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Thursday, 8 March 2012

A smaller particle then quarks-possible at all?



Authors_:
**Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya Bsc(cal), Msc(JU) of Residence- 7/51 Purbapalli PO-Sodepur, Dist 24 Parganas(north) Kolkata-110 W.B ,India, *Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya MD(cal), FIC path(Ind.) –Professor and Head Department   of Pathology,  now posted at School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, 108 C.R Avenue. Kol-73, W.B ; India & Ex Professor & Head, Department of Ophthalmic  Pathology, RIO kolkata and of WBUHS, Ex Professor of Pathology, Institute of post Graduate Medical Education& Research, Technical adviser in charge Blood Banks IPGME&R/SSKM hospital and  of VCCTC, Cytogenetics  *Miss Upasana Bhattacharya-  only daughter of Professor.Pranab kumar Bhattacharya, Mahamaya Apartments Mahamayatala, 54 NSC Bose Road, Garia ,kol-84;  **Mr. Ritwik Bhattacharya B.Com(cal), ** Miss Rupsa Bhattacharya ,  ** Mr. Somayak Bhattacharya BHM(cal) MSc student of PUSHA New Delhi-  all  of residence  7/51 purbapalli; Po= Sodepur; Dist 24 Parganas(north); Kol-110; W.B ;India, Mrs. Dalia Mukherjee BA(hons) Cal,Miss Oaindrila Mukherjee –Student, Mr.Debasis Mukherjee Bsc (cal) of Residence Swamiji Nagar, South Habra , 24 Pargnas(north) West Bengal, India


Over the past three and half decades it has been generally accepted that all the strongly interacting particles (hadrons) observed in the laboratories are composed of further elementary objects known as Quarks. The concept was originated from the studies of the symmetry in the quantum number of hadrons (Gellman.M, Neeman.Y. - The eight fold way; p7-85; pub-Benjqmen,Newyork-l%4 ) and was re enforced by deep inelastic electron and neutrinos scattering and later by e+ e- annihilation experiment. Hadrons are composed of small numbers of more fundamental entities called “Quarks". Experiments with high energy electrons and neUir()ns made it possible in effective way to take the x -ray of proton structure and it reveal led that proton does ed cindeontain objects with exactly the properties of quarks. The quark  Particles possesses an unusual type of cha11le called" colour" which operate in some way like the electrical charge. The relativistic quantum field theory of colour induced force is called the QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS (Q.C.D ) , by analogy with mathematically similar to QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS (Q.E D ) . Applying the original ideas of M. Gellman the variety of light particle hadrons can be explained in terms of different combinations & two types of flavor of quarks, which are labeled as Up (u) and  Down (d) quarks. The Up (u) &Down (d) quarks are needed to make up Neutrons and Protons. They move (spin) inside hadrons with effective mass of about O.33Gev; To explain the properties of heavier particles further quantum number (like strangeness; charm; and beauty particles) must be assigned to up & down quarks and their ‘quark flavor are Known as "S “quarks",” C’ quarks and  “B "quarks respectively. The strange quarks (S) with a mass of about 0.5 G e v.  is needed to makeup the strange particles that were discovered in cosmic Rays in 1940. The charmed quarks (C) with a mass of 1.5Gev is needed to make up the z/W Particles, The bottom quarks (b) with mass of 4.8 Gev & was found to make γ found, A further flavor or quark (T) or Top quark is predicted to form the symmetry argument. And CERN scientists confirmed in. 1997,The evidence of Top quark came  through a dozen or so events either two W bosons ( seen via their decays into an electron or muon and a neutrino) or such W boson together with three or four jets of hadrons. These were believed to be due to production of Top quark- anti-quark pair. The collider detector facility (CDF) events had distinctive Top quark feature. For example, many of them contained bottom quark or anti quark. The CDF announced mass of Top quark is 174+-16 Gev. At large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) the mass and many decay properties of Z boson had been also measured enabling the mass of Top quark to be 171 +- 15 Gev.  Both the charm quantum numbers and strange numbers are conserved by strong and weak electro magnetic interaction. This means that charmed or, strange particles must under goes a weak decay, whose rate is determined by two factors, the weak interaction coupling constant and the density of allowed final stage i.e. phage- Space availability. The characteristic life time of the Strange particles decay are around10 11 second .The charmed particles ‘are much heavier than the strange particles and charmed particles are much heavier than u; d; or s quarks.
 Breaking the Symmetry in universe and quarks
To explain simultaneously the Symmetries and charges of the, observed hadrons, the quarks are also required to have an electrical charges. which is a fraction of the electronic charges  "e"; Thus an up (u), and down (d) quarks have charges +2/3e and -1/3e respectively. In this picture a proton thus consist of 2down (d) quarks, and l up (u) quarks. (Close E.J­-, introduction of quarks and protons p3 -88; academic press; New York .1979). The lamda (λ) particles consist of 1 up quark, 1 strange quarks and 1 down quark. Similarly Omega particles Ώ consist of 3strange quarks (S3) . Pion particles (tr) consist of l up quark and 1 anti down quark (u d-). Kaon of (us), Charmonium of (can cc-) and Bottomonium particles consist of (bb-). Similarly strange hadrons are made using s quarks.  The iP particles are bound state of charm and anti charm qnarks. – It is meson particle.
Although quark model was very successful in classifying the observed hadrons; in 1960, it became clear that the simple quark model was inadequate.  In addition to quark flavor, quark must carry additional quantum number, which was later known as on "color” and each quark flavor comes in distinct color, there are really as many as quark colour as we thought. " There are red; green, and blue Up quarks and they are denoted as ur, ug, Up; ub; They are identical in all respect (mass, charge, &so on) except in their colour, similarly colour are present in other quarks like (dr; dg; db; sr; sg; sb, br; bg, bb, tr, tg tb, Rb, and so on).The existence of strongly interacting partic1es with spin 1/2 is the quarks particles that have half-integral spin and as such, they are known as fermions. But the difference from fermions. Particle from the quark is that quarks, carry an extra quantum number  ‘color" Which the Fermions do not carry. The quarks as carry these possible color and hadrons as consist of mixture of quarks and color and as such the hadrons is colorless. In the particles and even all the structures in the Universe are in spin motion. Particles like electrons, neutrons, protons and quarks are in Rt. handed or in Lt. handed spin movement. In QCD, we believe that hadrons are built up from smaller building blocks of quarks bound together by QCD forces. Protons contain several such quarks, spinning in opposite direction Spin effects play a very. Crucial role at very early stage of quark structure of hadrons. Actually the quark model gave the first satisfactory explanation of magnetic movement of the proton and neutron by having their partic1es made from two kinds of flavors called up and down with the electrical charges of +2/3 and –l/3 0f the proton charges, respectively. The proton is thus made of 2u quarks& 1d quarks and neutron is made of 2d quarks& l u quarks, thus giving the Observed charges of +1and O. Because all have the spin as proton, the right total spins for the  proton' and Neutrons is obtained by having the u and  d quarks' in opposite direction giving a total spin which is the  difference between u- d  quarks spin. But quarks with opposite electric charges spinning in  opposite direction have their  magnetic  movements all pointing  in the same direction and added up to a large value. To  explain why the proton with  a positive charge  has a nzagneticfnOmentro",ghly three tiniesthe Dirac value and wi(hno charges'hasmagnmc mom.entcorrosponding.rollghlJl.double,theDirac value for a par ticle with negetive  charge
A smaller particle then quarks-possible at all?
The big question to present authors was that whether further elementary particles in QED leptons particle was possible than quark itself in the mass 110 < mH < 600 GeV.? Geonium is a man made atom created at liquid helium temperature in ultrahigh vacuum from an individual electron in magnetic and electron trapping fields. For this atom the electron gyro magnetic ratio g= 20,000,000,000,110(60) had been measured in micro wave spectroscopic experiments after subtraction of quantum electrodynamics shifts. The g-g Dirac= 11x10-11 excess over the value g Dirac=2. For the theoretical Dirac point, electron suggest for the electron of nature a corresponding excess radius Rc-R DiracCover the Dirac radius R Dirac=0 and must be a spatial structure[ Bhattacharya Rupak, Bhattacharya Ritwik, Mukherjee Dahlia& Bhattacharya Pranab- Sub2 quark particles possible? Threads www.extremeastronomy.com Forum discussion Topic Search “pranab”]. A near dirac particles- an electron radius Re=10-20 centimeter must be present. In Big Bang standard model cosmology a  zero mass particle is highly required which indicate from nothing state ( zero mass) resulted a spontaneous quantum jump and initiated Big Bang and these particles and antiparticles were in spin ½( dirac point particles). There require another particles that gave mass to other particles(Bhattacharya Rupak and Bhattacharya Pranab kumar]. So far quark particles and its sub quarks energy colors has been discovered. In 1974 Abdul Salam & others pictured the electron- a particle on the level of a quark as composed of three sub quarks each 1010 times heavier than electron mass in Gev mass, as like a proton is composed of three spin ½ particles. This is Salam particles according to name of Professor Abdul Salam, received Nobel Prize for his Gauge theory based on his particle, in physics. Direct  searches for the SM Higgs particles at the LEP e+e􀀀 collider and the Tevatron pp collider have led, respectively, to a lower mass bound ofmH > 114.4 GeV [10], and to an exclusion in the range 162–166 GeV , at 95% CL. Indirect constraints from precision measurements favour the mass range mH < 158 GeV at 95% CL.
The inclusive Higgs particle production followed by the decay H ! ZZ is expected to be oneof the main discovery channels at the CERN proton-proton (pp) Large Hadron Collider (LHC)for a wide range of mH values. Using the H ! ZZ and the H ! WW decay channels, the ATLAS collaboration have excluded at 95% CL the mass ranges 145–206 GeV, 214–224 GeV, and340–450 GeV.The big question to present authors “is it possible to have a sub X sub or Sub2 quarks particles, all tightly bound to nucleus? The particle sub x quarks, smaller & smaller, less & less imperfect near Dirac particles held together by stronger and stronger forces and with ever increasing mass in Gev. Probably in the beginning of our universe in the Big Bang moment(Planck’s moment) such a particle existed as nothing state” that decayed into finally quark- antiquark pair- FINALLY NUCLEON AND ANTI NUCLEAON PARTICLE. Rupak particle suggested by Rupak Bhattacharya as “R particle” is such a particle of Zero total relativistic energy or mass of Bond Pair.
Neutrino Particles
You are all familiar with electromagnetic interactions from our daily experience like charges that repel one another; opposite charges attract .The earth acts like a giant magnet. Indeed matter itself held together by electromagnetic interactions between electron & nuclei. With the exceptions of the neutrinos, all elementary particles have electromagnetic interactions either through charges or through magnetic property. Or the ability to directly interacting with charges or magnetic moment. In 1960 the only known elementary particles apart from hadrons were leptons- Electron, Muons and Neutrinos. And there was suspicion that there might be two types of neutrinos Both the Electron and Muon are electro-magnetically interacting.Early in the century it was discovered that some nuclei are unstable against decay into residual nuclei and electrons or positrons. There were two important characteristic of these so-called decays 1) they were “ slow”. That is to say that the life times of the decaying nuclei corresponded to an interaction that was much weaker then that of characteristic electromagnetism 2) Energy & momentum were missing. If one examined the spectrum of the electrons that were emitted, it was clear that to preserve energy, momentum and angular momentum in the decay, it was necessary that there be another decay product present. The decay product needed to be Zero or nearly Zero mass and to have half-integral spin. Pauli first made this observation & Fremi later gave this product name as “ Neutrinos”. With the development of Fremis Theory of “ Weak Interactions” more was learned about the properties of the particle “ Neutrinos”. The neutrino has a spin of ½ and a very low probability of interacting with matter. The predicted cross section for the interaction of beta decay neutrino with nucleons is about 10-43 cm2. Thus one of these neutrinos would on the average pass through a light year of lead without interacting at all. The beta decay reactions can be written as z— (z-1)+e++v;z—(z+1)+e++v-. By the failure to detect neutrinos less double beta decay namely the process z—(z-2)+e++e+. It was established that Neutrinos (υ) and anti neutrinos (ύ) were included as different particle. Neutrinos can pass through the even center of the earth without leaving a trace and is immune to many of forces that bind up matter together including electromagnetic forces. All accepted models in the cosmology and in particle physics assume that neutrinos are mass less. But as per Rupak Bhattacharya & PK Bhattacharya Neutrinos are not actually the Zero mass particles in the Universe. They calculated that these wooly mammoth allegedly carry a mass of 17000 electron volts (Kev) and so it could not be the earliest particles in the creation of the Universe according to present authors. It was R particles’

 Then What was the earliest particle in the universe? As we in previous chapter discussed ,according to Mery Gelman, the earliest particles were quarks and anti quarks. The gospel of Big Bang is then supposed to have been explosion from zero volume at zero time  of a corpuscle containing  the cosmic soup  of these  quarks and anti quarks  particles , where in the corpuscle energy were equivalent  to mass and radiation and flash. The particles and their anti particles were in constant  annihilation and went into radiation and flash.  What we authors want to mean that at about trillion and trillion degrees of  temperature of cosmic soup  (about 1015K)  the elementary particles  and radiation was just interchangeable. In the primordial fireball or in cosmic soup, the particles and antiparticles were being in constant annihilation and were again created although the total energy of combined radiation and matter of the soup was constant.

However in the quantum chromo dynamics (QCD) another particle was proposed as the earliest particles in the universe. They were nuetrinos particles. The neutrinos were also non-Zero mass particles. The idea that neutrinos may have mass  was of about 40 years old. The successful unification of the weak and electromagnetic force field implies that there should be as many as kinds of neutrinos, as there are different kinds of electron like particles. The question of mass of the neutrinos had been of great interest since Fremis first analysis of β decay to the present time. There is till no confirmed mass evidence that neutrinos have a non zero mass (Bhattacharjee. Rupak and Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar- Monday Nottingham Royal Astronomical Society Journal Vol 288, P 226-301,1994).
 All accepted models in the cosmology and in particle physics assumes that neutrinos are mass less or so. The heaviest neutrinos in Gev temperature ranges from í  to r electron volts. But the scientists found that this wooly mammoth allegedly carries a mass of 17,000 electron volts(kev). By the radioactive beta decay process- a process in which an unstable nucleus in the radioactive isotopes emits both an electron and a neutrino , of decay of electrons.  Rupak Bhattacharya & I myself recorded the energy of decay electrons by sending them into a crystal where they knock other electrons creating a current that provided a measure of energy where a big 17Kev regularly appeared, taken from the energy of a few electrons. The energy was then obvious 17 Kev neutrinos and 1% of their emitted neutrinos belonged to heavy neutrinos. Neutrinos can pass through the entire Earth without leaving a trace and it is immune to many of forces hat bind matter including electromagnetic forces. So Neutrinos are ghostly sub atomic particles, so feebly in their interaction with ordinary matter that they can happily pass through earth without stopping. They have almost never been observed outside he controlled environment of the big accelerator laboratories of USA &CERN in Europe. Neutrinos are even more common in the universe then the photons, only because probably the Big bang left a sea of very low energy neutrinos that permeated every corner of this Cosmos. In 30th march 2006 from the US laboratory “ Fermi lab” reported first result from a neutrinos experiment Called “MINOS”( Main injector neutrino Oscillation search) in Soudan mine at a depth of 776 meter in minnestoa 732 Km away. The MiINOs experiment showed that there is a short fall in the number of muon nutrinos if they are detected a long distance away from their point of production. Nutrinos are elementary particles where all neutral counterparts of charged leptons namely the electrons, the muons and ţ leptons all of which take participation in the weak interactions. Determination of neutrinos particles still remain notoriously difficult from the point of view of experiments and got challenges in the particle physics of highest depth research. At this moment when writing this book, there is no information of even values of their individual masses. Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya however proposed their value as m1<3ev;ml<110Kev; mj<18.2 Mev may be the mass of different muon nutrinos numbers. It is worth noted that direct detection of VĴ was reported in 2006 for the first time only from Fermi laboratories USA. The presence of neutrino oscillation in 2006 march experiment by Fermilab .Direct Observation of NUTAU E872[DONUT] experiment implies existence of distant & non vanishing mass for nutrion flavors. In particular, as per Rupak Bhattacharya there are now three mass m1,ml,mj and three angels that mix neutrinos flavours denoted by θ1223, andθ13. In addition according to Rupak neutrinos may also have rana particles ie they are fermions which are their own antiparticles.
But neutrinos might have a non-zero mass. For electron neutrinos the mass is 10-6ev. A mass in excess of 1ev would then be significant since neutrinos would then contribute mass than stars( Stars like sun) to the mass density of the universe. The universe would be then closed if the mass of neutrinos would be between 25 and 100 eV. There were then three types of neutrinos in the Big Bang moment. 1) “Electron Neutrinos” had amass of 20ev, 2)”Muon neutrinos” had a mass of0.5Mev and 3) Tat neutrinos” had a mass of 250 Mev In the QCD, studies suggest that the primordial universe was dominated by neutrinos of non-zero mass rather then by quarks with it’s colour. A natural scale then emerged determined by maximum distance neutrinos that could stream freely as the universe expanded, before the neutrinos slowed down on account of their mass below the scale of super cluster i.e. galaxies formation. In this neutrinos theory then no pre- existing fluctuation then survived and the first structure then collapsed and formed galaxies.
According to another theory- [Theory of Rupak Bhattacharya and Pranab Bhattacharya], in Grand unified theories, the electron was treated as neutrinos (ve) and the quarks that made nucleon were at different state of a single neutrinos particle. In the simplest of Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya’s theory the small neutrinos mass was given by a formula by Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya Mv= mD2/M where mD is the quark color mass and M is the mass which may be as large as the unification scale of 1014to 1015Gev. As a result of Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya’s equation  Mv=Md2 there occurs three sets of generation of earliest particles. Thus in addition of electron there is generation of muon [mu=206me] and also” R particles”[ Rupak Neutrinos mR=3500me]. These R particles are then very similar and close to gluon particles and correspondingly there are three neutrinos ve vμ and vτ. This theory suggest that m (ve)<< m (vμ)<<m (vτ). So as per Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya and Pranab Bhattacharya’s Theory ve, Vτ and vR are coherent mixture with quarks in case of electron. Neutrinos produced in nonlinear β decay might be v1cosθ+v2sinθ where v1 andv2 are the mass eigenstate and θ is the mixing angle [Bhattacharjee Rupak and Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar]. Those are in favor of neutrinos particles, suggested that the primordial synthesis of nucleon in nucleon synthesis was from neutrinos. Whatever be the long standing debate regarding the quarks or neutrinos particles as the earliest particles in the universe that remained in the corpuscles of cosmic egg, the density fluctuation happened at 10-35 second after the initial Big Bang moment within the corpuscle which resulted due to temperature variation to about 1011K when nucleon synthesis probably started. Beyond this temperature only electron and its antiparticles Positrons could evolve and still involved in annihilation and creation exchanged with their equivalent energies in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The temperature further dropped down from an overall 1011K to a temperature of only one hundredth and as great as 109[1,00,00,00,000 i.e. one Trillion degrees].  This was a practically significant landmark, for bellow that temperature the radiation density became too small for electron, positron pairs were produced [The surface temperature of our sun is only 5000K]. These happened only after100 seconds of Plank Time. But we authors want to mention one important thing that we know what happened in the~1S of planks Time of Big Bang. But we do not still know what happened in the first ten thousandth of a second of Big Bang Singularity. This is probably the big question to all theoretical physicists till now.
 So the cosmic soup consisted of quarks and anti quarks, electrons and it’s antiparticles anti electrons or positrons. The particles and antiparticles were in constant annihilation and radiation as per Einstein’s famous equation E= mC2. At 109K temperature matter were produced and the universe is today made of matter i.e. hadrons. (Proton, Neutron, lepton, Electrons) But in the Big Bang Moment universe started it’s voyage with equal numbers of matter and antimatters. Electron and Positron were created and were in constant annihilation, liberating burst of energy and radiation. Thanks to the creator of the Big Bang that during the nucleon synthesis anti proton were not created. If at all antiproton, antineutron were created they were at least in separate compartment and did not come into contact [Matter and antimatter as soon as come in contact both are destroyed and their entire rest mass converts into radiation and energy known as entropy or annihilation. Prof, S.W. Hawking in his famous book  “The Brief history of Time” nicely said –If you even meet your anti You (Mirror image of You) don’t hand shake with him you will turn into flash, radiation and energy at once”
 How far can we look Back till days?

 It depends on accelerator & particlephysics technology…
Colliding particles mimic early universe.
Higher energy -> Higher temp
* Earlier universe
Beam Equivalent Time after
Date     Accelerator        Energy      Temperature         Big Bang
1930   1st Cyclotron    80 KeV                  109K          200 secs
(Berkely)
1952      Cosmotron          3 GeV                   1012K         10-8 secs
(Brookhaven)
1987      Tevatron               1000 GeV           1016K         10-13 secs
(Fermilab)
2010       LHC                     >7000 GeV           1018K          10-14 secs



       Big Bang Theory explains how  the Universe first started but leaves many unanswered questions
       Time, Space and Matter were created in the Big Bang
       Before the bang, there were no time, no space and no matter
       Physics has not solved the question Whats before the Big Bang
 The question is what was Beyond the Big Bang? If I hear a small bang, I will ask “Who or what caused it” So there is no answer yet  “Who or what caused the Big Bang” ?
      Other factors determine how the Universe will develop:
      Amount of matter in the Universe
      Physical properties of the matter
      Strength of the fundamental forces




 References_:
  1. Rupak Bhattacharya, Prof. Pranab kumar Bhattacharya,  Miss Upasana Bhattacharya , Mr. Ritwik Bhattacharya and Mrs. Dahlia Mukherjee “ Did our Universe started in a Big Bang Gospel or Just Be?” E- book published in www. unipathos.com
  2.  Sub quarks2 particles possible in early Big Bang? Threads at Extreme astronomy .com  www.extremeastronomy.com  Forum discussion Topic Search “pranab”].

  3. A smaller particle then quarks-possible at all? by
    * Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya-Bsc(cal) Msc(JU) 7/51 purbapalli, Po-sodepur; Dist 24 parganas(north), Kol-110,West Bengal, India**Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya MD(cal) FIC Path(ind); Professor of pathology, Institute of post graduate Medical education & Research,244 a AJC Bose Road, Kolkata-20, west Bengal, India***Mr.Ritwik Bhattacharya B.com(cal) 7/51 purbapalli, Po-sodepur Dist 24 parganas(north) , Kolkata-110,West Bengal, India****Miss Upasana Bhattacharya- Student, Mahamayatala, Garia, kol-86**** Mrs. Dalia Mukherjee BA(hons) Cal, Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north) West Bengal, India
    **** Mrs Aindrila Mukherjee-student ,Swamiji Road, South Habra, 24 Parganas(north), West Bengal, India published as comment in  Science News  September 12th, 2009; Vol.176 #6 / The Status Quark / 


 Please See also at following links about publications of this article-
4]ScienceVol. 247 no. 4942 pp. 539-545 DOI: 10.1126/science.247.4942.539

Experiments on the Structure of an Individual Elementary Particle


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