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Sunday, 5 February 2012

What is Gravity? Is it a force Generated by a Zero mass particle ! If it is a force why we can not measure Gravity or speed of Gravity


What is Gravity?  Is it a force Generated by a Zero rest mass particle ! If it is a force why we can not measure Gravity or speed of Gravity?
AUTHORS_: 
**Rupak Bhattacharya Bsc(cal)MSc(JU), *Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya MD(cal) FIC path(Ind), Professor &HOD  Dept of pathology, DCP convenor and DLT course in charge WBUHS ,**Ritwik Bhattacharya B.com(cal), *Miss Upasana Bhattacharya Student only daughter of Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya,  **Miss Rupsa Bhattacharya, **Soumayak Bhattacharya BHM MSC Student PUSHA New Delhi  7/51 Purbapalli, Sodepur, Kol-110,  ***Mrs Dalia Mukherjee BA(hons) cal ***Miss Oaindrila Mukherjee Student ,***Mr Debasis mukherjee BSC(cal) –of Residence swamiji Nagar Habra, 24 parganas(North) WB, India




Unanswered question about our visible universe in standard model is, surprisingly enough, the contents of the Universe. Obviously, we can only directly `see’ matter that emits light, but today it turned out as a fact that most of the matter in our observable Universe actually does not emit light [dark matter/dark energy]. For example, the visible parts the of galaxies are thought to be surrounded by much larger `haloes’ of dark matter, with a size up to 30 times that of the visible part. If all this matter were visible, the night sky would probably look pretty much like van Gogh’s `Starry night’.
Even though we  can only have indirect evidences for the existence of this dark matter, we do have a reasonable idea yet of what it is. About 5% of the matter of the Universe is only visible. Another 5% is invisible `normal matter’, that is, baryons (protons and Neutrons) and electrons. This is probably in the form of massive compact halo objects, such as brown dwarfs, white dwarfs, planets and possibly black holes. Roughly 25% of the matter of the Universe is thought to be `cold dark matter’ (CDM), that is, heavy non-relativistic exotic particles, such as axions or WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles). CDM tends to collapse (or `clump’) into the haloes of galaxies, dragging along the dark baryons with it. Finally, 65% of the contents of the Universe is thought to be in the form of a `cosmological constant’, that is,  Dark energy of the vacuum and probably  The gravity: this can also be thought of as cosmic antigravity or the weight of space! Unlike CDM, this never clumps: it tends to make the Universe `blow up’ by making it expanding faster and faster like a balloon blowing with air( given at bottom of this blog). In other words, it forces an accelerated expansion which, according to recent data, has begun very recently. These data have been taken very skeptically by some people. In particular, a period of future acceleration of the Universe, while not posing any problems for cosmologists, would be somewhat problematic for string theory, as we know it. However, this is not a basis for judgment: `data’ is not a dirty word, `assumption’ and `conjecture’ are dirty words. These ingredients are needed for cosmological model building. One  may starts with a theoretical model, `adds in’ cosmological parameters such as the age, matter, contents and so forth and computes its observational consequences. One must then compare notes with observational cosmologists and see whether the model is in agreement with our observations: if it does not agree then one had better start again. In the hope of eliminating some of the shortcomings of the “Big Bang model or Standard Model of Universe Creation”, one needs to  then generalize the model, and yet unexplored extra dimensions are a good place to look for answers.
Strings and extra dimensions. It is  now believed that the unification of the known fundamental interactions of nature requires theories with additional space-time dimensions. Indeed, the only known theory of gravity that is consistent with quantum mechanics is string theory, which is formulated in at least 10 dimensions (Polchinski 1998)-however we human being never  can experience those Extra dimensions space time. Only in mathematics and  in theory they exist. Even though there are at present no robust ideas about how one can go from these theories to our familiar low-energy space-time cosmology in four dimensions (three spatial dimensions plus time), it is clear that such a process will necessarily involve procedures known as dimensional reduction and compactification. These concepts are mathematically very elaborate, but physically quite simple to understand. Even if the true `theory of everything’ is higher dimensional, one must ­ find how it would manifest itself to observers like us who can only probe four dimensions. Note that this is more general than simply obtaining low-energy or other limits of the theory.
On the other hand, given that we only seem to be able to probe four dimensions, we must ­figure out why we cannot see the others or, in other words, why (and how) they are actually hidden from us. A simple solution is, to make these extra dimensions compact and very small.
What is Gravity Newton once discovered that? Of what force/ or what  matter is it then composed? Rather the question may be asked of What Particles the gravity force is made of? Is it the Dark matter? Is it the Dark Energy? Is it the Higg Boson? Or is a zero mass particle? Is it wrapped up space -time?
 Space-time however may be defined as an invisible, underlying matrix woven from a double helix having one atomic diameter cross-section and infinite length, always traveling at the speed of light "c" along its axis. Gravity is probably the real power source and regulator of the entire  our visible universe. Space-time helix interactions, I can call this invisible double helix the Space-time Helix (STH) ,because it defines the limits and dimensions of space by its ubiquitous presence and extensions. It marks time at the most fundamental level by its resulting crest-to-crest sine wave spacing (wavelength), while traveling at c; and the term "helix"{1} incorporates its cork-screw shape{1}. The STH produces all known rotational phenomena without actually rotating. A traveling helix gives the appearance of rotation without actually rotating, yet it can induce rotation in an intersecting plane of detection through which it slides. We tend to think of a helix in terms of the “Archimedes' screw in which a rotating screw lifts water; the screw turns and the water doesn't. The STH works in the opposite manner; the STH doesn't rotate but it causes rotation of the electrons and nucleons formed by two intersecting space-time helices. If the STH were forced to rotate, it would soon twist into a hopeless knot. As long as the double helix travels longitudinally at speed c in a balanced state without lateral displacement or vibration, it remains hidden and does not intrude into our reality. Once the STH is disturbed laterally or longitudinally, by being struck or forced out of balance, it is capable of producing all known vibrational frequency particles, both short-lived and long-lived[1}. The STH is the hidden power source for all that exists and occurs in the universe[1]. The Gravity and  Gravitation is the hidden power force for all that exists and occurs in the universe as per authors view
There are four forces commonly recognized in particle physics: strong nuclear force, electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force, and gravitational force, in descending order of their relative strength. To that list, I would like to add gyroscopic force, as an expression of the right hand rule. The Clopton Model does not require boson particles to transmit force because the invisible STH acts directly on coupled matter. Force is the direct interaction of the space-time helix with long lived and short lived particles. The space-time helix is the answer to Einstein’s concerns about "action at a distance." Specific forces will be discussed in the sections that follow.
Like magnetism, gravity is indeed the result of warped space-time; but in the case of gravity, the STH flow is bi-directional, or more properly, multi-directional. Space-time is a double helix; and matter or light which is composed of the STH will follow the path laid out by the STH, not because it is the least path, but because it is the only path. Zero-rest-mass photons ride the space-time helices as modulated distortions. Space-time helices are deflected and warped by the lens effect of matter through which they pass, yielding gravity and magnetism. Light photons can be stripped from one STH and applied to another STH at a pair node. Light can therefore be deflected near a planet or  a star by free floating pair nodes (e.g., hydrogen atoms) held in the gravity of the heavenly body. Both the deflection of space-time helices, and the renormalization between STH pairs, contribute to the apparent bending of light near a star or planet.
Newton who worked out so many useful formulas to apply when working with the actions of gravity was pressed for an explanation as to how gravity works he stated that the force of gravity is due to God himself. Prof. Albert Einstein NL  considered gravity and came up finally with theories of “General Relativity” which is the notion that gravity is due to a "bend" in space time and was able to present the situation such that gravity had no "force” Ie not any particle. Light from a distant object (like a galaxy) gets bent by the gravity of a second object that lies along the line of sight between us and the first object as light is a photon particle and particles mast have a mass. The simplest of example is Einstein rings.   We decided Gravity is an 'Is' and the force of Gravity is Gravitation. So OK science can measure the force - Gravitation - but it can't measure Gravity because it just 'Is'. If God is an entity so is Gravity. Thus Gravity is the same as God our at least a partner in God's doings.
Unlike the familiar ‘normal’ matter that makes up stars, gas and dust, ‘dark’ matter is invisible but its presence can be inferred through its gravitational influence on its surroundings. Physicists believe that it makes up 22% of the mass of the Universe (compared with the 4% of normal matter and 74% comprising the most mysterious ‘dark energy’-  dark energy makes up a large part of the Universe, more than 70 %, and it is an enigma, perhaps the greatest in physics today]. But, despite its pervasive influence, no-one is sure what dark matter consists of and it is still a hypothetical matter but whose presence in the universe could be inferred from observed gravitational effect. Dark matter could be 85% of the total observable matter in the universe.
The ‘true nature’ of dark matter could be revealed by new computer modeling work. The modeling, published in Science, suggests in a universe dominated by “warm” dark matter the first stars could have formed from fragments of filaments thousands of light-years long (study abstract, commentary). “The filaments would have been about 9,000 light years long, which is about a quarter the size of the Milky Way galaxy,” according to study leader Liang Gao of Durham University in the UK.  “They would have fragmented in a huge burst of star formation, a spectacular event to contemplate.”{The Great Beyond Nature.com Posted by Daniel cressey on 17th Sept 2007]
Is Gravity Dark Matter? Dark Energy? or WAMP or zero mass particle or a new particle called Graviton? Is Gravity made of Higgs particle that gave mass to all particles in the universe? Or neutrinos particle?[ Neutrinos are not however zero mass particle. if it would be zero mass particle then it would not oscillate] or is Gravity the Dark Energy? The same unexplained force—dark energy—that causes the universe to fly apart at an accelerating pace is also stifling the growth of galaxy clusters, new research shows. These clusters, cloudlike swarms that are the largest accumulations of matter in the universe, grew rapidly during the first 10 billion years of cosmic time but, due to the dark energy, they can no longer continue to grow.
SPIRE_PACS_big.jpg[Picture-:Inter stellar Cold dark matter condensing into interconnected Strings and filaments in newly forming star region]
A giant hole” in the universe had been discovered recently by astronomers from Minnesota. Investing an area of the sky known as the WMAP Cold Spot, Lawrence Rudnick and his colleagues found a very large void empty of stars, gas and even dark matter which is nearly 6 billion trillion miles of emptiness or void .Astronomers had long known that there are big voids in the universe, and think they can explain them with their theories as to how large scale structures first formed. But those theories are  very hard put to describe a void of such a  huge void in the large-scale evolution of the Universecoldspot.jpg even by gravitational collapse
One common view of cosmological constants is as asymptotic states. For example, the speed of light c is (in special relativity) the maximum velocity of a massive particle moving in ®at space-time. The gravitational constant G de­ nes the limiting potential for a mass that does not form a black hole in curved space-time. The reduced Planck constant ~ ² h=2º is the universal quantum of action (and hence de­ nes a minimum uncertainty). Similarly, in string theory there is also a fundamental unit of length (the characteristic size of the strings). So for any physical theory we know of, there Cosmology with varying constants 2683should be one such constant. This view is acceptable in practice,[Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (2002) on March 2, 2010 rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org] .Gravity may be also called the electromagnetic force- a force terms like nuclear forces the " in classical or is it just a distortion of space as per general theory of relativity?
How does gravity work? "  In general theory of relativity gravity is defined as the warping of the space-time due to the presence of matter and energy. This seems to imply that space/time has some form of fabric matrix. Can we not detect the gravity directly? Do we not have a gravity meter? The  real answer is  No.  But why not? if it is a measurable force. The gravity is made of a  particle may be  called Gravitons. I assume the gravitons of all mass in our local universe, are in touch with one another. As we move farther graviton communication between masses stops. As the universe is and farther away from our local universe, at what point (distance or velocity) does expanding faster than speed of light, it seems to me there will be no graviton communication with masses outside of our local universe (distant galaxies). Personally, I like the thought of gravitons of all mass in the entire universe being in constant communication with one another. If one mass moves anywhere in the universe, all of the other mass gravitons  will know its movement. ""I like it too but wonder if the gravitons communicate instantly or at C.  no one has yet detected a graviton or a gravitational wave.





Is Gravity is made of a particle that gave mass to other particle like Rupak Particle-a zero mass particle/ Higgs B?Gravity should then has ‘Speed of Gravity". There seem to be a general agreement the speed of gravity is the speed of light, but may be less. We do not know yet. Do any one Knows? Why then can we not measure it ? I can measure light intensity.  I can measure velocity of Light  as it is a particle  and has wave length .I can calculate recession velocity by red shift. I can see the spectrum of elements detected. There are all sorts of cleaver methods of detecting what we did not previously know.
If a distant galaxy mass can be seen as visible light emitted. Why can I not measure then gravity? Is a big question before me
Now Cosmos is growing for Gravity-:
It was not the first time that an astronomical discovery had revolutionized our ideas, understanding  about the observable Universe. Think ! Just only a hundred years ago!, Our Universe was  then considered to be a calm and peaceful place, no larger and nothing beyond than our own galaxy, “the Milky Way”. The cosmological clock was ticking reliably and steadily and the Universe was then eter­nal. Soon, however, a radical shift resulted changed our believed picture. At the beginning of the 20th century, If I am not wrong, one amateur American astronomer, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, could find a way of measuring distances to far away stars then our galaxy. At the time, women astronomers were denied access to viewing through the large telescopes, but they were frequently employed for the cumbersome tasks of analyzing photographic plates. Henrietta Leavitt, studied thousands of such pulsating stars,  she called  them Cepheids, and found that the brighter ones had longer pulses. Using this information, Leavitt could calculate the intrinsic brightness of Cepheids. If the distance of just one of the Cepheid stars is known, the distances to other Cepheids can be established  easily– the dimmer its light,  so the farther away the star-she told. A reliable standard candle was born, a first mark on the cosmic yardstick that is still used today. By making use of Cepheids, astronomers  soon concluded that the “Milky Way” is just one of many  billions  of galaxies in the Universe. And in the 1920s, the astronomers got access to the world’s then-largest telescope Mount Wilson in California, so they were able to show that almost all galaxies are moving away from us.  Why ? They were then  studying the so-called redshift (Z) that occurs when a source of light is receding from us What we Carfiologists and radiologists see as Doppler effect. The light’s wavelength gets stretched, and the longer the wave, the redder its colour. The conclusion then came that the galaxies are rushing away from us and from each other, and the farther away they are, the faster they move – this is known finally established  as Hubble’s law.
So the Universe is growing and Expanding Rapidly.
The coming and going of the cosmological constant what was observed in space had already been suggested by theoretical calculations. In 1915, The great  Prof Albert Einstein N.L published his “General Theory of Relativity”, which turned later as the foundation stone of our understanding of the Uni­verse ever since. The theory described ,what I did understand whether a Universe that has to either shrink or to expand as essence of the theory. This was a very disturbing conclusion before the physicists. This disturbing conclusion was finally reached about a decade before the discovery of the ever-fleeing galaxies. Not even Einstein could reconcile the fact that the Universe was not static ( J.B Narlieker &Hoyel Steady State Universe theory). Expansion of universe is not in fact wanted by scientists and the concept was troublesome. So in order to stop the unwanted cosmic expansion by then scientists, Einstein added further a constant to his equations that he called it as” the cosmological constant”. Later, Einstein  considered  the insertion of the cosmological constant  was a big mistake by him. However, with the obser­vations made in 1997–1998 that was awarded this year’s Nobel Prize, we can conclude that Einstein’s cosmo­logical constant – put in for the wrong reasons – was actually brilliant. The discovery of the expanding Universe was a groundbreaking first step towards the now standard view that the Universe was created in the Big Bang almost 14 billion years ago. Both time and space began that very moment-. Ever since, the Universe has been expanding; like raisins in a raisin cake swelling in the oven, galaxies are moving away from each other due to the cosmological expansion. But where are we heading? When Einstein got rid of the cosmological constant and surrendered to the idea of a non-static Universe, he related the geometrical shape of the Universe to its fate. Is it open or closed, or is it something in between – a flat Universe?
An open Universe is one where the gravitational force of matter is not large enough to prevent the expansion of the Universe. All matter is then diluted in an ever larger, ever colder and ever more empty space. In a closed Universe, on the other hand, the gravitational force is strong enough to halt and even reverse the expansion. So the Universe eventually would stop expanding and fall back together in a hot and violent ending, a Big Crunch. Most cosmologists, however, would prefer to live in the most simple and mathematically elegant Universe: a flat one, where the expansion is believed to decline. The Universe would thus end neither in fire nor in ice. But there is no choice. If there is a cosmological constant, the expansion will continue to accelerate, even if the Universe is flat.
From here to eternity
So what is it that is speeding up the Universe? It is called dark energy and is a challenge for physics, a riddle that no one has managed to solve yet. Several ideas have been however proposed. The simplest is to reintroduce Ein­stein’s cosmological constant, which he once rejected. At that time, he inserted the cosmological constant as an anti-gravitational force to counter the gravitational force of matter and thus create a static Universe. Today, the cosmological constant instead appears to make the expansion of the Universe to accelerate. The cosmological constant is, of course, constant, and as such does not change over time. So dark energy becomes dominant when matter, and thus its gravity, gets diluted due to expansion of the Universe over billions of years. According to scientists, that would account for why the cosmological constant entered the scene so late in the history of the Universe, only five to six billion years ago. At about that time, the gravitational force of matter had weakened enough in relation to the cosmological constant. Until then, the expansion of the Universe had been The cosmological constant could have its source in the vacuum, empty space that, according to quantum physics, is never completely empty. Instead, the vacuum is a bubbling quantum soup where vir­tual particles of matter and antimatter pop in and out of existence and give rise to energy. However, the simplest estimation for the amount of dark energy does not correspond at all to the amount that has been measured in space, which is about 10120 times larger (10 followed by 120 zeros). This constitutes a gigantic and still unex­plained gap between theory and observation – on all the beaches of the world there are no more than 1020 (1 followed by 20 zeros) grains of sand. It may be that the dark energy is not constant after all. Perhaps it changes over time. Perhaps an unknown force field only occasionally generates dark energy. In physics there are many such force fields that collectively go by the name quintessence, after the Greek name for the fifth element. Quintessence could speed up the Universe, but only sometimes. That would make it impossible to foresee the fate of the Universe. Whatever dark energy is, it seems to be here to stay. It fits very well in the cosmological puzzle that physicists and astronomers have been working on for a long time. Accord­ing to current consensus, about three quarters of the Uni­verse consist of dark energy. The rest is matter. But the regular matter, the stuff that galaxies, stars, humans and flowers are made of, is only five percent of the Universe. The remaining matter is called dark matter and is so far hidden from us. The dark matter is yet another mystery in our largely unknown cosmos. Like dark energy, dark matter is invisible. So we know both only by their effects – one is pushing, the other one is pulling. They only have the adjective “dark” in common.
References
1)      Introducing the Space time Helix and possible destruction of all matter and introducing the space Time Helix(STH) by Ronald Weiss Clopton http://spacetimehelix.com/#T2 and http://spacetimehelix.com/#T7

2]  Nobels in Science:2011 Science and Culture Vol77 NO11 November-December 20-11 p521-525.
 Please note Copy Right of the article “What is Gravity?  Is it a force Generated by a Zero rest mass particle ! If it is a force why we can not measure Gravity or speed of Gravity?” belongs to professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya and other authors  of the article/blog in chronological orders as per copy right rules of IPR1996 applicable in India-2006 under section D of copy right act. and Protect intellectual property Right Laws/Acts of USA -2012 ,  This article was published in http://www.extremeastronomy.comblog/11/entry/319-what is gravity-i on 7th  June 2010 as  Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya’s blogs Posted by “Pranab” as user name with 8 comments  Posted  by others including Ronald  Weiss Clopon Who is famous for his paper “ the nature and Dissolution of matter”
 And  the same was asked As “Question  For David Gross in Nobelprize.org in the section Ask a Nobel Laureate David Gross The Nobel Laureate in the Cheltenham Science Festival in Nobelprize org face book on June 13 2010
3] Personal communication of” Ronald Weiss Clopton” of Website www.space timehelix.com with Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya on 30th august 2010 at 1024 AM  about his 2 pages view on standard Big Bang Model, STH, Space time and according him the light is the only thing that can penetrate and effect the STH,…. it is the chaos in stellar furnace that protects the STH…., the proton nots in Urenium or other Molecule gives mass properties to the STH structure,  our universe is in pure vibration mode, and  no need of a Zero mass particle concept(graviton) for Gravity. According him longitudinal display of STH create zero mass photon which conveys all forces particle”

see also following links

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/46865/title/Comment

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