For over a century, since Albert Einstein
published his first paper on the general theory of relativity in 1905, physicists have
struggled to resolve fundamental differences between quantum theory and the
continuum or yang miller field theory. The field approach should have no
singularities[big bang or big crunch]; but the quantum approach has only
singularities. Max Planck formulated quantum theory in 1900, and Einstein could
however successfully applied it in 1905 to electromagnetic radiation, when
Einstein first hypothesized the photon particle in Particle Physics, the
inheritors of quantum theory, used a paradigm of ballistic matter in
non-reactive flat space, that was originally fashioned using the Rutherford
atomic model for the fixed nucleus and its orbiting electrons, which was
patterned after the solar system by Rutherford to earn a Nobel prize. The laws
of conservation of momentum and energy, and orbital dynamics did not translate
well from the very large realm to the very small, resulting in necessary
modifications such as de Broglie waves. Relativity, the successor to field
theory, had been there after repeatedly tested and was proven using atomic
clocks, accelerated particles, and star light aberration of CS chandrasekhar. But other than explanations
involving passenger trains and observers as originally presented by Einstein,
relativity lacks a working visualization model like the Rutherford
atomic model, to explain interactions of matter at relativistic speeds
approaching "

*c*" the speed of light. Very little is found in scientific literature regarding common ground from which both particle physics and relativity can be derived. All of theoretical physics suffers from the lack of a definitive visualization model to guide research. The majority of developments in theoretical physics are driven by purely mathematical concepts and extensions of current theory.
The most recent attempt at achieving common
ground, that of String Theory, fell victim in this struggle and was reduced to
so called Super Symmetry String Theory ,being reinterpreted as super-short
string segments embedded within the theoretical quark particles. Each
miniaturized "super string" is supposed to have free ends whipping at
the speed of light. Exactly where the required string tension comes from to
support super high frequencies with unrestrained ends, and where the power
comes from to sustain the oscillations, is not addressed. Also left unanswered
is any relevance of whipping ends inside the theoretical sub-atomic quark, to
the transmission of light in free space. Compactifying string theory within the
unobserved quark particle effectively marginalized string theory and ended its
threat to the status quo.

**What is time?**

In physics,

**spacetime**(or*space–time*) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum. Space-time is usually interpreted with space being three-dimensional and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort than the spatial dimensions. According to certain Euclidean space perceptions, the universe has three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. By combining space and time into a single manifold, physicists have significantly simplified a large number of physical theories, as well as described in a more uniform way the workings of the universe at both the super galactic and subatomic levels. The concept of space-time combines space and time within a single coordinate system, typically with three spatial dimensions: length, width, height, and one temporal dimension: the time. Dimensions are components of a coordinate grid typically used to locate a point in a certain defined "space" as, for example, on the globe by latitude and longitude. In space time, a coordinate grid that spans the 3+1 dimensions locates "events" (rather than just points in space), so time is added as another dimension to the grid, and another axis. This way, you have where and*when*something is. Unlike in normal spatial coordinates, there are restrictions for how measurements can be made spatially and temporally. These restrictions correspond roughly to a particular mathematical model which differs from Euclidean space in its manifest symmetry. We live in a 3+1 dimensional space time with symmetry principles^{ }that, in the case of special relativity, require that the laws^{ }of physics be invariant under space time transformations. Symmetry^{ }and asymmetry have been powerful organizing concepts in a host^{ }of disciplines, including biology, art and mathematics. More than a century^{ }ago, van’t Hoff pointed out a connection between molecular^{ }chirality and the fundamental symmetries in physics . In^{ }the case of biology, Pasteur was the first to recognize ‘‘symétrie’’^{ }at the molecular level and concluded from data on (+)- and (-)-tartaric^{ }acid that they represented non super imposable mirror images of^{ }each other (Fig. 1). Kelvin later introduced the term*chirality*^{ }for this type of asymmetry
Previously, from various important experiments at low speeds, time was
believed to be independent of motion, progressing only in forward direction, at
a fixed rate in all reference frames;
however, later in early mid 20

^{th}century, high-speed experiments revealed that time can be slowed down at higher speeds (with such slowing called "**time dilation**" explained in the theory of Einstein "**special theory of relativity**" . Many powerfull experiments later have confirmed time dilation, such as in atomic clocks, on board a Space Shuttle running slower than synchronized Earth-bound inertial clocks and at subatomic particles level the relativistic decay of muons from cosmic ray showers. So time is variable. The duration of time can therefore vary for various events and various reference frames. When dimensions are understood as mere components of a grid system, rather than physical attributes of space, it is easier to understand the alternate dimensional views as being simply the result of coordinate transformations. The term**has taken on a generalized meaning beyond treating spacetime events with the normal 3+1 dimensions (including time). It is really the combination of space and time. Other proposed spacetime theories include additional dimensions—normally spatial but there exist some speculative theories that include additional temporal dimensions and even BY some those included some other dimensions that are neither temporal nor spatial. How many dimensions are needed to describe the visible universe is still an open question today. Speculative theories such as***spacetime***string theory**predict 10 [string theory-3] or 26[string theory-1] dimensions ,when**M-theory**predicts 11 dimensions: 10 spatial and 1 temporal, but the existence of more than four dimensions would only appear to make a difference at the subatomic__level or micro universe level. For physical reasons, a spacetime continuum is mathematically defined as a four-dimensional, smooth, flat connected with__**Lorentzian manifold**(*M*,*g*). This means the smooth Lorentz metric*g*has signature . The metric determines the geometry of space-time, as well as determining the**geodesics**of particles and light beams. About each point (event) on this manifold, coordinate charts are used to represent observers in reference frames. Usually, Cartesian coordinates (*x*,*y*,*z*,*t*) are used. Moreover, for simplicity's sake, the speed of light*c*is usually assumed to be unity. A reference frame (observer) can be identified with one of these coordinate charts; any such observer can describe any event*p*. Another reference frame may be identified by a second coordinate chart about*p*. Two observers (one in each reference frame) may describe the same event*p*but obtain different descriptions. Usually, many overlapping coordinate charts are needed to cover a manifold. Given two coordinate charts, one containing*p*(representing an observer) and another containing*q*(representing another observer), the intersection of the charts represents the region of spacetime in which both observers can measure physical quantities and hence compare results. The relation between the two sets of measurements is given by a non-singular coordinate transformation on this intersection. The idea of coordinate charts as local observers who can perform measurements in their vicinity also makes good physical sense, as this is how one actually collects physical data—locally. For example, two observers, one of whom is on Earth, but the other one who is on a fast rocket to pluto, may observe a comet crashing into Jupiter or in pluto (this is the event*p*). In general, they will disagree about the exact location and timing of this impact, i.e., they will have different 4-tuples (*x*,*y*,*z*,*t*) (as they are using different coordinate systems). Although their kinematic descriptions will differ, dynamical (physical) laws, such as momentum conservation and the first law of thermodynamics, will still hold. In fact, relativity theory requires more than this in the sense that it stipulates these (and all other physical) laws must take the same form in all coordinate systems. This introduces tensors into relativity, by which all physical quantities are represented.**Space time in theory of special relativity**: The geometry of spacetime in special relativity theory is described as the

**Minkowski metric**on R

^{4}. This spacetime there is called Minkowski space. The Minkowski metric is usually denoted by η and can be written as a four-by-four matrix: where the Landau–Lifshitz spacelike convention is being used. A basic assumption of relativity is that coordinate transformations must leave spacetime intervals invariant. Intervals are invariant under Lorentz transformations. This invariance property leads to the use of four-vectors (and other tensors) in describing physics. Strictly speaking, one can also consider events in Newtonian physics as a single spacetime. This is

**Galilean-Newtonian relativity**, and the coordinate systems are related by Galilean transformations. However, since these preserve spatial and temporal distances independently, such a spacetime can be decomposed into spatial coordinates plus temporal coordinates, which is not possible in the general case.

**Space time in general relativity_:**In

**general relativity**theory, it is assumed that spacetime is curved by the presence of matter (energy), this curvature being represented by the

**Riemann tensor**. In special relativity, the Riemann tensor is identically zero, and so this concept of "non-curvedness" is sometimes expressed by the statement

*Minkowski spacetime is flat.*Many spacetime continua have physical interpretations which most physicists would consider bizarre or unsettling. For example, a compact spacetime has closed, time-like curves, which violate our usual ideas of causality (that is, future events could affect past ones). For this reason, mathematical physicists usually consider only restricted subsets of all the possible spacetimes. One way to do this is to study "realistic" solutions of the equations of general relativity. Another way is to add some additional "physically reasonable" but still fairly general geometric restrictions and try to prove interesting things about the resulting spacetimes. The latter approach has led to some important results, most notably the

**Penrose–Hawking singularity of the time**

**Quantized space time**

**[3+1 spacetime**] In general theory of relativity, spacetime is assumed to be smooth, flat and continuous—and not just in the mathematics. In the theory of quantum mechanics, there is an inherent discreteness present in physics. In attempting to reconcile these two theories, it was sometimes postulated by some physicists that spacetime should be quantized also at the very smallest scales.

**Current theory is focused on the nature of spacetime at the Planck scale. Causal sets, loop quantum gravity string theory, and black hole thermodynamics**

**, all predicts a quantized spacetime with agreement order of magnitude.**Loop
quantum gravity makes precise predictions about the geometry of

**spacetime at the Planck scale**. Privileged character of 3+1 spacetime Reasoning about spacetime is always limited by the scientific evidence and technology available. For example, in the latter 20th century, experiments with particle accelerators revealed that protons gained mass when accelerated to super high speeds, and the time required for particle decay and other physical phenomena rose. Special relativity predicted this. Authors writing before Einstein's discovery of special relativity were unaware of these facts, so that their views were often mistaken, even fanciful. In the Universe,

^{ }there are two kinds of dimensions, spatial (bidirectional) and temporal (unidirectional).

**Let the number of spatial dimensions be**

*N*and the number of temporal dimensions be*T*. That*N*=3 and*T*=1, setting aside the compactified dimensions invoked by string theory and undetectable to date, can be explained by appealing to the physical consequences of letting*N*differ from 3 and*T*differ from**1**. Immanuel Kant once argued that 3-dimensional space was a consequence of the inverse square law of universal gravitation. While Kant's argument is historically important, John D. Barrow today in 2002 says that it "...gets the punch-line back to front: it is the three-dimensionality of space that explains why we see inverse-square force laws in Nature, not vice-versa." This is because the law of gravitation (or any other inverse-square law) follows from the concept of flux, from

*N*=3, and from 3-dimensional solid objects having surface areas proportional to the square of their size in a selected spatial dimension. In particular, a sphere of radius

*r*has area of 4π

*r*

^{2}. More generally, in a space of

*N*dimensions, the strength of the gravitational attraction between two bodies separated by a distance of

*r*would be inversely proportional to

*r*

^{N}^{-1}. In 1920, Paul Ehrenfest showed that if we fix

*T*= 1 and let

*N*>3, the orbit of a planet about its sun cannot remain stable. The same is true of a star's orbit around the center of its galaxy Ehrenfest also showed that if

*N*is even, then the different parts of a wave impulse will travel at different speeds. If

*N*>3 and odd, then wave impulses become distorted. Only when

*N*=3 or 1 are both problems avoided. In 1922, Hermann Weyl showed that Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism works only when

*N*=3 and

*T*=1, writing that this fact "...not only leads to a deeper understanding of Maxwell's theory, but also of the fact that the world is four dimensional, which has hitherto always been accepted as merely 'accidental,'become intelligible through it. Finally, Tangherlini showed in 1963 that when

*N*>3, electron orbitals around nuclei cannot be stable; electrons would either fall into the nucleus or disperse. Max Tegmark expands on the preceding argument in the following anthropic manner. If

*T*differs from 1, the behavior of physical systems could not be predicted reliably from knowledge of the relevant partial differential equations. In such a universe, intelligent life capable of manipulating technology could not emerge. Moreover, if

*T*>1, Tegmark maintains that protons and electrons would be unstable and could decay into particles having greater mass than themselves. (This is not a problem if the particles have a sufficiently low temperature.) If

*N*>3, Ehrenfest's argument above holds; atoms as we know them (and probably more complex structures as well) could not exist. If

*N*<3, gravitation of any kind becomes problematic, and the universe is probably too simple to contain observers. For example, when

*N*<3, nerves cannot overlap without intersecting.In general, it is not clear how physical law could function if

*T*differed from 1. If

*T*>1, subatomic particles which decay after a fixed period would not behave predictably, because time-like geodesics would not be necessarily maximal.

*N*=1 and

*T*=3 has the peculiar property that the speed of light in a vacuum is a

*lower bound*on the velocity of matter; all matter consists of tachyons.Hence anthropic and other arguments rule out all cases except

*N*=3 and

*T*=1—which happens to describe the world about us. Curiously, the cases

*N*=3 or 4 have the richest and most difficult geometry and topology. There are, for example, geometric statements whose truth or falsity is known for all

*N*except one or both of 3 and 4.

*N*=3 was the last case of the

**Poincare conjecture**to be proved. For an elementary treatment of the privileged status of

*N*=3 and

*T*=1, of Barrow for deeper treatments, of Barrow and Tipler (1986) and Tegmark String theory builds on the notion that the "universe is wiggly" and hypothesizes that matter and energy are composed of tiny vibrating strings of various types, most of which are embedded in dimensions that exist only on a scale no larger than the Planck length. Hence

*N*=3 and

*T*=1 do not characterize string theory, whicha embeds vibrating strings in coordinate grids having 10, even 26, dimensions

What is space time in the string theory?
Space-time is defined there as an invisible, underlying matrix woven from a
double helix having one atomic diameter cross-section and infinite length,
always traveling at the speed of light "

*c*" along its axis. It is the power source and regulator of the entire universe. I can rather call this invisible double helix the Space-time Helix (STH) because it defines the limits and dimensions of space by its ubiquitous presence and extension. It marks time at the most fundamental level by its resulting crest-to-crest sine wave spacing (wavelength), while traveling at*c*; and the term "helix" incorporates its cork-screw shape. The STH produces all known rotational phenomena without actually rotating. A travelling helix gives the appearance of rotation without actually rotating, yet it can induce rotation in an intersecting plane of detection through which it slides. We tend to think of a helix in terms of the Archimedes' screw in which a rotating screw lifts water; the screw turns and the water doesn't. The STH works in the opposite manner; the STH doesn't rotate but it causes rotation of the electrons and nucleons formed by two intersecting space-time helices. If the STH were forced to rotate, it would soon twist into a hopeless knot.As long as the double helix travels longitudinally at speed*c*in a balanced state without lateral displacement or vibration, it remains hidden and does not intrude into our reality. Once the STH is disturbed laterally or longitudinally, by being struck or forced out of balance, it is capable of producing all known vibrational frequency particles, both short-lived and long-lived. The STH is the hidden power source for all that exists and occurs in the universe. The STH is described as follows –**1)**The Space-time helix can be illustrated by a ball of twisted yarn or by a twisted ribbon of crepe paper with unequal edges (see

__Figure 1__

**2)**The inner helix has "positive proto-charge" and "proto-mass" capable of producing a proton when physically coupled with the inner helix of another intersecting Space-time helix. Such coupling occurred one time only during the opening one (1) second of the Big Bang event, creating instantly all the protons in the universe. The sudden appearance of unbalanced, unbridled positive charge in the ultra-dense compacted universe, which began smaller than a single pea, provided the mutually repulsive force needed to explode the disassociated hydrogen H+ nuclei into the ever expanding, cooling universe we know today.

**-**The inner helix normally has an orbital diameter roughly equal to the nuclear diameter of a hydrogen H nucleus; but the inner radius of gyration can be momentarily displaced and expanded in its travels at

*c*by a width ranging up to the nuclear diameter of the heaviest possible element.

**--**The outer helix has "negative proto-charge" and "proto-mass" capable of producing an electron when physically coupled with the outer helix of another intersecting Space-time helix. The coupling of two inner helices and two outer helices at a junction point or pair node produces a hydrogen H atom, with an orbital proton and an orbital electron. According to the literature, electron coupling first occurred 300,000 years after the Big Bang, when the rapidly expanding chaotic H+ plasma cooled to the point that the two outer helices of node-paired Space-time helices could capture each other as they whipped around the proton-node already formed by the intersecting inner helices.

**--**The

__outer helix__has an orbital diameter in free space roughly equal to the single electron orbital diameter of a hydrogen H electron shell. The outer orbital diameter can be momentarily displaced and expanded in its travels at

*c*by a width ranging up to the outer electron shell diameter of the heaviest possible element. The outer helix is somewhat elastic and can assume a higher or lower orbital diameter as it speeds through an intersecting atom-node. An imbalance between the radii of gyration of a coupled proton and electron, at the atom node, may contribute to chemical valence states, and provide some basis for chemical bonding along the longitudinal axis of either paired helix (see

__Figure 1__and

__Figure 2__).

**--**The STH travels at

*c*along its path throughout the universe in a dynamically balanced state, so that the radii of gyration of the inner and outer helix members are inversely proportional to their proto masses, which themselves are proportional to the relative masses of the proton and electron, that being 1836.1

*m(proton)*:1

*m(electron)*. By extrapolating from the orbital frequency of a single electron in the hydrogen H atom, given as 6.6 million gigahertz, we can determine that the wave length of the STH at this present point of universe expansion is about 4.54 x 10

^{-6}cm.

[please
enlarge the all pictures by click on individual pictures and
then at format pictures and then on size
icons]

*Time*is nothing more than fixed periodicity established at the most primal level. The basic time is the standard of the entire material universe, shared by every atom, is the rotational frequency of its constituent electrons, and the corresponding rotational frequency of its nucleons that are paired to its electrons by the STH structure. Time renormalizes at every electron, proton and neutron in the universe because an STH imposes its rotational frequency on an intersecting node-paired STH, which in turn is forced to the same rotational frequency by the STH it intersects. That is why the universe, other than for spectral red shift or spectral blue shift does not appear to radically depart from a common time base.

*Relativistic time dilation*occurs when a pair node (atom) is accelerated to speeds approaching the speed of light

*c*. At higher speeds the two space-time helices are drawn into a narrow "V" trailing the atom, but each STH continues to course through the atom from a lagging position toward the leading position. If one STH is oriented by direction of flow opposite to the direction of travel of the atom, this opposing STH folds to trail the atom, for the simple folk reason that it is impossible to push a rope (see Figure 3). A rope can only be pulled because it is flexible, just like the STH. The rope, in this case the STH opposing the direction of travel, folds as the atom drags it along. In normal space-time, time can flow only one direction, unless the STH is stiffened by an intense magnetic field As the speed of the atom approaches

*c*, both helices become more aligned in the direction of travel. If it were possible to move an atom at speed

*c*, the two helices would become essentially overlaid and could be treated as a single helix with uniform rotation. Rotation speed of the electron depends upon the differential between the speed of the pair node (atom) through space, and the speed of the STH which always travels at speed

*c*. As the differential decreases, the apparent rotational speed of the electron slows .At speed

*c*, the speed of the atom and electron would match the speed of the STH, so the STH could no longer force the electron to rotate; time for the atom and electron would stop, and the electron would become a stationary node riding the STH. An atom cannot be pushed to speed

*c*, because of relativistic mass increase which prevents the atom from reaching speed

*c*. The same behavior would be true for nucleons in the atom. Time dilation is [shown in Equation as mentioned bellow]relativistic which relates the motion of one observer to another without benefit of an underlying matrix common to both observers. The Clopton Model provides an inertial frame of reference traveling at speed

*c*that is common to both observers

The given formula for rela

*t*

_{A}=

*t*

_{B}

*/ sqrt (1-*

*v*

_{BA}

^{2}/

*c*

^{2})

*t*

_{A}= Time differential as measured by observer A

*t*

_{B}= Time differential as measured by observer B

*v*

_{BA}

^{2}= Square of the difference in velocity between observer A and observer B

*Relativistic mass increase*is linked to

__relativistic time dilation__. At higher speeds the two space-time helices are drawn into a narrow "V" trailing the atom. As the moving atom approaches speed

*c*, the "V" narrows even more, so that the atom is physically dragging along both of the space-time helices. It was entirely possible that the universe is made of only one STH string, wrapped countless times around the universe like a ball of yarn stretching and expanding as a shell (

__Big Bang and the Shape of the Universe__). As an accelerating atom approaches the speed of light and time slows for the atom, it becomes mechanically coupled to the space-time helix, so that the atom is actually attempting to drag the entire universe

__Relativistic Time Dilation__, above). The formula for relativistic mass increase shows that the mass of any body becomes infinite at speed

*c*, so matter can never be accelerated to the speed of light.

What
is string theory? Why it is required?

Pythagoras could be called the first known string theorist. Pythagoras, an excellent lyre player, figured out the first known string physics -- the harmonic relationship. Pythagoras realized that vibrating Lyre strings of equal tensions but different lengths would produce

Pythagoras could be called the first known string theorist. Pythagoras, an excellent lyre player, figured out the first known string physics -- the harmonic relationship. Pythagoras realized that vibrating Lyre strings of equal tensions but different lengths would produce

**harmonious notes**(i.e. middle C and high C) if the**ratio of the lengths**of the two strings were a**whole number**. Pythagoras discovered this by looking and listening. Today that information is more precisely encoded into mathematics, namely the wave equation for a string with a tension T and a mass per unit length . If the string is described in coordinates as in the drawing below, where x is the distance along the string and y is the height of the string, as the string oscillates in time t, then the equation of motion is the one-dimensional wave equation
where v

When solving the equations of motion, we need to know the "boundary conditions" of the string. Let's suppose that the string is fixed at each end and has an unstretched length L. The general solution to this equation can be written as a sum of "normal modes", here labeled by the integer n, such that

_{w}is the wave velocity along the string.When solving the equations of motion, we need to know the "boundary conditions" of the string. Let's suppose that the string is fixed at each end and has an unstretched length L. The general solution to this equation can be written as a sum of "normal modes", here labeled by the integer n, such that

The
condition for a normal mode is that the wavelength be some integral fraction of
twice the string length, or

The
frequency of the normal mode is then

The
normal modes are what we hear as notes. Notice that the string wave velocity v

According to Einstein's theory, a relativistic equation has to use coordinates that have the proper Lorentz transformation properties. But then we have a problem, because a string oscillates in space and time, and as it oscillates, it sweeps out a two-dimensional surface in spacetime that we call a

In the nonrelativistic string, there was a clear difference between the space coordinate along the string, and the time coordinate. But in a relativistic string theory, we wind up having to consider the

The classical equation can be written as

_{w}increases as the tension of the string is increased, and so the normal frequency of the string increases as well. This is why a guitar string makes a higher note when it is tightened. But that's for a nonrelativistic string, one with a wave velocity much smaller than the speed of light. How do we write the equation for a relativistic string?According to Einstein's theory, a relativistic equation has to use coordinates that have the proper Lorentz transformation properties. But then we have a problem, because a string oscillates in space and time, and as it oscillates, it sweeps out a two-dimensional surface in spacetime that we call a

**world sheet**(compared with the**world line**of a particle).In the nonrelativistic string, there was a clear difference between the space coordinate along the string, and the time coordinate. But in a relativistic string theory, we wind up having to consider the

**world shee**t of the string as a**two-dimensional spacetime**of its own, where the division between space and time depends upon the observer.The classical equation can be written as

where
and are coordinates on the string world sheet representing space and time
along the string, and the parameter c

These equations of motion can be derived from Euler-Lagrange equations from an action based on the string world sheet

^{2}is the ratio of the string tension to the string mass per unit length.These equations of motion can be derived from Euler-Lagrange equations from an action based on the string world sheet

The space
time coordinates X

The general solution to the relativistic string equations of motion looks very similar to the classical nonrelativistic case above. The transverse space coordinates can be expanded in normal modes as

^{}of the string in this picture are also fields X^{}in a two-dimension field theory defined on the surface that a string sweeps out as it travels in space. The partial derivatives are with respect to the coordinates and on the world sheet and h^{mn}is the two-dimensional metric defined on the string world sheet.The general solution to the relativistic string equations of motion looks very similar to the classical nonrelativistic case above. The transverse space coordinates can be expanded in normal modes as

The
string solution above is unlike a guitar string in that it isn't tied down at
either end and so travels freely through spacetime as it oscillates. The string
above is an

For a

This is classical string. When we add quantum mechanics by making the string momentum and position obey quantum commutation relations, the oscillator mode coefficients have the commutation relations

**open**string, with ends that are floppy.For a

**closed string**, the boundary conditions are periodic, and the resulting oscillating solution looks like two open string oscillations moving in the opposite direction around the string. These two types of closed string modes are called**right-movers**and**left-movers**, and this difference will be important later in the supersymmetric**heterotic string theory**.This is classical string. When we add quantum mechanics by making the string momentum and position obey quantum commutation relations, the oscillator mode coefficients have the commutation relations

The
quantized string oscillator modes wind up giving representations of the

So this is where the elementary particle arise in string theory. Particles in a string theory are like the harmonic notes played on a string with a fixed tension

**Poincaré group**, through which**quantum states of mass and spin**are classified in a relativistic quantum field theory.So this is where the elementary particle arise in string theory. Particles in a string theory are like the harmonic notes played on a string with a fixed tension

The
parameter a' is called the string parameter and the square root of this number
represents the approximate distance scale at which string effects should become
observable.

In the generic quantum string theory, there are quantum states with negative norm, also known as

In the generic quantum string theory, there are quantum states with negative norm, also known as

**ghosts**. This happens because of the minus sign in the space-time metric, which implies that
So there
ends up being extra unphysical states in the string spectrum.

In 26 space-time dimensions, these extra unphysical states wind up disappearing from the spectrum. Therefore. bosonic string quantum mechanics is only consistent if the

By looking at the quantum mechanics of the relativistic string normal modes, one can deduce that the quantum modes of the string look just like the

In 26 space-time dimensions, these extra unphysical states wind up disappearing from the spectrum. Therefore. bosonic string quantum mechanics is only consistent if the

**dimension of spacetime is 26**.By looking at the quantum mechanics of the relativistic string normal modes, one can deduce that the quantum modes of the string look just like the

**particles**we see in space time, with mass that depends on the spin according to the formula
Remember
that boundary conditions are important for string behavior. Strings can be
open, with ends that travel at the speed of light, or closed, with their ends
joined in a ring.

**The main alternative theory of the origin of the structures of the universe are the cosmic strings or super heavy strings**

**which are predicted too form in the early universe by the Grand Unified**

**Theory (GUT) in inflationary “ Big Bang model**.

**Loops of cosmic strings were the seed**

**of the galaxies**. They were

**super heavy strings, formed at phase transition or**

**condensation that took place when the universe was cooled after GUTS in the very early universe**.

**Kibble had suggested that GUTS strings played an important role in the**

**evolution of the Universe and the strings provided the inhomogenity leading to the formation of galaxies.**In the very early universe

**Strings were predicted to be formed at symmetry breaking phase transition**by those in grand unified theories (GUTS) in which vacuum had the appropriate topology.

**Cosmic Strings were the**

**configuration of the matter**fields, which owe their topology of the space of degenerate vacuum,

**produced in the phase transition**, in the early universe. Let us ignore the internal structure of the strings and treat them as one-dimensional object with tension. In the resting frame of the strings, the mass per unit length μ to the tension.

**The equality of the line of the density and the tension caused the typical velocity associated with large vibration on the strings to be close to speed of light.**The strings cannot end but can either close on themselves or can be extended to infinity.

**The closed strings are**

**loops.**

Whenever two long strings cross each other, they exchange ends, or `intercommute' (case (a) in the figure below). We had already encountered this apparently strange fact when we discussed the strings in the context of nematic liquid crystals. In particular, a long string can intercommute with itself, in which case a loop will be produced (this is case (b) below).

As with any object in tension, strings would also accelerate so as to try to become straight. Damping of the string motion was due to their non gravitational interaction with other matter, those become negligible as soon as the strings were formed.

**Strings that extended outside the horizon were conformably stretched by the cosmic expansion**.

**Thus at a given epoch, these strings were straight on their length & scale, but were smaller then the horizon size, but was quiet convoluted on large scale lager then this. The typical velocity was associated with the straightening of a string and was close to the speed of light and**the velocity field of the string extending outside the horizon was relativistic and approximately constant over scale much smaller than a horizon size.

**Once a loop entered the horizon it no longer expanded but rather started oscillate with a period comparable to light travel time across it. This motion was damped by gravitational radiation causing the size & period of the loop to decrease approximately linearly with time**The Fractional decrease in size, period,& mass of the strings in one oscillation was given by equation* Gμwhere G is Gravitational constant.

**A string will decrease to zero size in a finite amount of time loosing its energy by Gravitational Radiation**. The distribution of strings in our universe was not quite so well understood

Example

1]

These pictures show

1) a full three-dimensional simulation of the intercommoning of two cosmic strings...

**The reconnection and `exchange of partners' when two strings intersect. In this three-dimensional simulation, the strings approach each other at half the speed of light. Notice the radiation of energy and the production of a small interaction loop in the aftermath of the collision**

[ Picture By Rupak Bhattacharya].

2]

The scattering of two vortices is highly non-trivial; the two vortices approach and form a donut from which the emerge at right-angles have `exchanged halves'

3]

Both long cosmic strings and small loops will emit radiation. In most cosmological scenarios this will be

**gravitational radiation**, but electromagnetic radiation or axions can also be emitted in some cases (for some specific phase transitions). Here is a single, oscillating piece of string

4]

*Radiation fields from the oscillating shown above. A transverse cross-section of the fields has been made at the point of maximum amplitude. Notice the four lobes of the radiation (a quadrupole pattern) which is characteristic of all cosmic string radiation*

5] The effect of radiation is much more dramatic for loops, since they lose all their energy this way, and eventually disappear. Here you can see what happens in the case of two interlocked loops. This configuration is unlikely to happen in a cosmological setting, but it is nevertheless quite enlightening. Notice the succession of compicated dynamic processes before the loop finally disappears

. After formation, an initially high density string network begins to chop itself up by producing small loops. These loops oscillate rapidly (relativistically) and decay away into gravitational waves.

*The net result is that the strings become more and more dilute with time as the universe expands.*From an enormous density at formation, mathematical modelling suggests that today there would only be about 10 long strings stretching across the observed universe, together with about a thousand small loops!

In fact the network dynamics is such that the string density will eventually stabilize at an exactly constant level relative to the rest of the radiation and matter energy density in the universe. Thus the string evolution is described as

**`scaling'**or scale-invariant, that is, the properties of the network look the same at any particular time

*t*if they are scaled (or multiplied) by the change in the time. This is schematically represented below:

**After the phase transition, the strings were formed in a random network of self-avoiding curves/loops. Some of the strings were in closed loops and some were as infinite strings. The distribution of strings so happened that a constant number of loops entered the Horizon. If the infinite strings would simply straighten out, then the numbers of**

**open strings across the horizon-sized volume would also increase with time and strings would soon come out to dominate the density.**

**Velenkin .A**[Physics Review D23, p852; 1981] showed that the geometry produced by the gravitational field near a length of straight string is that of Minkowski space with a three dimensional wedge taken out of each space like slice. The vertex of the wedge lies along the length of the string and the angle subtended by missing wedge lies in rest frame of the string and is equated asδπGμThe two exposed faces of the strings are thus identified.

**Thus the Space Time remained flat everywhere**except along the Strings, where it was highly curved. If Gμ<<1, then the stress energy of the strings would produce only small (lenier) perturbations from the metric of rest of the universe.

**Because the**

**matter in the Universe did not produce significant purturbation**from the Minkowski metric Space ,on scale ,less then horizon, the Gravitational field at a point much closer to a length of a string would be essentially then the same as gravitational field at a similarly located point in Minkowski space. In the rest of frame of the strings

**, all particles were**

**when passing , the strings were deflated**by an angle 8πG μ with respect to all particles passing on other side of the strings. The magnitude of

**discontinuity in temperature(While passing of particles) across the string**was δT/T= 8πGβ, where β=Transverse Velocity of the strings which was typically was close to Unity. This Jump of temperature persisted on angular distance away from the string, corresponding to the present angular size of the radius of curvature of the strings. The magnitude of temperature jump was then independent of the Red shift (Z) at which Light Rays reaching to us, passed by the strings. If we calculate the general properties of microwave sky anisotropy in string mode , then let us assume that microwave photons were last scattered at Red shift Z 1s.

**In a perfectly homogenious Universe ,the matter**

**became mostly neutral**and optically then at Z˜ 1000.

**However in a Universe with strings, there will be large amplitude in homogeneity on small scale**and

**the heat**

**output from objects forming at or before Zγee may re -ionize the plasma**. If the plasma were kept fully ionized then Z1s>10 and we have 1000>Z1s>10,the angle subtended by a horizon-sized volume space at Z

_{1c}is o

_{1s}

^{-1/2}<<1.

**One would do expect to**

**see on a round patch of sky of strings per horizon**volume at red shift Z, will project to one length of string of angular size o if z<z1s.

**These strings will be moving relativistic**

**ally, as they were unable to straighten themselves out of these length scale**.

**the Vacuum was far from**being nothing. Rather

**it is now recognized as a dynamical object that was in different**

**state**

**.**The current state of vacuum affects the properties such as masses and interaction of any particles put into it. Although the vacuum is thought to lie in it’s ground state ,that with the lowest state of energy, this state had not always been the same.

**Thus in the early**

**universe when the particle component**[ordinarily matter and radiation]

**was at a very high temperature,**

**the vacuum adjusted it’s state in doing so modified the**

**properties of particle**s so as to minimize the free energy of the entire system. [Vacuum plus particles. ] e i. the vacuum went into higher energy state in order to lower the energy of hot plasma by even greater amount.

**As the universe cooled to keep the entire system at the lowest possible energy at a given temperature , the vacuum had to change eventually, ending up in it’s present state which is nearby the true or zero temperature**

**vacuum**. It was possible in early universe that

**as the Universe expanded**,

**the cooling happened too rapidly**for the vacuum to find it’s true ground state and the

**vacuum was frozen into ground state with defects**

**. Defects that probably could occur in a three dimensional space could be Zero dimensional (Monopoles), Two dimensional (Domain walls) or One dimensional (Strings).**The Strings are macroscopic objects. In most cases of cosmological interest they have no ends and are either infinitely long or closed in a loop

**At GUT’s the Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic forces behaved as if, they had equal strength,**much as line defects found in the crystal.

**They formed as a net work across the**

**space& time**.

**The GUT”s predicts that strings were formed at a temperature of about 10**by a mass per unit length μG/c

^{15}to ~10^{16}Gev. at a Cosmological time of about 10̃^{35 }Second. The Cosmic Strings were formed at the mass scale of GUTs Symmetry breaking (Mx-̃ 2x10^{15}Gev) was typified^{2}̃̃ ~ 2x10

^{6}in dimensionless unit.[ G= Gravitational Constant, C= speed of Light, which is corresponding to μ= ~ 2.6X10

^{21,}Kgm

^{-1}~ 4x10

^{7}MOPC

^{-1 }where MO= Mass of Sun . Or

**in other words the strings were formed with a mass per unit length of about 10**. They have a mass per unit length μ=ε/G [where ε= ~( <φ>/ mp)

^{20}kg^{-1}^{2}is the dimensionless amplitude of their Gravitational potential, mp is the Plank Mass and the Vaccum Expectation value of Higgs field is φ.]

**Because of their enormous tension**

**ε/G , the net work of the Strings were formed in the phase transition. In this Theory the Strings contributed only a small fraction of mass of the Universe.**

**The Galaxies were formed by Accreating of ordinary matter about the Strings.**

**The Strings were stretched by subsequent expansion of the Universe on waves, on a given scale and began to oscillate then. The strings underwent Oscillation in which the Transverse intertia acted as weight and the restoring forces were provided by longitudinal tension of the strings.**As a result of oscillation in such that the scale entered the particles horizon and whenever the strings crossed itself and exchanged particle partners and produced closed Oscillating loops of the Strings with long life(Peebles. P.G. Z- large scale Structure of the

**The Strings actually underwent Oscillation in which the Transverse inertia**acted as weight and the resting force was provided longitudinal tension of the strings

**. The gravitational field of these strings loops caused accretion of matter around them.**Brosche. P.J in the journal of Astrophysics stated that

**angular momentum of an astronomical object is proportional directly t square of mass and constant of proportionality is comparable to String Theories, which suggest that the Universe had evolved through hecrchial breaking of rotating or oscillating strings and the angular momentum with mass between various classes of different objects ranging from planets to super clusters**(brosche.PZ.J-Astrophysics Vo 57; P143; 1963). For the past three decades, a variety of Grand Unified Theories (GUT’S) had been developed to unify the strong and electro weak interactions at an energy scale of 10

^{16}Gev. GUTs are Gauge invariant point field theories (yang Mills), which do not incorporate Gravitational forces and henceforth there remains few theoretical constrains on the possible internal symmetry group. The most favored Guts theories are based on the special unitary group Su (5), the special orthogonal Group SO (10) or the Exceptional Group E

_{6}. In such Guts theories “Quark’ and “Leptons” make up three of these families, are unified in one family. Super symmetries an important ingredient in Guts. It is a symmetry that relates to “Fermions” and particles of different spins. But supper symmetry is not an internal symmetry but amounts to an extension of the Space &time in super space that includes extra spinorial anti commuting co-ordinates as well ordinary co-ordinates.

**Super Symmetry requires particles Known as” s-quarks”, s leptons”, winos, Zinos, or Rupak –particles( a near zero mass particle from where mass came] which have yet to be discovered through LHC. Super gravity theories are point field theories that incorporate local or gauged supper symmetry and thereby enlarging Einstein Theory of relativity. T**he basic idea of Gauge theory is that a continuous Symmetry or global invariance properties of Lagaragian field theory that can be made into a local invariance by introducing compensating gauge field in to the theory. This means that given a field theory, which possesses symmetry such as U

_{1}(1), Su (2), Su (3) or any other Ugroup. The theory can be extended to a gauge theory, which has the symmetry at each part in the space-time individually. The new symmetry is then called gauge symmetry because it implies that we can choose our measuring standard gauge differentiate through out space-time without changing physics of the theory. The most familiar example of a gauge theory is Electromagnetism. In Quantum Electrodynamics the quantum field theory of electromagnetic interactions are charged particles and Boson (photon) is the most successful gauge theory. The behavior of a relativistic String moving in space-time differs significantly from that of a structure less point particle. Unlike a point particle, a classical relativistic string has an infinite number of vibrational modes with arbitrarily high frequencies and angular momentum. This means that in quantum theory, a single string has an infinite number of states with masses sand spins which increases without limit. The string theories were developed in early 1970s as model of strong interaction physics. A Meson has thought of as a string with a quark attached to one end while an antiquark to the other end. The string tension (T) was supposed to be _1Gev

^{2}and the excited states of the string were supposed to be hadrons. The main theories were “Boson Theory” [Boson particle are particles in the name of Prof. S.N. Bose of kolkatta,

**it is the particle that moves faster then Light particle in the universe and yet to be discovered as told by professor PK Bhattacharya a Rupak Bhattacharya et al in 2012 in Nature journal under**

**title**

**Tachyons is an mathematical Imaginary particle that may move faster then Photons (Light particles) in the universe and yet to be discovered”**

**[http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110922/full/news.2011.554.html#comment-id-27107]**

**- not the neutrinos. It has been that photon(light particle is no more fastest p[article in the universe)**. Super string theories, that evolved from spinning string theories, that incorporated supper-symmetry and had no Tachyonic ground states. Super string theories hence offered the possibility of constructing a consistent quantum theory that unifies all interactions including the gravity and natural mass scale set by string tension (T) in Planck scale [

**T**=

^{1/2}**10**] The excited states were so massive that they could be taken to be infinitely heavy and the theory can be approximated by an effective point field theory of the mass less state only. At energy scale bellow the plancks scale the string looks like a point. One of the constrains in any string theory is that all string theories contain mass less spin-1 and Spin-2 particles which are associated with “

^{9}Gev**yang( He was a NL in physics] mills**Gauge Boson” and Gravitation. Furthermore the original “Bosonic String Theory” required 26 space time dimension whereas super string theory only ten(10) dimensional space Time. We live in only three (3) dimensional Universe and we can at best imagine Four (4) dimensional space-time. Then where are these Extra Six Dimension in super string theory? Or extra 22 dimensions Bosonic String theory? May be these extra dimensions are curled up [they may be as large as our three dimension] coiled up and finally became very small by compactification in super string theory.

**There are three types of Super String theories**

**. Type 1 super string theory**describe the dynamics of open strings that have their free end points. The string carries quantum numbers in the n-dimensional, defining representation of a classical group G=S0 (n) or the simplistic group USP (n) at their end points SU (n). This is similar to the way in which “quark quantum numbers” were incorporated in the original string picture of mesons.

**Inflation was the only way of explaining several of otherwise extra ordinary initial conditions of the universe. But for fine tuning of inflation required a critical density of the universe. T**hus at least 85% of the universe could not be then the baryons matter and more then 60% of the matter of this Universe so did not cluster into galaxies. The density of the matter on the universe must be greater then the baryonic upper limit .To make the things a little more difficult, it was said, that” the special co-relation function of rich cluster of galaxies had revealed strong clustering of very large scale up to 150 MPC.” This co-relation function of clustering of galaxies was 18 times stronger then the special co-relation function of galaxies.

**It was also found that the largest scale of the universe seem to look filamentous [Strings are filamentous] with large voids and large clumps . W**ith the GUTs an excellent way appeared to produce the distribution of size of universe. In normal generation and application of GUTs [a fluctuational spectrum with equal powering all scale formed naturally] it was assumed that there was no special co-relation between large scale and small clumps. They each had a random probability of occurring anywhere in the universe.

**On the other hand, it means, that strings are still produced in the some spectrum, somewhere, &in some size**. Different proposals so had been put to solve the problem. But no models could solve it, as long as it was assumed that the primordial fluctuation had random phases. For example- a model based on Neutrinos produces both critical density and large-scale structure [filaments, voids, cluster co-relation function] but did not account for early formation of galaxies (Bachcall.N- J Astrophysics Vol 270; p20; 1983). Models evoking heavy or slow moving particles [like Gev mass photinos, gravitinos, ax ions, planetary mass black holes] however fits the small scale structure galaxy co-relation function, formation of time &so forth as well as building hierarchal to yield clusters but it do not allow critical density of the universe to be reached.]. Even the hybrid models, - with low- mass and huge - mass ions also runs problem, because of low- mass particles smear out the small-scale structure of universe.

**A more natural solution of the problem might be non-random phases of string model. J.E Peebles (Nature Vol-311; P517; 1984) noted that the non random phases of string model of the Universe yields large scale filaments and voids, as super heavy strings attract galaxies and cluster and gives string cluster- cluster co-relation**. Work by J.E. Peebles showed that a model based on clustering of galaxies about filaments [here strings] fit higher 3 and 4 points co-relation function for galaxies as well as hierarchical clustering. This model also enables density growth in some areas without producing a large universal background anisotropy and so

**could enable baryons to be dark matter on**

**galaxy and cluster state with non-baryonic stuff being a critical density background. The degree of random to nonrandom phases in such a model depends upon density of strings in the space. In the limit of space being completely filled with strings, the strings picture also gives random phases.**Even if strings densities are large enough to randomize phases, their mere existence would still alter galaxy –in formation, calculation, because it were the strings rather then matter that would carry the fluctuation.

**The basic things of string theory say that-:**

*

**we live in accelerating and expanding universe today******String theory support the inflation theory where a period of rapid expansion happened in the early universe history.*******Most of the theories in the string theory are focused on understanding of theory of unbroken super-symmetry**. ******In string theory De-Sitter Space can arise only when super-symmetry is broken( Rupak Bhattacharya, Ritwik Bhattacharya & prof Pranab kumar Bhattacharya’s Theory).**Breaking supper-symmetry in the string theory requires us to come face to face with problem of moduli stabilization. In string theory Vacuum with N≥2 super-symmetry, there are many flat direction or modules. The energy as we go along these direction of space time, there are many flat direction.**In field the space is constant and in fact vanishes identically**.**There are 100 flat directions in compactification**. The flat directions are however very bad in cosmology**. Flat directions cause however problems in standard model. They ruin the successful prediction of Big Bang Theory**.
The big Question hat one of author of this
article Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya once raised
“

**Does the string theory allows De sitter Universe? Vacuum with negative cosmological constant to anti de-sitter space and Inflation theory of Big Bang?”**This was of course a great question, exactly not yet solved probably. Interested readers can read the Threads and discussion at__http//www.bautforumtoday.com__of**BAD Astronomy & Universe Today**forum under the threads “ String theory- De sitter Universe and Inflation’ in astronomy forum and in thread by Fraser “ Superstrings could be detectable as they decay” in Universe Today & story Comments forum
It is known that the de- Sitter space can only
arise if super symmetry is broken. In string theory
with≥2 super-symmetry there are many flat directions. The energy as we go along
these spaces is a constant & in fact vanishes identically and these flat
directions are bad news from the part of Big Bang cosmology. Cosmology flat
directions cause problems in standard model of Big Bang and ruin the successful
prediction of Big bang nucleo-synthesis. In these compactifications besides
curling up the extra dimensions preserved in the string theory to small size,
fluxes are also turned on along the compactified directions. The fluxes
includes higher form generalization of magnetic fluxes in the electromagnetism
turning them on charges, the potential in moduli spaces, so that new minima
arise in regions or field space where the potential can be calculated with
control. The value of Cosmological constant in this minima can also be can also
be calculated with a positive value give rise to De-Sitter universe.

__Symmetry and asymmetry in biological model__There remain always a fundamental asymmetry in the distribution of the

^{ }constituents of the universe. That is, there appears to be an

^{ }excess of normal matter over antimatter in the most current

^{ }and compelling models of the universe (cold dark matter [CDM]).

^{ }The origin of this asymmetry remains yet unexplained before us as do the nature

^{ }of both dark matter and dark energy.

**Dark matter**

**and dark energy**

^{ }

**are required by the latest CDM models**that have recently been

^{ }shown to be very much in accord with the findings of the cosmic

^{ }background surveys . However, most intriguingly, this fundamental

^{ }cosmic asymmetry appears to manifest itself by way of other

^{ }asymmetries observed in other more complex systems of universe. For example,

^{ }there has been a much discussed thesis that the left-right symmetry

^{ }encountered in simple as well as complex multicellular organisms,

^{ }including human laterality and cerebral symmetry, are a consequence

^{ }of symmetry at the molecular level . This, in turn, is thought

^{ }to arise from asymmetry at the level of elementary particles.

^{ }However, although connecting links between molecular—and

^{ }subatomic—chirality and macroscopic handedness and asymmetry

^{ }are not established, the implications of this asymmetry for

^{ }biologic processes and evolution are profound. We today now know that proteins in life forms consist (almost) exclusively

^{ }of L--amino acids, whereas nucleic acids contain only the D-isomers

^{ }of ribose or deoxyribose. Although there exists considerable controversy

^{ }concerning the questions of when and how this homochirality

^{ }arose in world, but it appears to be the fundamental, but incompletely

^{ }tested, assumption that life as we know it could not have arisen

^{ }without it. Much less attention seems to have been paid in recent

^{ }years to the reasons for homochirality and its connection to

^{ }the origin of life. Older studies have held that the structure-destabilizing

^{ }effects of ‘‘chiral defects’’ (i.e.,

^{ }the incorporation of D-amino acids or L-nucleotides into their

^{ }respective polymers would render them incapable or unable to

^{ }participate in ‘‘biology’’). However,

^{ }although newer studies confirm some destabilization, they also

^{ }indicate that there is more ability to accommodate unnatural

^{ }enantiomers than was previously appreciated. These findings

^{ }provide new insights into the constraints imposed on life’s

^{ }origin with respect to chiral purity. We should note, however,

^{ }that this is a subject that has attracted considerable interest

^{ }and has been reviewed in the past . Indeed, one can

^{ }even use one’s nose and establish that stereo isomers can

^{ }smell different

Or on a more tragic note, the story

^{ }of thalidomide where the R isomer is a teratogen while the S

^{ }isomer is a tranquilizer. The primary amino acid sequence determines the structure and

^{ }function of a protein. The two most common structural motifs

^{ }are the -helix and ß-sheet. Although -helices are

^{ }now more abundant in proteins than ß-sheets, it is

^{ }thought that the ß-sheet occurred earlier during chemical

^{ }evolution . Generally, L-amino acids form a right-handed

^{ }helix; a right-handed helix exhibits optical rotation of its

^{ }own. Similarly, ß-sheets are not flat but, if made

^{ }of L-amino acids, exhibit a right-handed twist when viewed along

^{ }their strands. This right-handedness of turn arises from energetic

^{ }constraints in the bonding of L-amino acids; a chain consisting

^{ }of D-amino acids would produce sheets with a left-handed twist

^{ }.

^{ }Indeed, the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum produced by the

^{ }all-D enantiomer of the full-length ß-amyloid peptide

^{ }(42 amino acid residues) was a mirror image of the spectrum

^{ }obtained with the natural all-L enantiomer, indicating that

^{ }the two enantiomers had opposite optical rotation . Furthermore,

^{ }there are indications that such mirror image conformation translates

^{ }into functional stereospecificity. When the D- and the L-enantiomer

^{ }of the complete enzyme HIV-1 protease were chemically synthesized,

^{ }they were found to have identical covalent structure and CD

^{ }spectra of equal, but opposite, optical rotation . These

^{ }data suggest that the folded forms of the D- and L-protease

^{ }enzymes are mirror images when viewed in three dimension

. Most notably, the enantiomers exhibited reciprocal

^{ }chiral specificity, the L-enzyme cleaving only the L-substrate

^{ }and the D-enzyme showing activity only for the D-substrate.

^{ }Although protein macromolecules are carriers of function, DNA

^{ }macromolecules are the transgenerational informational carriers

^{ }of most contemporary organisms . RNA plays the role of an

^{ }intermediary between DNA and proteins in eukaryotes and can

^{ }take on both informational as well as functional roles. As in

^{ }proteins, the monomeric units of DNA and RNA are homochiral,

^{ }each of the nucleotides containing either D-ribose or D-deoxyribose.

^{ }Also like proteins, nucleic acids are able of taking on a variety

^{ }of secondary structures, most famous among them the double helix.

^{ }Both RNA and DNA are matrices for the assembly of a complementary

^{ }replica, and homochirality has been postulated to be an absolute

^{ }necessity for complementarity . Molecular modeling was interpreted

^{ }as indicating that incorporation of a single T of the opposite

^{ }chirality in double-stranded poly(A)/poly(T) would prevent base

^{ }coupling, thereby destroying the template property and the ability

^{ }to act as an information carrier . This does not, however,

^{ }appear to be entirely correct. An NMR study with a dodecadeoxynucleotide

^{ }containing a single nucleotide with a L-deoxyribose (the G4

^{ }residue) formed a stable base pair with the natural C-9 residue

^{ }within a right-handed B-form conformation . Similarly, although

^{ }substitution of a D-nucleotide with an L-nucleotide somewhat

^{ }destabilized a short DNA duplex, the D-isomer could nonetheless

^{ }be accommodated via changes in some of the backbone torsion

^{ }angles around the phosphates and the glycosidic bond . Others

^{ }have confirmed that cooperative binding between mixed L/D-oligodeoxynucleotides

^{ }and single-stranded DNA and RNA is possible despite the destabilizing

^{ }effect of L-substitutions . The magnitude of this destabilization

^{ }was found to depend on the position and type of the nucleotide

^{ }. In addition, there appears to be a limit to the number

^{ }of substitutions that a sequence can tolerate .

^{ }

^{ }Links to see other sites

**To our late parent diseased late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharya and late Mrs. Bani Bhattacharya of residence 7/51 purbapalli, Po-Sodepur, Dist 24 parganas (north) , Kolkata-110,**

__Acknowledgement-__
” ……….because his idea on Space time concept
involved a triple helix structure as the "thread of time" in the
"fabric" structure of the universe, with triple helices spiraling
around a time axis at all possible straight lines in the universe. And He
believe that this structure might be responsible for our experiencing three
spatial arrows of dimensions plus the dimension of time as a matter and energy
travel along these helices with time. he envision the spatial progression of
these time lines as the expanding universe, and photons on the time line would
have zero velocity relative to the time line from the point of the Planck
moment of Big bang. his envision the particles bound to this triple helix are
any of the individual members from the three families of quarks that make up
protons (which are reportedly proven to be in a 2-d triangular configuration)
traveling through time along the three "spines" of the helix……………………………….)

**Copy Right****- Strictly reserved to Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya and first five authors only as per IPR copy Right Rules and Protect Intellectual Property [PIP] Act/law of 2012 of**USA
.Be careful enough to disseminate and use the information above even for your
personal use.

Professor and Head of Pathology now convener In-charge of DCP &DLT course of WBUHS School of Tropical Medicine 108 CRAvenue Kol-73 , and EX Professor&HOD Ophthalmic pathology RIO, CR Avenue kol-73 and also of WBUHS and EX Professor of Pathology, Ex In charge of Histopathology unit, in charge of Blood Banks VCCTC, in charge of Cytogenetics ,Human Tech DNA & Gene cloning laboratoriesat Institute of Post Graduate medical Education & Research,244a AJC Bose Road, Kolkata-20.India, Member of Board of Studies Undergraduate, Post Graduate& post Doctoral Courses in Pathology of West Bengal University of HealthSciences(WBUHS), India

The

**author of this letter great fully acknowledges contributions of late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharya B.Com(cal), FCA, SAS(Ind.) - his diseased[ 2009] retired Father, His diseased[2006] Mother late Mrs BaniBhattacharya, his only sweet daughter Miss Upasana Bhattacarya, and his youngest twin brothers Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya Bsc(cal)Msc(JU), Mr. Ritwik Bhattacharya B.Com(cal), Nice Miss Rupsa Bhattacharya, Nephew Somuyak Bhattacharya BHM Msc Student- all of Residence 7/51 purbapalli, PO-Sodepur, Dist 24 Parganas(north) , KOl-110, West Bengal, Mrs Dahlia mukherjee BA(hons) cal, and Mr. Debasis Mukherjee BSC(cal) of Swamiji Road, Po- South Habra, 24 Parganas(north) and of Miss Upasana Bhattacharya- his only sweet daughter as he took many of their concept and discussions to write this letter to Prof. Robbie York,**