Rupak Bhattacharya Professor( Dr.) Pranab kumar Bhattacharya Upasana Bhattacharya Ritwik Bhattacharya Rupsa Bhattacharya Dalia Mukherjee Ayeshi Mukherjee Debasis Mukherjee Hindole Banerjee Runa Mitra
Universe consisted of mysterious Dark energy (70%), Dark matter(25%) and that make up now 95% of matter in the universe which revel it self as gravity. Enormous filaments and blobs of dark matter in early universe condensed as universe condensed. Within the cosmic webs, all galaxies, stars, planets were next created. Galaxies are not dotted randomly throughout universe but are generally either concentrated in groups or in clusters, which are connected again by multitude of filaments and voids. These filamentary distributions of galaxies explained by vast quantities of dark matter enveloping galaxies and filamentary cold gas flowing within them ,responsible for star formation within them and the dark matter ISM is the dominant mass in the universe. Galaxies over passing time , clumped itself in a filamentary networks . In the cosmic web hypothesis, all spherical structures appeared probably first within filaments, growing in between them, followed by the great walls [planar structures] connecting the filaments of cosmic Web Massive filamentary structures observed at relatively small distances from us. These filaments located about 6.7 billion light-years away from us and extends over at least 60 million light-years even. 'superclusters' are also filamentary cluster–cluster bridges. Computerized numerical simulations shows balance between dark matter and dark energy , determines both how universe expands and how regions of unusually high or low matter density evolved with time. Most of baryons in the local universe are also missing in that they are not in galaxies or in the previously detected gaseous phases. Rupak Bhattacharya and Pranab Bhattacharya here are authors suggest that these missing baryons are so predicted may be in a moderately hot phase, 1E5 to 1E7 K, largely in form of giant cosmic filaments that connect the denser virialized clusters and groups of galaxies. These filaments can be detected through absorption lines they produce in the spectra of background Active Galactic Nucleus . Models show that the highest covering fraction of such filaments occurs in super clusters and the archive has two AGNs projected behind super clusters, both of which show absorption systems (in Lyalpha LybetaOVI) at the super cluster red shift The universe is so permeated by a network of filaments, sheets, and knots collectively forming a “cosmic web.” The discovery of the cosmic web, especially through its signature of absorption of light from distant sources by neutral hydrogen in the intervening intergalactic medium, exemplifies the interplay between theory and experiment that drives science and is one of the great examples in which numerical simulations have played a key and decisive role. We authors in this article recount the milestones in our understanding of cosmic structures; summarizing its impact on astronomy, cosmology, and physics; and look ahead by outlining the challenges faced as we prepare to probe the cosmic web at new wavelengths.
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This Paper was sent to following journals and Comments of Editors are enclosed
1] Journal of Theoretical Physics