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Friday, 27 July 2012

We have Probably observed a new boson with a mass of 125.3 ± 0.6 GeV at 4.9 sigma significance” in LHC. Did that mean it was Higgs particle? Or simple Higgs humor? could it c be one of the missing super symmetric particle. The last missing ingredient of the Standard Model of Big Bang theory in particle Physics is the zero mass particles and the particle that gave mass to that zero mass particle”.


Author
*Professor Pranab KumarBhattacharya MD(cal), FIC Path(Ind),  Professor and Head, Dept. of Pathology , convener &In-charge DCP  Course WBUHS and DLT course ; **
 *Dept of Pathology,  School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata, 108, C.R avenue Kolcutta-73, W.B , India** 7/51 Purbapalli; Sodepur; 24 Parganas(north) Kolkata-110 W.B, India ; Miss Upasana Bhattacharya-only Daughter of Prof PK Bhattacharya, Mr Rupak Bhattacharya  , Mr Ritwik Bhattacharya of 7/51 Pubapalli, PO Sodepur, Dist 24 Pargnas(North) West Bengal; India
 
 The Basic things in the LHC-2011 experiments and its data analysis in the months of April and June 2012 was to find out  Higgs particle or the particle that actually gave mass to this whole universe in  the Tera Volt  temperature(Tev)  &   provide mass to what ever matter we see around us including probably the Dark energy and Dark matter. In our real Universe, baryonic matter has only about  5% of its total mass, with most of the rest being either  in the dark matter or and  in the dark energy(2).  However, the favorite candidates for dark matter do not get their masses from the Higgs mechanism, and the nature of dark energy is even more obscure today, though they also unlikely to get mass from the Higgs mechanism according me. The inflation-making field in the early Universe likewise likely does not get its mass from the Higgs mechanism also according to me.
 
The Standard “Big Bang” Model successfully could describe all of the elementary particles in the particle physics, we know to exist in mathematically at least and how they interact with one another. But our understanding of Nature and  its governing laws of this universe yet remained incomplete to me/ and to many highly intelligent physicists and mathematicians. In particular, the Standard Model could never answer me or my brother Rupak Bhattacharya(2) one most basic question : “Why do most of these elementary particles have masses?” and “where from mass actually came?” Without mass, our universe would be a very different place than this one we think . For example, let me consider a very much hypothetical situation, that if the electron or proton had no mass at all,  then there would be  no formation of atoms at all. Hence there would be no formation of  ordinary matter( we call   ordinary matter hadrons) as we know it,  there would be no chemistry, no biology, no people, no trees, no animals, no flowers, no biological substances even no unicellular organism amoeba or virus in this planet The Earth. There would be no planets at all. No sun, No Stars No galaxies. In addition, look at our Sun shines in the blue sky.   My Thanks to a delicate interplay among the fundamental forces of Nature, which would be completely upset, if some of those force particles did not have large masses? At first sight the concept of mass seems not to fit into the Standard Model of particle physics. Two of the forces the model was then described –  The electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force – and they can be described by a single theory, that of the electroweak force. Scientists have subjected the electroweak theory to many experimental tests, which it has passed with flying colours. However, According to me, the basic equations of that theory seem to require that all elementary particles must be mass less. Scientists needed a way out of this conundrum. Several Important Physicists, including Professor Peter Higgs Emeritus Professor of  Theoretical Physics at Edinburgh University, discovered  then a mechanism that, if added to the equations, would allow particles to have masses. This is  today known as the `“Higgs mechanism”. What actually is then Higgs mechanism? According to Professor  W. Peter Higgs who predicted his theory in 1964, Published in the science journal of AAAS and in Nature  as to the origin of mass, he predicted the “Higgs particles makes it by having a non-zero lowest-energy field value. So every particle that interacts with it, continually experiences its presence, and that drags those particles and gives those particles their masses. And to give the mass a particle must have some kind of spin and oscillation movement. Without the Higgs particle, every other Standard-Model particle would be mass less Rupak (2)- my youngest brother Told me Such in 1993- I do remember.
The Higgs non - zero-field lowest-energy state can be thus explained with an analogy example of a marble in a bowl. In a "normal" one, the marble must settle down in the center, and if you like to push it, it will oscillate back and forth  but around the center. But in a bowl with a hump in the center, like a juice-squeezer bowl, the marble will settle down in the trough around the central hump, at a non- zero distance from the center. It will then only oscillate inward and outward, but move at constant speed in the trough. That trough-motion mode is called a "Goldstone mode", and in elementary particles, it would show up as a mass less mode. Peter Higgs and others discovered that such mass less modes could disappear into “photon like fields” that were made massive from symmetry breaking, thus avoiding excess mass less particles which is now  has to be seen in Large Hadron Collider(LHC). One must  also Remember that the LHC is still now  running at about half of its power right now. As to the mass of baryonic matter, what we know? The mass that we observe in the world around us and in ourselves, about 98% of it is due to a side effects of an effect called color confinement in quarks particles. From their mutual interactions, “quarks' and gluons' interactions with each other become very strong at distances much above 10(-15) m, the size of a nucleon (proton or neutron). So they can't get much further apart from each other than about that distance. That's what gives nucleon the ‘size’. Since gluons are also considered once as mass less and up and down quarks are not much more massive than an electron, most of ‘quarks' and ‘gluons' energy in nucleons is  then kinetic and interaction energy. Thus, by E = mc2, most of the ‘mass’ of ‘nucleons’ should come from that energy.  What I want to mean here, about 98% of nucleons' masses’ is due to color-confinement-induced quark and gluon kinetic and interaction energy, 1% due to electromagnetic effects, and 1% due to quark (rest) masses. The electron's mass is 0.05% that of a nucleon. Nuclear binding energies are typically a little less than 1% of a nucleon mass, electron binding energies in atoms much less, and molecular binding energies even less. Then where from rest of mass?  Where from the electrons, quarks  got their masses also? Electrons, up quarks, and down quarks all had their masses by the above stated ‘Higgs mechanism’, and their mass values are important in determining the structure of the baryonic parts of our Universe. In our Universe, as I told  earlier baryonic matter has only about 5% of its total mass, with most of the rest being dark matter and dark energy. The favorite candidates for dark matter do not get their masses from the Higgs mechanism, and the nature of Dark energy is even today more obscure though, it is also unlikely to get mass from the Higgs mechanism. The inflation-making field in the early Universe likewise likely does not get its mass from the Higgs mechanism(2).
Integrating it into the Standard Model, allowed scientists to make predictions of various quantities,  including the mass of the heaviest known particle, in the quantum physics” the top quark”. Experimentalists found this particle just where equations using the Higgs mechanism predicted it should be. According to theory, the Higgs mechanism works as a medium that exists every where in space time. Particles according him gain mass by interacting with this medium. Prof.Peter Higgs pointed out  in the year 1964, that the  Higgs mechanism required the existence of an  yet unseen particle, which we now  and call the Higgs Particles . So the Higgs particle became the fundamental component of the Higgs medium, much as the photon is the fundamental component of light.  Every particle is either a boson or a fermion. Higgs effect is the fundamental mechanism for fermionic mass generation. The important thing is having some mechanism that generates mass in the first place. All known particles spin like  a small top spin, with the known bosons that carry the fundamental interactions – such as the photon, the quantum of light that carries the electromagnetic force – spinning at twice the rate of the fermion particles that make up matter particles such as electrons and quarks. The Higgs particle is the only particle predicted by the Standard Model that has not yet been seen by the experiments. The Higgs mechanism does not predict the mass of the Higgs particle itself but rather a range of massesWhat I mean there may be many kinds of Higgs particles with different masses. Fortunately, the Higgs  particles  leave brhind a unique particle footprint depending on its mass in a  particle collider. So scientists know what to look for and would be able to calculate its mass from the particles they saw in the LHC detector. And Higgs Particles do not spin. A Zero rest mass particle (2) must not spin also. different kinds of Higgs & Bosons. If any of these scenarios turn out to be true, finding the Higgs boson could be a gateway to discovering new physics, such as super-particles Experimentalists might find that the Higgs  Particle is different from the simplest version the Standard Model predicts. Many theories that describe physics beyond the Standard Model, such as super -symmetry and composite models, suggest the existence of a zoo of new particles, including or dark matter. On the other hand, finding no Higgs particle at the LHC would give credence to another class of theories that explain the Higgs mechanism in different ways.
Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator which started taking data in 1981,When the SPS first operated as a proton–antiproton collider. At the time, one of the hottest challenges in particle physics was the  search for the force-carrier particles predicted by electroweak theory. Named the W and Z bosons, these were heavy particles. So finding them  required an accelerator that could reach an unprecedented level of energy. The discovery was so important that the two key scientists behind the discovery received the Nobel Prize in Physics only a year later. The  Nobel prize  went to Carlo Rubbia, instigator of the accelerator’s conversion and spokesperson of the UA1 experiment, and to Simon van der Meer, whose technology was vital to the collider’s operation. This was a significant achievement in physics that further validated the electroweak theory. It also helped to secure the decision to build CERN’s next big accelerator, the Large Electron Positron collider(LEP), whose job was to mass-produce Z and W bosons for further studies. In the 1960s three physicists, Steven Weinberg, late Abdus Salam  of  Pakistan and Sheldon Glashow, proposed a theory.  What did they believe  then that two of the four basic fundamental forces of the universe – the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force – were in fact different facets of the same force. Under high-energy level conditions (such as in a particle accelerator), the two will then merge into the electroweak force. No scientific theory can finally become established without a solid grounding of experimental proof which is usually done much & much later. The first evidence in support of the three scientists  theory emerged when the Gargamelle detector at CERN of Geneva found the neutral current, an essential ingredient to the electroweak theory. Further observations followed to secure the above three theorists a Nobel Prize in 1979 almost 19 years later they proposed their theory. However, there were still three hypothetical force-carrier particles described by that theory that no one had managed to find. The W+, W- and the Z0 bosons remained tantalisingly out of reach until an accelerator could be built with much high enough energy to carry out their search – a problem  that was solved by the conversion of the SPS accelerator to LHC. So Large Hadron Collider came into existence. Two 4 TeV Proton beams were brought into collision at the LHC’s four interaction points. This signals the start of physics data taking by the LHC experiments for 2012. The experience of two good years of running at 3.5 TeV per beam gave  CERN Scientists the confidence to increase the energy further  for this year2012  without any significant risk to the LHC machineitself(1),” Although the increase in collision energy is relatively modest, it translates to an increased discovery potential that can be several times higher for certain hypothetical particles. Some such particles, for example those predicted by super-symmetry, would be produced much more copiously at the higher energy. Super-symmetry is a theory in the particle physics that goes beyond the current Standard Model, and could account for the dark matter of the Universe. Standard Model Higgs particles, if they exist, will also be produced more copiously at 8 TeV than at 7 TeV, but background processes that mimic the Higgs signal will also increase. That means that the full year’s running will still be necessary to convert the tantalising hints seen in 2011 into a discovery, or to rule out the Standard Model Higgs particle altogether. In LHC Initially at 3.5 Tev per beam(when the quench happened) and now at 4 Tev per beam. It's not until the 'long slumber' that it will get the upgrades (rebuild going into 2014-2015) to get up to 7 Tev per beam. The LHC is now scheduled to run until the end of 2012, when it will go into its first long shutdown in preparation for running at an energy of 6.5 TeV per beam as of late 2014, with the ultimate goal of ramping up to the full design energy of 7 TeV. The ATLAS and CMS of LHC in CERN experiments delivered their preliminary results of their 2012 data analysis on 18 June after a very successful first period of LHC running in 2012 i.e the search for the Higgs particle,”. What did CERN physicists told on 4th July 2012?  They Said “we have observed a new boson with a mass of 125.3 ± 0.6 GeV at 4.9 sigma significance”  Did it meant it was Higgs particle?  O r Higgs humor? For approx 10 million readers from different Medias and so?. To establish it as Higgs particle the main thing to look at is spin. It needs to be spin-0 and must not decay to be the Higgs.  Checking of the decay routes seen goes against  Higgs theory. Since the newly discovered particle decays into pairs of known bosons, it is certainly also a boson. we also see that it does not spin the same way as a photon. If it were a Higgs particle, it would not spin at all and it would be the first elementary scalar boson ever seen Well, one of the options is that if it is not the Higgs particles they could it could be one of the missing super symmetric Particles? There is also a chance it could be a mixed neutralino or slepton, also in the range between 100-150 GeV. In fact they all remain missing, where "all" refers to a number that may be as low as zero. if Higgs can only explain about just the 4% the matter we know about the Universe, which doesn't include dark matter and dark energy, why do physicists call it fundamental to the whole universe ( matter +dark matter+dark energy)? The Higgs mechanism provides a fundamental way to generate the mass for massive vector bosons
2) The Higgs mechanism is critical to explaining how electroweak unification works
3) Similar to the strong force (the strong force holds colour charged quarks together but a second order effect known as the residual strong force holds non-colour-charged nucleaons together too
) it is perfectly possible that a 'residual' there should exist in nature a boson of zero charge, zero spin, and zero mass. No such particle was known. If it existed and interacted with other matter as it was expected to do, it could hardly have escaped detection  it is perfectly possible that a In the further future there is some excitement building for the idea of a Higgs factory, a muon-muon collider. There are considerable technical challenges to do with this, however

SM Higgs production cross sections at √s = 7 TeV (2012 update)


Higgs Mass range
step size
# of points
addendum
[ 90,110] GeV
5 GeV
5 points
 
[110,140] GeV
0.5 GeV
60 points
 
[140,160] GeV
1 GeV
20 points
 
[160,290] GeV
2 GeV
65 points
+ 165, 175, 185, 195 GeV (4 points)
[290,350] GeV
5 GeV
12 points
 
[350,400] GeV
10 GeV
5 points
 
[400,1000] GeV
20 GeV
30 points
+ 450, 550, 650, 750, 850, 950 GeV (6 points).
 So the last missing ingredient of the Standard Model of Big Bang theory in particle Physics is the zero mass particles and the particle that gave mass to the zero mass. The Standard Model gives an extraordinarily precise picture of the matter that makes up all the visible universe, and the forces that govern its behavior, but there are good reasons to believe that this is not the end of the story. The Final of the Theory there  must exist in nature a  particle of zero charge, zero spin, and zero mass. No such particle is known yet.. If it existed and interacted with other matter as it was expected to do, it could hardly have escaped detection Higgs is a boson with no charge and no spin, but its mass could be as much as hundreds of GeV.
References
1] ChiaraMariotti and ReiTanaka - 24-Dec-2010LHCPhysics Web
2} Rupak Bhattacharya of 7/51Purbapalli PO= Sodepur Dist 24 Parganas(north) Kolkata-110 West Bengal, India
 3] Observation of a New Particle with a Mass of 125 GeV2012-07-04, by Lucas Taylor   http://cms.web.cern.ch/tags/higgs-boson
4] CMS search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in LHC data from 2010 and 2011http://cms.web.cern.ch/comment/179

5]About the Higgs Boson  http://cms.web.cern.ch/news/about-higgs-boson


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