranab” as user name with  then 8 comments  Posted  by others including “Ronald  Weiss Clopon” himself Who is  world famous for his paper “ the nature and Dissolution of matter. The Site was sold and now if present there is no content can be viewed on this site either in forum discussion and as Blogs” The hard copy is preserved with  the 2nd authors
And  the same was asked As “Question  For David Gross in in the section Ask a Nobel Laureate David Gross The Nobel Laureate in the Cheltenham Science Festival in Nobelprize org face book on June 13 2010
3] Personal communication of” Ronald Weiss Clopton” of Website with Professor Pranab KumarBhattacharya on 30th august 2010 at 10.24 AM  about his 2 pages view on standard Big Bang Model, STH, Space time and according him the light is the only thing that can penetrate and effect  on the STH and  with highest speed in Universe, and No particle can break the limit of  light speed…. it is the chaos in stellar furnace that protects the STH…., the proton nots in Urenium or other Molecule gives mass properties to the STH structure,  our universe is in pure vibration mode, and there is no need of a Zero mass particle concept (graviton) for the Gravity as a force. According him longitudinal display of STH  can create zero mass photon which conveys all forces particle”
Acknowledgement  All the authors of this  articles great fully acknowledges contributions of Miss Upasana Bhattacharya- only daughter of Prof Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya , late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharya B.Com(cal), FCA, SAS(India.)- his diseased retired Father [whose name in fact gained immortality in  the history of village  “Sodepur” at District  North 24 parganas, State- West Bengal, Country  India], Late Mrs. Bani Bhatacharya, his diseased mom, and his youngest  twin brothers Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya Bsc(cal) Msc(JU), Mr. Ritwik Bhattacharya B.Com(cal), of their  residence 7/51 purbapalli, PO-Sodepur, Dist 24 Parganas(north) , KOl-110, West Bengal,  Mrs Dalia mukherjee BA(hons) cal, and Mr. Debasis Mukherjee BSC(cal) of Swamiji Road, Po- South Habra, 24 Parganas(north) and of Miss Upasana Bhattacharya- his only sweet daughter as he[ the  First author of this article] took many of their concept and discussions to write this letter to Robbie York

 See the Published article in 2016 June 16th From MIT News Office

Scientists make first direct detection of gravitational waves

LIGO signal reveals first observation of two massive black holes colliding, proves Einstein right

For second time, LIGO detects gravitational waves

Signal was produced by two black holes colliding 1.4 billion light years away