*Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya-Bsc(cal), Msc(JU), 7/51 Purbapalli, Sodepur, Dist 24 Parganas(north) Kol-110,West Bengal, India**Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya- MD(cal) FIC Path(Ind), Professor &HOD of Pathology Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine,108 CR Avenue Kol-73,l Ex Professor of Pathology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education & Research,244 a AJC Bose Road, Kolkata-20, West Bengal, India,**Miss Upasana Bhattacharya-daughter of Prof.PK Bhattacharya*Mr.Ritwik Bhattacharya B.com(cal), Somayak Bhattacharya MBA 7/51 Purbapalli, Sodepur, Dist 24 parganas(north) ,Kolkata-110,WestBengal, India***** Mrs. Dalia Mukherjee BA(hons) Cal, Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north) West Bengal, India*** Miss Oaindrila Mukherjee-Student ,Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north), West Bengal, India
Antimatter is now extremely rare in our observable universe, but at one time antimatter comprised half the Universe. According to cosmologists, when the Universe began in Palnk’s moment of Big bang it was smaller than an atom, hotter than our Sun is, and perfectly in balanced form — like a 50-50 mixture of matter and antimatter. Then, just one second after the start of the big bang, the antimatter surprisingly disappeared. What happened to it all is still a big question before physicists?
Some Scientists may have a pretty good idea of where the antimatter went: it annihilated almost all of the matter in the early Universe-they say. The bit that remained went on to form all the material stuff in the Universe today, including the atoms found in cells in your body. Among the most pressing questions that now need to be answered is why some of that primordial matter survived and made possible everything in the cosmos, including life itself.
This is probably one of the hardest topics to be answered on many of the agendas of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, near Geneva from the Large Hadron Collider[LHC] experiment, where smashing beams of protons flows to produce the highest energy collisions produced in 27 Km (16.9-mile)tunnel of EarthA giant circular tunnel, with several loops, stretches for 27km under the land between France and Switzerland. LHC is a device that demands to be described in superlatives — it’s the world’s biggest piece of scientific apparatus, using particle beams circulating in the world’s biggest fridge tunnel and has its results processed by the world’s most powerful super computer technology.
During every seconds of its operation, the LHC top scientists may find hundreds of subatomic particles smash-ups in space-time smaller than a pinhead. Every collision generates a spray of hundreds of particles and antiparticles, many of them will be monitored by huge detectors (the largest would only just fit inside Westminster Abbey). In this way LHC scientists can today simulate the conditions in the Universe a billionth of a second after its birth, The BIG Bang, when antimatter was almost as common as matter. The upshot is that CERN scientists so will soon be able to study antimatter in detail, shedding light on its behavior and on its possible medical applications, such as the treatment of cancer if any. Scientists could have detected anti-matter particles, known as geo-neutrinos, emitted during nuclear reactions first time  into the interior of the Earth, to a depth of up to thousands of kilometers. Geo-neutrinos, which have almost no mass and no electrical charge, are emitted when radioactive elements in the Earth’s mantle decay into more stable substances. The decay of elements such as uranium and thorium are thought to contribute more than 50 per cent of the heat generated inside the planet, but the exact fraction is unknown. Measuring the number of geo-neutrinos emitted, and their energies, could help determine the proportions of different radioactive substances in the Earth’s mantle and the amount of heat energy they contribute
The opening of existence of antiparticle was first time written in 1931 by the famously English physicist Paul Dirac, who first conceived it. His publication was purely a theoretical speculation and discussion so far known before us, based on his faith in his mathematically beautiful equation for the electron, widely known before world as the Dirac equation. There was then no experimental evidence that this new kind of subatomic particle actually existed. After three years of poring over his equation, he further wrote that it made sense only if there existed another particle with exactly the same mass as the electron has, but however with the opposite electrical charge ,at least theoretically. No one had ever seen then such a particle but Paul Dirac was not surprised as his theory predicted that the instant a particle comes into contact with its antiparticle, the two must annihilate each other and produce a burst of high-energy light. He nonetheless named this product of his imagination the anti-electron and proposed that antiprotons — antiparticles of protons — should also exist. For Dirac’s colleagues, these ideas were much for laughing and to be taken seriously in scientific community.
But later Paul Dirac was proved to be absolutely right. In August 1932, the American physicist and Mathematician Carl Anderson observed a particle with the same mass as the electron but with the opposite charge among the cosmic rays raining down on the skies of Pasadena in California. He was then unaware of Dirac’s prediction and it took several months for physicists to put two and two together to conclude that Anderson had been the first to detect the anti-electron, later dubbed the positron (the antiproton took another 23 years to find). From the modern perspective, it took human beings a million years after our species evolved to detect the first evidence of antimatter, which had been around in the Universe for 13.7 billion years. Paul Dirac was rewarded for his boldness in December 1933 with the honor of becoming the youngest theoretician to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics co sharing with Anderson.
Soon it was clear that Dirac’s concept was much wider than he first thought — every fundamental particle of matter has a corresponding antiparticle. But antimatter presented a huge challenge for experimental proof. In order to study it in detail, it’s not good enough to study cosmic rays — for one thing, that no one knows when they will arrive on Earth. Rather, experimenters have to resort to brute force: they smash together subatomic particles, such as protons, and siphon off any antiparticles produced. They then store them, ready for experimenters to study.
This turns out be the Devil’s own job: the total mass of all the antimatter produced every year globally by all the particle accelerators is only about ten billionths of a gram. The amount sounds more impressive when put in terms of the number of antiparticles produced annually: roughly a hundred thousand billion. Not bad when you consider that in the year after Anderson detected the first anti-electron the number of them observed in the entire world was four.
Dirac’s image of every antiparticle as being in some sense the opposite of its corresponding particle survived until 1964, when two American experimenters demonstrated that, in some special circumstances, there is an extremely slight asymmetry between matter and antimatter. This provided the current explanation of why matter predominated in the early Universe — soon after the beginning of time, the decay of some of the formed particles led to a surfeit of matter over antimatter of one part more per billion. On that smidgin, the existence of everything in our Universe depended. It’s that fundamental: without that broken symmetry, neither you nor I nor anything else would exist. In 1967, Andrei Sakharov (the Nobel prize winner1975) pointed explained that CP violation is the cause of such an asymmetry in the universe .In shakarov’s CP violation theory & spontaneous symmetry breaking theory, the quark becomes an anti-quark while the anti-quark becomes a quark[dancing Quarks], thus transforming the kaon[combination of a quark and an anti quark? possible?] into its anti kaon. In this way the kaon particle flips between itself and its anti-self. But if the right conditions are met, the symmetry between matter and antimatter will be broken. Nambu , Kobayashi and Maskawa’s(Nobelprize winner of 2008 in Physics)[http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/p...8/phyadv08.pdf theory The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008 - Scientific Background] also indicated that it should be possible to study a major violation of symmetry in B-meson particles. It is known that neutral βs meson (β-anti quark &s anti quark) spontaneously transform into its antimatter particles. The current theory of particle physics states that βs meson oscillates very quickly. As a result of their oscillation an very difficult to detect what happens to antimatter. on the properties of subatomic particles βs meson(βsubs) suggest that particles oscillates between matter and antimatter in one of In the first few moments of the Universe, the anti-B-mesons might have decayed differently than their regular matter counterparts. By the time all the annihilations were complete, there was still enough matter left over to give us all the stars, planets and galaxies we see today. nature’s fastest rapid free process more than 17 trillion times per second.
So how did our universe survived of matter is a big puzzle.
Yet theoreticians have a serious problem. They don’t understand the extent of symmetry-breaking between matter and antimatter particles and so cannot understand the amount of matter in the Universe. The Standard Model, which gives an excellent account of all nature’s fundamental particles and forces (except gravity), accounts for some of the symmetry-breaking, but not all of it. The Model, based on quantum theory and Einstein’s Special Theory, urgently needs a steer from nature so that theoreticians can do a better job of setting out the patterns in the Universe’s underlying fabric. It is the job of the experimenters to ask the right questions of nature, ones that yield the most telling information about the pattern
1] Graham Farmelo Part of the Alpha experiment in the AD (Antiproton Decelerator) Hall at CERN Times Online 6th may2010
2] Hannah Devlin, Laura Margottini Geo-neutrino anti-matter found by scientists at Borexino detector Times Online march 15th 2010
3] Symmetry or Breaking the symmetry- what was the laws of nature- Thread’s author By Pranab at BAD Astronomy &Universe Today on 29th oct 2008 at www.bautforum.com
4] Why matter is more then antimatter in the Universe?-Our Theory Thread’s author By Pranab at BAD Astronomy &Universe Today on 29th oct 2008 at www.bautforum.com
5]https://www.facebook.com/NobelWeekDialogue- comment of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya on june25 &28 2013 and september19 2013 on topic posted there"How will humankind choose to meet the challenge of satisfying the ever-growing demand for power, against a backdrop of ever-decreasing natural resources and concerns about the environmental impact of energy use?"
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