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Tuesday, 11 December 2018

Blogs of Professor(Dr.) Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(calcutta.Univ) Pathology; : water Matters Nobel week Dialogue 2018 at Stalkho...

Blogs of Professor(Dr.) Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(calcutta.Univ) Pathology; : water Matters Nobel week Dialogue 2018 at Stalkho...: See also at twitters   #nobeldialoguehastag  comments of Professor Dr Pranab kumar Bhattacharya <blockquote class="twitter-twe...

water Matters Nobel week Dialogue 2018 at Stalkholm Sweden

See also at twitters  #nobeldialoguehastag
 comments of Professor Dr Pranab kumar Bhattacharya

<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">.<a href="">@jrockstrom</a> is the first speaker at the <a href=";ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#nobelweekdialogue</a>. &quot;We can feed the world within the planetary boundries&quot; <a href=";ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#NobelWeek</a> <a href=";ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#nobeldialogue</a> <a href=";ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#ClimateChange</a> <a href=""></a> <a href=""></a></p>&mdash; Björn Källström (@BjornKallstrom) <a href="">December 9, 2018</a></blockquote> <script async src="" charset="utf-8"></script>
1] Ground drinking water depleting contaminated with arsenic leading many diseases. Including cancer,cirrhosis,


<blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"><p lang="en" dir="ltr"><a href=";ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Nobeldialogue</a> Water Matter has just started! <br><br>Watch the livestream here: <a href=""></a> <a href=""></a></p>&mdash; Geophilia (@Geophilia_BN) <a href="">December 9, 2018</a></blockquote> <script async src="" charset="utf-8"></script>

2] Access to safe drinking Water, sanitation is human right. We should reduce house hold water by efficient toilet washing machine, irrigation and electricity generation. Both public and private sector to work with government to keep our planet habitable

Wednesday, 5 December 2018

Blogs of Professor(Dr.) Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(calcutta.Univ) Pathology; : An Unsung Hero in Physics

Blogs of Professor(Dr.) Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(calcutta.Univ) Pathology; : An Unsung Hero in Physics:                                  Despite being   one of a pioneers in the study of   Tachyons, Multi Universe and Zero Rest Mass partic...

An Unsung Hero in Physics

 Despite being  one of a pioneers in the study of  Tachyons, Multi Universe and Zero Rest Mass particles,  in West Bengal of India Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya of residence 7/51 Purbapalli ,Sodepur ,24 parganas(north) Kolkata 110, West Bengal , India,  S/o late Bholanath Bhattacharya and late Bani Bhattacharya remained practically unknown to the world- A tribute From Professor(Dr.) Pranab kumar Bhatttacharya

When Judging by his published articles as publications in the most high impact factor open access indexed journals of science  like Physics Org  of American Physical Society ; Cosmoquest Forum( Renamed from previous BAD Astronomy & universe Today );  Global Journals of Science and Frontier Research ( A )Physics and Space Science, USA; International journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Science of Open Science journal Group USA; Research and Review Journal of  Space science and Technology of STM journal Group USA,   In the  Journal “Science “of ; Science News;  Nature ; Applied Physics Letter , Physics Review ; Physical review letter   ; Uncertain principal  Archives  ; Physics World of IOP science Nature Worlds news   and his self armature research works , at his paternal house 7/51 purbapalli  Post office Sodepur; District 24 parganas (north) Kolkata 110  Rupak probably  as a God gifted theoretical physicist grew up in tremendous  economic constrains,  social negligence as class difference and  unimaginable poverty from his child hood   .  Rupak was born in march 1974,as youngest twin sons of late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharya(1925-2009)- a retired Account officer of A.G Bengal, Kolkata and a dedicated worker of CPM party of sodepur panihati of west Bengal, as a true Marxist by heart and action in his life and Late Mrs. Bani Bhattacharya(1934-2006),who were resident of7/51 Purbapalli, PO- kolkata-110, India , was brought up with unimaginable  form of poverty, financial constrains for study  and also negligence, non cooperation from his 2nd(Pallab) and 3rd brother's(Biplab) family members and also of local social negligence as poor socioeconomic class, had his education from Sodepur Chandrachur Vidyapith [primary and higher secondary], graduated  from St. Paul,s college of kolkata of Calcutta university and finally from Jadavpur university for his masters  in applied mathematics in 1997 , is  an amateur theoretical physicist and Astrophysicist. He with his eldest brother Professor DR. Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya MD(Calcutta university ), FIcPath(Ind.) , then a Professor of Pathology, developed a model of Universe and anti Universe, we nomenclatured it as “ Bhattacharya’s Model of Universe” based on a mass less[zero rest mass] particle after his name “ R particle”(Rupak Particle) in the family of neutrinos particles and the cause of mass of particles is another particle in Higg’s field-  Rupak  hypothesized. However the Zero  rest mass particle at Plank’s moment is yet a mathematical model.  According to their theory …. in Grand Unified Theories(GUT), when  electron was treated as neutrinos (ve) and the quarks that made nucleon were at different state of a single neutrinos particle. In the simplest of Rupak Bhattacharya’s theory,  the small neutrinos mass was given by a formula by him Mv= mD2/M where mD is the quark color mass and M is the mass which may be as large as the unification scale of 1014to 1015 Gev. As a result of Rupak Bhattacharya’s equation Mv=mD2 there happened three sets of generation of earliest particles. Thus in addition of electron there is generation of muon [mu=206me] and also” R particles”[ Rupak Neutrinos mR=3500me]. These R particles are then very similar and close to gluon particles and correspondingly there are three neutrinos ve vμ  vτ and vr. This theory suggest that m (ve)<< m (vμ)<<m (vτ)<<(vr). So as per Rupak Bhattacharya and Pranab Bhattacharya’s theory ve, Vμ Vτ and vr are coherent mixture with quarks in case of electron. Neutrinos produced in nonlinear β decay might be v1cosθ+v2sinθ where v1 and v2 are the mass eigen state and θ is the mixing angle. The R particle theory (Rupak Particles) suggest thus a newer model of universe, we called it “ Bhattacharya model of universe and anti universe”, where the concept of multiple bubble universe creation was suggested through the Big Bang like events in the inner scale of time that existed at one end and anti universe creation at other end of the time scale, instead of conventional steady state universe or a single bubble Big Bang creation of universe in the standard Model. Bhattacharya’s Model of universe puts everyone to further thinking and questions “ what was before Big Bang an identical universe ?” and” what was before the boundary or horizon of universe?” Do our universe has a boundary? Rupak Bhattacharya’s Ritwik Bhattacharya’s and Pranab Bhattacharya’s model of universe is based on a Zero  rest mass particle nomenclature as Rupak Particle(R Particles) in the neutrinos family is almost consistent with the concept of dark energies,  susi particles in the observable universe and beyond the boundaries / horizon of universe as antigravity particles and thus to some extent solving also the critical mass problem of the universe, as baryons consists of only 4-23% of mass of universe as Mixed Dark Matter mass and 73% as Dark energy as per open flat, low density universe. According them “----relativistic gas of free quarks with Pα ρ/3 where P= is the pressure and ρ= is the energy density of matter. The density at which the baryon to quark happened, was a transition phase in the Universe creation in “Big Bang gospel” and was of crucial importance in structure formation in the universe. So before  baryon was formed in  early universe there was a phase called  transition phase”. In QCD, success was in describing the interaction of quarks and gluons or quark with R particles at high energies. Particles at high energies were asymptotically free, that is, at high energies quark and gluons or quark or R particles were weakly coupled, while at low energies they appeared to be confined in hadrons i.e. in baryons and in mesons. However at high temperature or at high densities, normal nuclear matter underwent a phase transition to an unconfined quark- gluon or quark- R particle state. In the early universe the transition from an initial unconfined quark- gluon phase[Quark Gluon plasma? to confined hadronic phase took place at T≈10-5S after the Big Bang moment. The thermodynamic picture of for quark- hadrons phase transition viewing hadrons as a bag containing Quark and Gluon or R quark and R particles equation of state for pressure  P and energy density ρQ.  ρQ=π2/90[2(Nc2-1)+7/2NcNf]T4-β-(1), ρQ=3ρQ+4β= where ρ=density of Universe, Nc=number of color of quarks corresponding to Su(Nc) gauge group for QCD(Nc=3) Nf=number of light quark flavor ( Nf=3 for up, down and strange quark) β = Big constant representing the distance in vacuum energy between two phase. Based on this equation, we can be convinced that a transition phase of quark- gluon or Quark- R particles matter did occur in fact in expanded and cooled as the universe did gradually evolved. The simple relation between Temperature and thermal radiation time was therefore was as follows-: tsT2Mev≈ 2.4[N(T)]-1/2 where t= time measure in second T= Mega electron volts N= number of relative degrees of freedom of all particles at temperature T. At T≈200 ,the continuement phase transition had occurred to that at lower temperature, the constituent of universe were hadrons, leptons, and photons. The corresponding age of the universe at that time was T≈10-5 S. It was not until T≈ 1 orT≈1Mev that the process leading to nucleosynthesis was important. So the cosmic soup consisted of r particles  with anti r particles, quarks and anti quarks, electrons and it’s antiparticles anti electrons or positrons. The particles and antiparticles were in constant annihilation and radiation as per Einstein’s famous equation E= mC2. At 109K temperature matter were produced and universe is today made of matter i.e. hadrons. (Proton, Neutron, lepton, Electrons). But in Big Bang moment universe started it’s voyage with equal numbers of matter and antimatter. Electron and Positron were created and were in constant annihilation, liberating burst of energy and radiation. Thanks to the creator of the Big Bang(if at all was as super most mathematician ) that during the nucleon synthesis anti proton were not created. If at all antiproton, antineutron were created they were at least in separate compartments and did not come into contact [Matter and antimatter as soon as come in contact both are destroyed and their entire rest mass converts into radiation and energy known as entropy or annihilation. Late Prof, S.W. Hawking FRS in his famous book “The Brief history of Time” nicely said –If you even meet your anti You don’t hand shake with him you will turn into flash, radiation and energy at once” The Universe consists of now large masses of matter and antimatter organized into superclasters, galaxies, stars, blackhole, and planets. According to this view about construction of the universe, the matter and antimatter should co-exist at some early stage in  Big Bang. For it only if the temperature was high enough it should be possible for nucleons and anti nucleons to rub their shoulders with each other’s. Simple theory suggests that they should after ward annihilate each other’s with production of photons and neutrinos. To account a universe in which matter and anti matter were separated in separate galaxies it is therefore necessary to explain how such a separation could have taken place at very early stage in the development of primeval fire ball? It is still  one of the most fundamental questions in cosmology.
Antimatter can be more famous in fiction than it is in real life. At the original star Trek, antimatter reacts with ordinary matter to power the warp drive that propels the United States. Enterprise at quicker-than-light velocities. While warp drive is pure fiction, antimatter is very real. We know that for every particle of ordinary matter, it is possible to have an identical particle with the opposite electrical charge. An antiproton is much like a proton, for example, but with a negative charge. The antiparticle corresponding to the negatively charged electron, meanwhile, is the positively charged positron. Physicists have created antimatter in the laboratory. However when they do, they create an equal amount of matter. That indicates that the big Bang must have created matter and antimatter in same quantities. But nearly everything we see around us, from the ground under our feet to the most remote galaxies, is made of ordinary matter. What’s happening? Why is there more matter than antimatter? Our best wager is that the big Bang somehow produced a tiny bit extra matter than antimatter.“What had to have happened early in the history of the universe — in the very moments after the big Bang — is that for every 10 billion antimatter particles there were 10 billion and one matter particle. And the matter and the antimatter annihilated the ten billion, leaving the one. And that little ‘one’ is the mass that makes up us.”But why the slight excess of matter over antimatter in the first place? “We genuinely don’t understand that,. “It’s weird.” Had the initial quantities of matter and antimatter been equal, they’d have annihilated each other completely in a burst of energy. In which case, says Lincoln, “we wouldn’t exist.” Some answers may come when the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) starts collecting data in 2026. DUNE will analyse a beam of neutrinos — tiny, charge less and nearly mass less particles — fired from Fermilab to the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, some 800 miles away. The beam will include neutrinos and anti neutrinos, with the aim of seeing if they behave in the same manner — thus potentially providing a clue to nature’s matter-antimatter asymmetry. please Read our articles published in Science Journal and in others sites
 The question of existence of antimatter in significant quantities in the present universe. in our
 galaxy! The question of whether antimatter had an equal role with matter in making up 
galaxies? In a contemporary Para diagram of Grand Unified theories & Gauge Theories. 
These questions are related to the questions of nature of charge, parity variations at high energy.
 The questions of separating matter and antimatter, proton and anti proton, helium and anti helium. 
The symmetry between matter and antimatter [ i.e baryon symmetry in the cosmology ] 
that was once observed at lenier accelerator had forced many scientists and astrophysicist
 to think that there existed also a similar balance in the universe of “’matter and antimatter”” 
at most early phase of the universe. But we don’t see or don’t find antimatter in our observable
 universe.Our observable universe is made of matter only. Why? Antimatter annihilate
 with matter. If that was so, then there would not be any matter to make up 
super clusters,  galaxies ,stars,blackholes, planets, our observable universe. Was  really 
the matter and antimatter mixed together?Or was the matter and antimatter were in two 
separate compartments? If the later was true, then wemust have another Universe. 
That universe was made of antimatter. However universe consisted of large mass of matter and
 antimatter- standard Big Bang model says so. On this view, in authors opinion,
 is that whether matter and antimatter must co-existed all together at some early stage of Big Bang.? 
For it ,only when the temperature was high enough, it was possible for nucleons and anti nucleons,
 quarks and anti quarks r particles and anti r particles  to rub their shoulders with each others,
 and simple theory suggest that these rubbing resulted annihilation with production of photons 
and neutrinos. H. Alfeven etal ( Alfeven .H – Gravitational Signature of Matter-Antimatter Interaction  
Rev. Mod. Physics Vol37; P652; 1965) did bring out a mechanism which permitted region of matter
 and antimatter to co-exist together in our galaxy, even without appreciable mixing. Otherwise in 
early state of universe [when a homogeneous universe] there would have to be also a mechanism 
for separating matter and antimatter so that galaxies were formed in clusters. Then the big questions
 are 1) what was the mechanism for separation of matter and antimatter?
 2) Where went the bulk of antimatter? 3) Does  antimatter stars or antimatter galaxies were
 capable of nuecleosynthesis? Does the antimatter stars or antimatter galaxies at all exists
 that Rupak Bhattacharjee suggested in his concept of anti Universe? 5) If at all exists what is the
 way of communication from our universe made of matter to a Universe made of antimatter?
 The black holes/ The warm holes?  Bhatacharya Pranab Kumar& Bhattacharya Rupak- 
Does the universe contain also anti galaxies- a myth or a reality? Space Light Vol 4 P7-13; 1998). 
Defining a region of mass MR as a typical unit of matter and antimatter According to  conventional
 standard model or  Big Bang model of the universe, there were small excess of baryon particles 
(~1 in 109) over anti particles in  early stage of evolution of universe. At that time the thermal energy
 “KT” exceeded the rest energy mpc2 of baryon particles. It was to the excess amount of KT, for that 
we see the present existence of matter in the universe. So as  thermal energy dropped bellow mc2, 
the baryons and anti baryons started annihilated and there leaving just excess of baryons intact. 
Let us now consider a model of universe that was initially filled up with the thermal radiations. 
Its expansion was described by the scale factor R (t) which behaved approximately like t -1/2 
while the temperature varied like R-1. For early stage of the universe, effect of space curvature was
 negligible. It was known in  history of such a model, Our  Bhattacharya model of universe  can now 
 be divided in to several periods according to content of thermal radiation. The Hadronic (KT≥100 mev),
 Leptonic (KT≥ 1mev) and Radiative (KT≥300K). Super imposed on division, on evolution of baryons, 
we have to consider also other periods. The separation period (KT≥350Mev), annihilation period 
(KT≥25Kev) and coalescence period (T>300K). There was some interest in 1970s regarding the
 existence of the antimatter in the universe. Stiegman. G in 1969
 ( Stiegman. G. – Nature Vol224; P447; 1969 Antimatter, Galactic Nuclei and Theories of the
 Universe: Speculation on the Nature of the Nuclei of Galaxies ) showed that if the space time 
were filled with equal mixture of matter and antimatter then gamma ray flux that resulted from 
nucleon and anti nucleon annihilation would be far above the observed limit. But as  per 
Rupak Bhattacharya, Ritwick Bhattacharya  and Pranab kumar bhattacharya there were 
much possibilities that matter and antimatter existed quite separately in large regions 
consisting solely of one characteristic type, perhaps in the form of galaxies and anti galaxies
 (Bhattacharjee Rupak, Bhattacharya Ritwick  and Bhattacharya Pranab et al) separation, 
one can assume that a process probably existed in  early Big Bang model. This process could 
however separated matter and antimatter into contiguous regions at some early epoch of Big Bang.
 We can also assume that the regions remain separated until and after decoupling would prevent
 collision between them, owing to  effect of radiation. After decoupling, the material contained in 
several such regions started to collapse and coalesce. The collapse and coalescence led to an 
annihilation of particles from regions to anti regions. The rate at which coalescence occurred,
 depended on the scale of density fluctuation. Defining a blob of mass MB, as the largest commonly
 occurring density fluctuation, existing at decompleing, we know from galaxy forming theory
[How galaxies form ] that the minimum mass of the blob was ~107M jeans mass. It is also
 well known that any gravitational bound group of blob will eventually undergo collapse. 
But due to  expansion of the universe, the collapse would not proceed rapidly until the density
 contracted. The collision cross section for blob contained in such group became very high, once 
collapse set in. So, if both matter and antimatter were present in early universe, one must expect 
a considerable amount of annihilation to occur at the time of collapse. So there must be a separation
 period for matter and antimatter as per Rupak Bhattacharya. In the separation period  particles 
and antiparticles [Quarks and antiquarks / r particles and Anti r particles/ Neutrinos and
 anti neutrinos/ Gluons and anti gluons Higgs and anti Higgs particles ] separated spatially
 as a consequence of their statistical repulsion. This was initially induced by fluctuation
 (Bhattacharjee Rupak and Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar bhattacharya Upasana  et al -
 The Cosmic Web, the Seed of Galaxies- Are Also Made of Warm Intergalactic Medium(WHIM) 
and Dark Energy? Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: APhysics and Space Science 
Volume 17 Issue 1 Version 1.0 Year 2017)

 ). One can compute the size as “δ,” as the individual condensation containing an excess of nucleon
 and anti- nucleon reached during 10~5 S of the period. The total baryonic number in that period was
 1028. Near the end of separation period  universe was filled up with emulsion of nucleons and anti 
nucleons with a topical size δ=3x10~4c.m. The next came annihilation period. When temperature 
fell below the critical temperature (T) the particles and antiparticles [quarks and anti quarks 
r anti r  ] started to annihilate. The annihilate process was then controlled by diffusion so that
 densities D and N (Nucleons) and N-(anti nucleons) satisfy the equation as given below 
δΝ/δΤ=DV-2N-αN N-, δN-/δΤ=δV-N-αNN- (== Bhattacharjee Rupak ==). At the end of this period
 a typical fraction of 10 ~8 or more nucleon survived. They were still in the form of emulsion 
with a typical size of 105cm and with a typical mass of 1010 gram( 100,000,000 000, kilogram)
 within a sphere of radius. This was however very far from a galactic mass. During annihilation 
the process first gave birth chiefly to pions and through their decay to high-energy photons, 
electrons, positrons, and neutrinos successively. The transfer of momentum by photons and
 electrons produces an annihilation pressure at boundary between matter and antimatter. 
To find the behavior of matter and antimatter, which were probably in contact through a
 common boundary, the effect of high-energy photons and leptons was a dominant feature, 
because these particles exerted a very strong pressure and kept the heating system on.
 Radiative pressure was very dominant, so that pressure due to heating tended to balance
 annihilation. With the possible exception of cosmic gumma rays, observation yielded 
essentially no information on the relative amount of matter and antimatter beyond our solar system.
 What the observation told us was that matter and antimatter are rarely ,if ever found together.
 What was the mechanism that matter and antimatter were then separated?. Consider a gas of 
proton, antiproton, electron and positron, which is sufficiently diluted and then annihilation can
 not be neglected there. In general, such a gas will be situated in a magnetic field say “B” , in a 
Gravitational field say “G” and in a electromagnetic field of flux “F”. Each of  fields will then be
 assumed static and homogeneous. In particular length scale for variation in “B” must be large
 enough that particle drifts arising from magnetic in homogenetics are also negligible. 
The protons and antiprotons will be much more strongly influenced by Gravitational field than
 by Radiation field. As well as spiraling around the magnetic line of forces the heavy particles 
will therefore have a drift velocity Vh= mPxgxB/qB2 ,where mP is the proton mass, q is the particle
 charge,.[Bhattacharjee Rupak & Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar – Does the Universe contain also
 anti galaxies- a myth or a reality- Space Light; Vol4 P7-13;1998] .Because of their small mass, 
and larger scattering cross section, the electrons and positrons will feel much weaker Gravitational
 force due to radiation pressure. It is however to be noted that just electric current through gas does
 not heavily result in separation of charges, and the opposed drift of matter need not produce an 
actual matter- antimatter separation. On the other hand , matter and antimatter in an isolated 
cloud or in extended medium, with an appropriate field configuration should achieve some degree
 of separation. Because , proton and antiproton ,electron and positron fluxes will not be equal in
 general. There will be some separation of charge leading to an electrical field “ E “ and E x B drift.
 As E x B drift increases,  heavy particles acquire an inertia which tends to remove the original
 difference between proton and antiproton and electron and positron fluxes. So the big question
 appeared before us What happened to these antimatter?. After the Plank epoch, when the age of the
 universe was t ≤10-43S and  temperature of the universe was T≥109Gev , we can be sure enough , 
that the interactions between the matter and the antimatter at their first quark level or Between 
r+/ r_ [R particle level] became unimportant. This was because of that rate for gravitational 
interaction( with Graviton particles )  was much less then expansion rate of the universe. 
Although the interactions between matter and antimatter particles kept each of them 
separately in a thermal equilibrium and thus probably Two worlds were created. 
These Two world did not feel each other’s existence at very microscopic level.

 During the primordial nucleo synthesis of the early universe, which started ~1S after the
 initial Big Bang moment, the yield of the Big Bang depended on the expansion rate of the Universe.
 The expansion density PT= P+Ps by R0/R= [(δπGN/3)(P+Ps)]1/2 where P and Ps= density of matter
 and Antimatter, R= Cosmic scale factors. During this early epoch the universe was radiation 
dominated with P=g (π2/30)T4 where g counts the effective number of degrees of freedom 
particles (Rupak Bhattacharjee). The temperature of the particle world and that of anti particle
 world were not the same. The inflation occurred in the two worlds in both the sector but not
 necessarily simultaneously. The inflation involved was a random event in the nucleation of a 
bubble or in the formation of a fluctuation region. At  beginning of the inflation the universe
 was in false vacuum state for both the worlds. The bubble nucleated for one world, first say
 for antimatter world then matter world . As the bubble grew exponentially in physical size, 
both the temperature of matter and antimatter decreased exponentially. At this time the ratio
 of entropy remained constant. When the antiparticle vacuum energy was converted into radiation,
 the antiparticle temperature raised and entropy decreased. Eventually a bubble of fluctuation 
region formed for the matter world within the antimatter bubble. During the second phase of 
inflation, new bubble grew exponentially. When the vacuum energy of ordinary matter world 
converted into radiation, the temperature of particle world raised to a temperature, which was
 exponentially larger than the temperature of the antiparticle world. Thus the entropy was reduced
 further. To an exponentially small value and the matter dominated the visible universe. According
 to Big Bang model of Universe, there was small excess of matter then antimatter (~1 in 109) in the
 early stage of evolution, when the thermal energy KT exceeded the rest of energy mpc2. The baryons
 and anti baryons annihilated and then leaving just excess of baryon intact. From a fit of 
nucleon-nucleon scattering theory, the evidence of π, η7, ω, ρ, and mesons can divide the 
nucleon and anti nucleon scattering amplitude. There are bound states of nucleon and
 anti nucleon pairs, which can be identified with mesons π, ρ, ω, and η7. Such a situation
 in which some particles appear as bound states and act as agent for Special Forces. 
Dashen .Roger  (Dashen. R Physics Review-Vol187; P345; 1969) summarized a basic
 formula relating to Gibb’s potential Ω to it’s value Ω0 for free particles and to 
collision matrix –S Ω =Ω0 -KT/2π∫δEc-E/KT trace [clogs (E) ee-∑u1n1]. 
Rupak , Ritwick and Pranab Bhattacharya’s theory is a separate theory from
 conventional CP violation theory of Shakarov. Bhattacharya’s Model of universe 
put two big questions. What was before the Big Bang? What happened from 0.00001 second
 after Big bang Plank’s time of 10~34 seconds. Present Big Bang is accepted at 10~32 second. 
The most recent report 2006 WAMP(CMB) cosmology shows glows of Big Bang, when the 
universe was 3,80,000 years old and universe had a temperature then 3000c 
The R particle –a zero mass particle also probably gives a solution for the age of universe
 in accelerating universe. So long a not solved question before the physicist was whether 
the nucleosynthesis was baryonic or non-baryonic in quark hadrons phase transition of big bang .
universe always suffered a short fall of ordinary matter constituents of proton, neutron & electron. 
The R particles- a zero mass particle theory helps in the concept that beyond the horizon or boundary 
of the observable universe there are energy particles and favours the concept of ever expanding universe
 from its creation moment at big bang like event

Rupak struggled and struggled of all kinds of  economical odds he faced throughout his life became totally introverts  with schizoid  mood  disorder(DSM4) took all painstaking efforts  to be passionate for cosmos or universe  and to theoretize that the our  universe  was created  in  a singularity called Big Bang Epoch  as multiple bubble universe ( Today’s which is known as  Multi universe )  and of multiple bubbles  some bubbles collapsed , some persisted  and as such one of bubbles  is ourobservable universe and thus there are multiple universes  like ours are  and the best way to move from one universe to another universe are warm holes or black holes and his concept was published first  at BAD Astronomy  and Universe Today forum   now  Cosmoquest Forum under Title-: “ What was before the big bang ? An Identical Reversed universe” ? followed by publication   in journal   Research & Reviews: Journal of Space Science & Technology ISSN: 2321-2837(online), ISSN: 2321-6506(print) Volume 5, Issue 1;  2015  The abstract of the article  is like that ....”” The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) recorded in the 1960s was indelible proof of the occurrence of the Big Bang. It was the residual heat, the first rays of light emanating from that explosion, whose wavelength was now stretched to microwaves. However, cosmologists were baffled by how uniform the map was. The isotropy gives a hint as to why the Universe is so ordered. The CMBR is a sumptuous map that represents indelible proof of the occurrence of the Big Bang. One can quite easily observe the map’s uniformity implying the isotropy of the primordial Universe Objects reach a temperature equilibrium by distributing their heat to a nearby object or their surroundings until their lowered temperature and the recipient’s elevated temperature become equal. However, the map’s uniformity seems impossible, since accomplishing an equilibrium between astronomical distances is constrained by the speed of light — it cannot be achieved instantaneously. Alan Guth proposed that an equilibrium was quickly achieved just moments after the Big Bang when the atomic entities were in close proximity. According to him, the equilibrium was promptly succeeded by an exponential expansion of the Universe. It bloated in less than a fraction of a second, assuming the structure we now see. He called this phenomenon inflation. Inflation doesn’t just beautifully explain how the Big Bang might have occurred, but it can also explain what might have caused it. According to inflation, empty space continually experiences tiny random quantum fluctuations where energized pairs of particles and anti-particles can pop into existence, as long as they exist for an infinitesimal time until before annihilating themselves instantaneously. Inflation separates these entities before they are effaced. However, researchers in the 1980s discovered that inflation is eternal – the greater-than-light-speed expansion stops in some regions but continues in others. This hints before Rupak Bhattacharya andProfPranab Kr Bhattacharya the formation of a grid of universes or a multiverse that mimics concatenated soap bubbles, where our Universe is one amongst them, isolated from our neighbors, who elude any detection. A multiverse implies that inflation creates infinite universes, each illustrating different properties, all of which can be traced to mere chance. Why then are the laws of nature so generously suspended in our favor? A little dab of misfortune and the constants would have assumed a different value, debarring our existence! Schrödinger Cat's Experiment's Interpretation and Parallel Universe or Multiple Universes
 Rupak Bhattacharya1, Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya*, Upasana Bhattacharya, Ritwik Bhattacharya, Rupsa Bhattacharya, Ayishee Mukherjee, Dalia Mukherjee, Hindol Banerjee, Debasis Mukherjee5, Ronok Vyas6 *  Research & Reviews: Journal of Space Science & Technology ISSN: 2321-2837(online), ISSN: 2321-6506(print) Volume 5, Issue 1
Quantum mechanics provides us most fundamental descriptions of our most early universe, but there is a long-standing debate amongst theoretical physicists about what all these mathematics really mean in real world? The present three-dimensional (3D) universe, we humans experience daily since our birth, is probably just one of an enormous numbers of essentially classical worlds, and all quantum phenomena arise from a universal force of repulsions that prevented many universes (Multiverse) from having identical physical configurations like ours. Probabilities arise only because of our human ignorance as to which  in our world an observer occupies a position in space time. This picture is all that is needed to
explain bizarre quantum effects such as particles that can tunnel through solid barriers and wave behaviour in double-slit experiments or in a warm hole. Our many-interacting-universes approach hinges on our assumption that interactions between deterministically evolving worlds cause all quantum effects. Each world is simply the position of particles in three dimensional  space time, and each would evolve according to Newton’s laws, if there were no inter world interactions. A surprising feature of human approach was that the formulation contains nothing that corresponds to the mysterious quantum wave functions, except in the formal mathematical limit in which the number of worlds becomes infinitely large. Conversely, Newtonian mechanics corresponds to the opposite limit of just one world. Thus, our approach should incorporate both classical and quantum theory. As few as two interacting worlds can result in quantum like effects, such as tunneling through a barrier. Many interacting worlds theory (MIW) explains that rather than standing apart, an infinite number of universes in the early time shared the same space and time as ours. They show that the theory can explain quantum mechanical effects while leaving open the choice of theory to explain the universe at large scales. This is a fascinating new variant of multiverse theory that, in a sense, creates not just a doppelganger of everyone but an infinite number of them all overlaying each other in the same space and time. The fine tuning of parameters required to reproduce our present day universe suggests that our universe may simply be a region within an eternally inflating super-region. Many other regions beyond our observable universe might  have existed in earlier times with each such universe governed by a different set of physical parameters and laws. Collision between these regions, if they occurred, should have left signatures of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) but have not been seen yet. We assess different mechanisms for this residual emission and conclude that although there is a 30% probability that noise fluctuations may cause foregrounds to fall within 3σ of the excess, there is less than a 0.5% probability that foregrounds can explain all the excess. A plausible explanation is that the collision of our universe with an alternate universe, whose baryon to photon ratio is a factor of 4500 larger than ours, could produce enhanced Hydrogen Paschen-series emission at the epoch of recombination. Future spectral mapping and deeper observations at 100 and 217 GHz are needed to mitigate systematics arising from unknown galactic foregrounds and to confirm this unusual hypothesis. After careful analysis of the spectrum of the CMB, Chary et al. found a signal that was about 4500x brighter than it should have been, based on the number of protons and electrons. Scientists believe that this
existed in the very early universe. Indeed, this particular signal, an emission line that arose from the formation of atoms during the era of recombination is more consistent with a universe whose ratio of matter particles to photons is about 65x greater than our own. There s a 30% chance that this mysterious signal is just noise, and not really  Hitherto, the scientific community has reached a consensus that the Big Bang erupted from a singularity, a point where all the laws of physics break down, rendering only crude accounts of possibilities beyond it. Right now, without a Theory of Everything, a theory that would hopefully unite classical and particle physics, science can only beat around the bush; it cannot predict without any uncertainty how our Universe began

His concept in the year 1995 that our universe when started in  the Big bang Singularity at Plancks epoch it was started from the Zero mass Zero volume and zero time. So a Zero rest mass particle was required  at that very time  and some other  particles actually gave  the origin of the mass  in the higg’s field  and he named the particle  in the family of the neutrinos particles as “Rupak Particles( r particles and anti r particles)” and published first  as comment in nature journal in 2011  then  at the Guardian and then at  International journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Science of Open Science journal Group USA;( viewer till December 2018 =22, 650) in 2015  and in Research and Review Journal of  Space science and Technology of STM journal Group USA, in the article  Where From mass came in the universe? Did the mass originated from a zero rest mass p[articles in higgs field  and he told that higgs particles are not the massless particles in the universe and there are many types of higgs particles  and possibility of supersymmetry and  susi particles at cosmoquest  forum in 2008

We scientists  know that matter is made up atoms, and atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons. And we recognize that protons and neutrons are made up of smaller particles called quarks. Would probing deeper uncover particles even more fundamental? We don’t know for sure. We do have something known as the standard model of particle physics, which is excellent at explaining the interactions among subatomic particles. The standard model has also been used to expect the existence of previously unknown particles. The last particle to be found this way was the Higgs boson, which LHC researchers observed in 2012 But  according to me there’s a hitch. “The standard model doesn’t give an explanation for everything,” “It doesn’t provide an explanation for why the Higgs particle  actually  exists. It doesn’t explain in detail why the Higgs boson has  still the mass  and decays that it does 
In fact, the Higgs turned out to be a heck of a lot less massive than predicted — theory had held that it would be about “a quadrillion times heavier than it’s far,” The mysteries don’t end there. Atoms are known to be electrically neutral — the positive charge of the protons is cancelled out by the negative charge of the electrons — but as to why this is so,, “Nobody knows.  Here  may be  some explanation by us "where From mass came in the Universe? did the mass originate from a zero rest mass particle in Higgs field "Published in Research and review journal of Space science and technology VOl 5 Issue 3 2016 URL…/research-reviews-journal-of-sp…
2] The Cosmic Web, the Seed of Galaxies- Are Also Made of
Warm Intergalactic Medium(WHIM) and Dark Energy? Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: A
Physics and Space Science Volume 17 Issue 1 Version 1.0 Year 2017
4] The cosmic Web, the seed of galaxies- are also made of Warm Intergalactic Medium(WHIM) and Dark energy?…
5] Where From the mass came in the Universe ? did the mass Came from a zero rest mass particle in the higgs field?


 The most Spectacular hypothesis  he published that faster than light particles ( FTL particles)  existed in the universe  and this particles he named “ tachyon  he first published in  Nature journal as comment  in 2011 ( comment no# 27107 )   followed by in journal of Uncertainty Principal in 2011 as comment and concluded  that might we consider a tachyon particle with imaginary zero mass moving through the real part of space time at a speed greater than that of light. Tachyons can then provide the link between past and future and possible time travel and travel through black hole in other universe  and in 2015 he published in International journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Science of Open Science journal Group USA under title Tachyon- Faster than Light Particle Exist in Our Universe or an Imaginary Mathematical Particle .  By the Tachyon  particles and tachyonic energy  he told time travel is possible  and intergalactic travel are also possible with help of tachyonic energy.

( abstract  For the relativistic formula for the kinetic energy, ordinary subatomic particles are confined in an infinite well of velocity of Light [c]. So it may be however considered that Faster than Light Particle (FTL) speed phenomenon may exist in this Universe. On the other hand to day even physicists and particle physicist do not consider that Faster than light particles (FTL) exists. The FTL particle is called “Tachyons” the name coined by G. Feinberg [8] in 1969. There had been many search by various experiments for FTL but most of them showed negative for their existences. It may be that light particles created inside the atomic nuclei which has the nonzero rest mass less than 10-32 kg has the probability of almost unity to transfer into FTL. The electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos also have been observed as FTL state but they have mass and if the rest mass of the neutrinos emitted in proton smashing at speed of light is less than 10-32 then it may be travelling as FTL and there is possibility of existences of Tachyons

 His Research on What is Gravity  as titled  What is Gravity? Is it a force Generated by a Zero mass particle ! If it is a force then why we can not measure Gravity or speed of Gravity?  was Published first  at  Extreme  Community Blog List  List Blogs  and then in MIT News in June 15, 2016 as comments  


His research  contributions  in theoretical physics  as mostly mathematical calculation, in Astronomy  well have been critically examined by many experts  in foreign countries and by foreign authors  but it could not be un reeled in his real life in west Bengal state or at Sodepur his residence  or at Kolkata  Rupak  as if wedded with physics  published his other articles  at journal Physics org;  ( a most prestigious journal of international organization of Physics called IOP)  on  rare supernova and its mechanism of explosion ,  Existence of dark galaxies by dark matter on cosmic web as seeds of galaxies   first at  cosmoquest forum in 2011 following that in Global Journals of Science and Frontier Research ( A )Physics and Space Science, USA,  and where went Anti matter our new theory  in2010 at journal  Science Blogs of  most prestigious as comment  and in cosmoquest forum in the same year and next at blogs of Prof Pranab kumar Bhattacharya. He published evolution of spiral galaxies in 2009 ; on Black hole named S Agittarius A  in 2013  at Science News   American Society for Science and public in physics worlds

 However his valuable all publications as armature theoretical physicist  with masters in mathematics could not secure him a service in  school or colleges  to maintain his livelihood and he led his early life  as a peon for two years (1995-1997 when took his masters degree ) in a private company on daily basis followed by as a night guards and then security guards in a Kolkata based Private company with very mere salary at those periods. To cope up with needs of family members in inflated economy of the state and local area sodepur and huge unemployment problems in west Bengal , he took up  additional jobs as private tutors  in primary class followed by secondary higher secondary students in locality particularly of poor families  and many of his students became successful as engineers, or Doctors, or managements  even from IITs  All these economic suppressions,  struggles,  poverty, negligence, non recognition he moved to severe mental depression, psyzophrenia ,attempted suicide  from 1999 and had to take Central nervous system depressents medications , Antipsychotic drugs, lithium, Resperpine, SSRI followed by valporic acids for long years together (1999-2013)  

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