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Thursday, 14 November 2013

Particles break light-speed limit Nature.com Published as comments in Nature

Tachyons is an mathematical Imaginary particle that may moves faster then Photons (Light particles) in the universe and yet to be discovered" See Links bellow
      • Mr Rupak Bhattacharya-, of residence 7/51 Purbapalli, Sodepur, Dist 24 Parganas(north), Kol-110,West Bengal, India *Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya- , Now Professor and Head of department of Pathology, and of WBUHS Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, C.R avenue; Kolkata-73, West Bengal, India*Miss Upasana Bhattacharya-, only daughter of Prof.PK Bhattacharya ***Mr.Ritwik Bhattacharya , ***Mr Soumyak Bhattacharya of residence7/51 Purbapalli, Sodepur, Dist 24 parganas(north) ,Kolkata-110,WestBengal, India , *** Miss Rupsa Bhattacharya **** Mrs. Dalia Mukherjee , Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north) West Bengal, India**** Miss Oindrila Mukherjee-Student ,**** Mr. Debasis Mukherjee of Residence Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north), West Bengal, India*****; Dr. Hriday Ranjan Das Dept of Nephrology, IPGME&R, 244a AJC Bose Road *****Mr. Surajit Sarkar, , Dept of Pathology, IPGME&R, Kolkata-20
What were the most elementary particles in the universe? According to Mery Gelman- The NL, the earliest particles were quarks and anti-quarks. The gospel of Big Bang was then supposed to have been inflation from zero volume at zero time, zero space of a corpuscle containing the cosmic soup of these quarks and anti quarks particles, where in the corpuscle, energy were equivalent to mass and radiation and flash. The particles and their anti particles were in constant annihilation and went into radiation and flash. What we authors want to mean that at about trillion and trillion degrees of temperature of cosmic soup (about 1015K) the particles and antiparticles were being in constant annihilation and were again created, although the total energy of elementary particles and radiation was just interchangeable. In the primordial fireball or in cosmic soup, the combined radiation and matter of the soup was constant . However in the quantum chromo dynamics (QCD) another particle was proposed as the earliest particles in the universe. It was Madsen and Mark Tailor, who gave first the concept of these particles in the primordial universe. The name of their particles is ‘ Neutrinos” . The neutrinos were also non-Zero mass particles according to authors and many, though in standard teaching is it is mass less . There are now broadly three (3) species of ˜Neutrinos. I) Electron neutrinos 2) Muon neutrinos 3) and tat neutrinos. During the first half of the twentieth century, all physicists were convinced that all the stars including our Sun, shines by converting, deep in its interior, hydrogen into helium. According to this theory, four hydrogen nuclei called protons (p) are changed in the solar interior into a helium nucleus (4He), two anti-electrons (e+, positively charged electrons), and two elusive and very mysterious ghostly particles called neutrinos . This process of nuclear conversion, or nuclear fusion, is believed to be responsible for sunshine and therefore for all life on Earth. The conversion process, which involves many different nuclear reactions, can be written schematically as: ----1 as Bhattacharya Rupak wrote it Ie,two neutrinos are produced each time as the fusion reaction (1) occurs within the star. Since four protons are heavier than a helium nucleus, two positive electrons and two neutrinos, reaction (1) releases a lot of energy to the Sun, that ultimately reaches the earth as our sunlight. The reaction occurs very frequently. Neutrinos do escape easily from the Sun and their energy does not appear as solar heat or sunlight in earth. Sometimes neutrinos are produced with relatively low energies and the Sun gets a lot of heat. Sometimes neutrinos are produced with higher energies and the Sun gets less energy. Neutrinos have zero electric charge, interact very rarely with hadron matter, and – according to the particle physics very high standard level textbook version of the standard model of particle physics – they are mass less. About 1000 billion neutrinos from the Sun pass through your thumbnail every second, but you do not feel them because, they interact so rarely and so weakly with matter. Neutrinos are practically indestructible; almost nothing happens to them. For every hundred billion solar neutrinos that pass through the Earth every seconds, only about one interacts at all with the stuff of which the Earth is made. Because they interact so rarely, neutrinos can escape easily from the solar interior where they are created and bring direct information about the solar fusion reactions to us on Earth. There are three known types of neutrinos already told. Nuclear fusion in the Sun produces only neutrinos that are associated with electrons, the so-called electron neutrinos . The two other types of neutrinos, muon neutrinos and tau neutrinos , are produced, for example, in laboratory accelerators or in exploding stars, together with heavier versions of the electron, the particles muon and tau . But there were some missing neutrinos too yet. All accepted models in the cosmology and in particle physics however accept that neutrinos are mass less or so. But The idea that neutrinos might have mass was of about 40 years old. The successful unification of the weak and electromagnetic force field implied that there should be as many as kinds of neutrinos, as there are different kinds of electron like particles. There is till no confirmed mass evidences that neutrinos have a non zero mass (Bhattacharjee Rupak and Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar)- The heaviest neutrinos in Gev temperature ranges from í to r electron volts. But the scientists found that this wooly mammoth allegedly carries also a mass of 17,000 electron volts(kev). By the radioactive beta decay process- a process in which an unstable nucleus in the radioactive isotopes emits both an electron and a neutrino, of decay of electrons. Rupak & I recorded the energy of decay electrons by sending them into a crystal where they knock other electrons creating a current that provided a measure of energy where a big 17Kev regularly appeared, taken from the energy of a few electrons. The energy was then obvious 17 Kev neutrinos and 1% of their emitted neutrinos belonged to heavy neutrinos. Neutrinos however can pass through the entire Earth almost near or at speed of light without leaving a trace and it is immune to many of forces that bind matter including electromagnetic forces. But obviously faster than speed of light? So Neutrinos are ghostly sub atomic particles, so feebly in their interaction with ordinary matter that they can happily pass through earth without stopping. They have almost never been observed outside the controlled environment of the big accelerator laboratories of USA &CERN in Europe. Neutrinos are even more common in the universe then the photons light particles), only because probably the Big Bang left a sea of very low energy neutrinos that permeated every corner of this Cosmos. In 30th march 2006 from the US laboratory “ Fermi lab” reported first result from a neutrinos experiment Called MINOS( Main injector neutrino Oscillation search) in Soudan mine at a depth of 776 meter in minnestoa 732 Km away. The MiINOs experiment showed that there is a short fall in the number of muon neutrinos ,if they are detected a long distance away from their point of production, may be called Missing Neutrinos- as we told some neutrinos were missing . Solar neutrinos actually have a multiple personality disorder. They are created as electron neutrinos in the Sun, but on the way to the Earth, they can change their type. For neutrinos, the origin of the personality disorder is a quantum mechanical process, called "neutrino oscillations .Lower energy solar neutrinos switch from electron neutrino to another type as they travel in the vacuum from the Sun to the Earth. The process can go back and forth between different types. The number of personality changes, or oscillations, depends however upon the neutrino energy. At higher neutrino energies, the process of oscillation is enhanced by interactions with electrons in the Sun or in the Earth. Stas Mikheyev, Alexei Smirnov, and Lincoln Wolfenstein first proposed that interactions with electrons in the Sun could exacerbate the personality disorder of neutrinos, i.e., the presence of matter could cause the neutrinos to oscillate more vigorously between different types. The standard model of particle physics assumes that neutrinos are mass less. Why We authors could never follow .In order for neutrino oscillations to occur, some neutrinos must have masses- some may not have mass. Therefore, the standard model of particle physics must be revised.
. Neutrinos are elementary particles where all neutral counterparts of charged leptons namely the electrons, the muons and ţ leptons all of which take participation in the weak interactions. Determination of neutrinos particles still remain notoriously difficult from the point of view of experiments and got challenges in the particle physics of highest depth research. At this moment, there is no information of even values of their individual masses. We authors however proposed their value as m1<3ev;ml<190Kev; mj<18.2 Mev may be the mass of different muon nutrinos numbers. It is worth noted that direct detection of VĴ was reported in 2006 for the first time only from Fermi laboratories USA. The presence of neutrino oscillation in 2006 march experiment by Fermilab .Direct Observation of NUTAU E872[DONUT] experiment implies existence of distant & non vanishing mass for nuetrino flavors. So neutrinos must have a non-zero mass. For electron neutrinos the mass is 10-6ev. A mass in excess of 1ev would then be significant since neutrinos would then contribute mass than stars( Stars like sun) to the mass density of the universe. The universe would be then closed if the mass of neutrinos would be between 25 and 100 eV. So There were then three types of neutrinos in the Big Bang moment. 1) “Electron Neutrinos” had amass of 20ev, 2)”Muon neutrinos” had a mass of0.5Mev and 3) Tat neutrinos” had a mass of 250 Mev Electron neutrinos constituted about a third of the total number of neutrinos. Most of the neutrinos produced in the interior of the Sun, all of which are electron neutrinos when they are produced, are changed into muon and tau neutrinos by the time they reach the Earth. In the QCD, studies suggest that the primordial universe was dominated by neutrinos of non-zero mass rather then by quarks with it’s colour. A natural scale then emerged determined by maximum distance neutrinos that could stream freely as the universe expanded, before the neutrinos slowed down on account of their mass below the scale of super cluster i.e. galaxies formation. In this neutrinos theory then no pre- existing fluctuation then survived and the first structure then collapsed and formed galaxies
Now the question remain whether there is any particle that moves faster then the speed of photon particles[light particles.?] We authors consider it is possible through another particle called Tachyons Particles. Detected in 1974 by Roger Clay and Ohilip crouch of Adelaide university in Australia. What were these Tachyon particles? Of course the Super string theories, that evolved from spinning string theories, that incorporated supper symmetry and had no Tachyonic ground states. Tachyons are still the mathematical quirk of mathematicians with no physical meaning. Can these tachyons be the missing Neutrinos particles with real zero rest mass? However Einstein’s equation E=mc2 shows that nothing in this observable universe, can cross the speed of photon[ light particles]. But tachyons have probably that curious property of going faster then the speed of light, as the particle mast loose energy ,unlike other ordinary particles. It is still probably unknown whether within the relativity theory (E=mc2] solutions of Einstein permit also two families of particles to exist -1) which always have a speed less than light and 2) other which always have speed greater than the light. If it permits the second one, then the later particle must be tachyons or a kind of neutrinos whom we do not know or call missing neutrinos with zero mass. If tachyons really exist then many of our normal physical laws, laws of this universe are to be reversed.
The standard description of two families of particles allowed by Einstein equations follows fro the requirement that the total energy of a particle is given by a formula ------M0C2(1-(v/c)2)1/2
The key point being that taking the square root (half Power) introduces two families of solutions. For zero velocity, of course the expression reduces to mc2. Square root of negative numbers although allows mathematically do not have physical significance and the obvious interpretations of this expression to give real total energies is the term(1-(v/c)2, must therefore be positive or at least zero so that “v” is always less than or equal to  and particles never travel faster than light. But there may be other ways to think also. Possibility with imaginary mass(where I is the square root of -1). In that case the situation will be reversed and in order to obtain a real energy we must take another square root of a negative number in order that the imaginary . “I”s multiply out to-1. In other words for imaginary masses “v” must exceed “c”, so that (i-v/c)2) is always negative. This is the origin of Tachyon
But suppose we allow “v” to exceed c while maintain the real mass “m”. Now we are taken into very strong realms-the imaginary part of space time. Might we consider a tachyon particle with imaginary mass moving through he real part of space time at a speed greater than that of light. Tachyons can then provide the link between past and future and time travel.

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