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Wednesday, 14 March 2012

Space Time Concept


For over a century, since Albert Einstein published his first paper on the general theory of   relativity in 1905, physicists have struggled to resolve fundamental differences between quantum theory and the continuum or yang miller field theory. The field approach should have no singularities[big bang or big crunch]; but the quantum approach has only singularities. Max Planck formulated quantum theory in 1900, and Einstein could however successfully applied it in 1905 to electromagnetic radiation, when Einstein first hypothesized the photon particle in Particle Physics, the inheritors of quantum theory, used a paradigm of ballistic matter in non-reactive flat space, that was originally fashioned using the Rutherford atomic model for the fixed nucleus and its orbiting electrons, which was patterned after the solar system by Rutherford to earn a Nobel prize. The laws of conservation of momentum and energy, and orbital dynamics did not translate well from the very large realm to the very small, resulting in necessary modifications such as de Broglie waves. Relativity, the successor to field theory, had been there after repeatedly tested and was proven using atomic clocks, accelerated particles, and star light aberration of  CS chandrasekhar. But other than explanations involving passenger trains and observers as originally presented by Einstein, relativity lacks a working visualization model like the Rutherford atomic model, to explain interactions of matter at relativistic speeds approaching "c" the speed of light. Very little is found in scientific literature regarding common ground from which both particle physics and relativity can be derived. All of theoretical physics suffers from the lack of a definitive visualization model to guide research. The majority of developments in theoretical physics are driven by purely mathematical concepts and extensions of current theory.
The most recent attempt at achieving common ground, that of String Theory, fell victim in this struggle and was reduced to so called Super Symmetry String Theory ,being reinterpreted as super-short string segments embedded within the theoretical quark particles. Each miniaturized "super string" is supposed to have free ends whipping at the speed of light. Exactly where the required string tension comes from to support super high frequencies with unrestrained ends, and where the power comes from to sustain the oscillations, is not addressed. Also left unanswered is any relevance of whipping ends inside the theoretical sub-atomic quark, to the transmission of light in free space. Compactifying string theory within the unobserved quark particle effectively marginalized string theory and ended its threat to the status quo.
What is time?
In physics, spacetime (or space–time) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum. Space-time is usually interpreted with space being three-dimensional and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort than the spatial dimensions. According to certain Euclidean space perceptions, the universe has three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. By combining space and time into a single manifold, physicists have significantly simplified a large number of physical theories, as well as described in a more uniform way the workings of the universe at both the super galactic and subatomic levels. The concept of space-time combines space and time within a single coordinate system, typically with three spatial dimensions: length, width, height, and one temporal dimension: the time. Dimensions are components of a coordinate grid typically used to locate a point in a certain defined "space" as, for example, on the globe by latitude and longitude. In space time, a coordinate grid that spans the 3+1 dimensions locates "events" (rather than just points in space), so time is added as another dimension to the grid, and another axis. This way, you have where and when something is. Unlike in normal spatial coordinates, there are restrictions for how measurements can be made spatially and temporally. These restrictions correspond roughly to a particular mathematical model which differs from Euclidean space in its manifest symmetry. We live in a 3+1 dimensional space time with symmetry principles that, in the case of special relativity, require that the laws of physics be invariant under space time transformations. Symmetry and asymmetry have been powerful organizing concepts in a host of disciplines, including biology, art and mathematics. More than a century ago, van’t Hoff pointed out a connection between molecular chirality and the fundamental symmetries in physics . In the case of biology, Pasteur was the first to recognize ‘‘symétrie’’ at the molecular level and concluded from data on (+)- and (-)-tartaric acid that they represented non super imposable mirror images of each other (Fig. 1Go). Kelvin later introduced the term chirality for this type of asymmetry
Previously, from various important experiments at low speeds, time was believed to be independent of motion, progressing only in forward direction, at a fixed rate in all reference frames; however, later in early mid 20th century, high-speed experiments revealed that time can be slowed down at higher speeds (with such slowing called "time dilation" explained in the theory of Einstein "special theory of relativity" . Many powerfull experiments  later have confirmed time dilation, such as in atomic clocks, on board a Space Shuttle running slower than synchronized Earth-bound inertial clocks and at subatomic particles level the relativistic decay of muons from cosmic ray showers. So time is variable. The duration of time can therefore vary for various events and various reference frames. When dimensions are understood as mere components of a grid system, rather than physical attributes of space, it is easier to understand the alternate dimensional views as being simply the result of coordinate transformations. The term spacetime has taken on a generalized meaning beyond treating spacetime events with the normal 3+1 dimensions (including time). It is really the combination of space and time. Other proposed spacetime theories include additional dimensions—normally spatial but there exist some speculative theories that include additional temporal dimensions and even BY some those included some other dimensions that are neither temporal nor spatial. How many dimensions are needed to describe the visible universe is still an open question today. Speculative theories such as string theory predict 10 [string theory-3] or 26[string theory-1] dimensions ,when M-theory predicts 11 dimensions: 10 spatial and 1 temporal, but the existence of more than four dimensions would only appear to make a difference at the subatomic level or micro universe level. For physical reasons, a spacetime continuum is mathematically defined as a four-dimensional, smooth, flat connected with Lorentzian manifold (M,g). This means the smooth Lorentz metric g has signature . The metric determines the geometry of space-time, as well as determining the geodesics of particles and light beams. About each point (event) on this manifold, coordinate charts are used to represent observers in reference frames. Usually, Cartesian coordinates (x,y,z,t) are used. Moreover, for simplicity's sake, the speed of light c is usually assumed to be unity. A reference frame (observer) can be identified with one of these coordinate charts; any such observer can describe any event p. Another reference frame may be identified by a second coordinate chart about p. Two observers (one in each reference frame) may describe the same event p but obtain different descriptions. Usually, many overlapping coordinate charts are needed to cover a manifold. Given two coordinate charts, one containing p (representing an observer) and another containing q (representing another observer), the intersection of the charts represents the region of spacetime in which both observers can measure physical quantities and hence compare results. The relation between the two sets of measurements is given by a non-singular coordinate transformation on this intersection. The idea of coordinate charts as local observers who can perform measurements in their vicinity also makes good physical sense, as this is how one actually collects physical data—locally. For example, two observers, one of whom is on Earth, but the other one who is on a fast rocket to pluto, may observe a comet crashing into Jupiter or in pluto (this is the event p). In general, they will disagree about the exact location and timing of this impact, i.e., they will have different 4-tuples (x,y,z,t) (as they are using different coordinate systems). Although their kinematic descriptions will differ, dynamical (physical) laws, such as momentum conservation and the first law of thermodynamics, will still hold. In fact, relativity theory requires more than this in the sense that it stipulates these (and all other physical) laws must take the same form in all coordinate systems. This introduces tensors into relativity, by which all physical quantities are represented.
Space time in  theory of special relativityThe geometry of spacetime in special relativity theory is described as the Minkowski metric on R4. This spacetime there is called Minkowski space. The Minkowski metric is usually denoted by η and can be written as a four-by-four matrix: where the Landau–Lifshitz spacelike convention is being used. A basic assumption of relativity is that coordinate transformations must leave spacetime intervals invariant. Intervals are invariant under Lorentz transformations. This invariance property leads to the use of four-vectors (and other tensors) in describing physics. Strictly speaking, one can also consider events in Newtonian physics as a single spacetime. This is Galilean-Newtonian relativity, and the coordinate systems are related by Galilean transformations. However, since these preserve spatial and temporal distances independently, such a spacetime can be decomposed into spatial coordinates plus temporal coordinates, which is not possible in the general case.
 Space time in general relativity_: In general relativity theory, it is assumed that spacetime is curved by the presence of matter (energy), this curvature being represented by the Riemann tensor. In special relativity, the Riemann tensor is identically zero, and so this concept of "non-curvedness" is sometimes expressed by the statement Minkowski spacetime is flat. Many spacetime continua have physical interpretations which most physicists would consider bizarre or unsettling. For example, a compact spacetime has closed, time-like curves, which violate our usual ideas of causality (that is, future events could affect past ones). For this reason, mathematical physicists usually consider only restricted subsets of all the possible spacetimes. One way to do this is to study "realistic" solutions of the equations of general relativity. Another way is to add some additional "physically reasonable" but still fairly general geometric restrictions and try to prove interesting things about the resulting spacetimes. The latter approach has led to some important results, most notably the Penrose–Hawking singularity of the time
Quantized space time [3+1 spacetime]   In general theory of relativity, spacetime is assumed to be smooth, flat and continuous—and not just in the mathematics. In the theory of quantum mechanics, there is an inherent discreteness present in physics. In attempting to reconcile these two theories, it was sometimes postulated by some physicists that spacetime should be quantized also at the very smallest scales. Current theory is focused on the nature of spacetime at the Planck scale. Causal sets, loop quantum gravity  string theory, and black hole thermodynamics , all predicts a quantized spacetime with agreement order of magnitude. Loop quantum gravity makes precise predictions about the geometry of spacetime at the Planck scale. Privileged character of 3+1 spacetime   Reasoning about spacetime is always limited by the scientific evidence and technology available. For example, in the latter 20th century, experiments with particle accelerators revealed that protons gained mass when accelerated to super high speeds, and the time required for particle decay and other physical phenomena rose. Special relativity predicted this. Authors writing before Einstein's discovery of special relativity were unaware of these facts, so that their views were often mistaken, even fanciful. In the Universe, there are two kinds of dimensions, spatial (bidirectional) and temporal (unidirectional). Let the number of spatial dimensions be N and the number of temporal dimensions be T. That N=3 and T=1, setting aside the compactified dimensions invoked by string theory and undetectable to date, can be explained by appealing to the physical consequences of letting N differ from 3 and T differ from 1. Immanuel Kant  once argued that 3-dimensional space was a consequence of the inverse square law of universal gravitation. While Kant's argument is historically important, John D. Barrow today in 2002 says that it "...gets the punch-line back to front: it is the three-dimensionality of space that explains why we see inverse-square force laws in Nature, not vice-versa." This is because the law of gravitation (or any other inverse-square law) follows from the concept of flux, from N=3, and from 3-dimensional solid objects having surface areas proportional to the square of their size in a selected spatial dimension. In particular, a sphere of radius r has area of 4πr2. More generally, in a space of N dimensions, the strength of the gravitational attraction between two bodies separated by a distance of r would be inversely proportional to rN-1. In 1920, Paul Ehrenfest showed that if we fix T= 1 and let N>3, the orbit of a planet about its sun cannot remain stable. The same is true of a star's orbit around the center of its galaxy Ehrenfest also showed that if N is even, then the different parts of a wave impulse will travel at different speeds. If N>3 and odd, then wave impulses become distorted. Only when N=3 or 1 are both problems avoided. In 1922, Hermann Weyl showed that Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism works only when N=3 and T=1, writing that this fact "...not only leads to a deeper understanding of Maxwell's theory, but also of the fact that the world is four dimensional, which has hitherto always been accepted as merely 'accidental,'become intelligible through it. Finally, Tangherlini showed in 1963 that when N>3, electron orbitals around nuclei cannot be stable; electrons would either fall into the nucleus or disperse. Max Tegmark expands on the preceding argument in the following anthropic manner. If T differs from 1, the behavior of physical systems could not be predicted reliably from knowledge of the relevant partial differential equations. In such a universe, intelligent life capable of manipulating technology could not emerge. Moreover, if T>1, Tegmark maintains that protons and electrons would be unstable and could decay into particles having greater mass than themselves. (This is not a problem if the particles have a sufficiently low temperature.) If N>3, Ehrenfest's argument above holds; atoms as we know them (and probably more complex structures as well) could not exist. If N<3, gravitation of any kind becomes problematic, and the universe is probably too simple to contain observers. For example, when N<3, nerves cannot overlap without intersecting.In general, it is not clear how physical law could function if T differed from 1. If T>1, subatomic particles which decay after a fixed period would not behave predictably, because time-like geodesics would not be necessarily maximal. N=1 and T=3 has the peculiar property that the speed of light in a vacuum is a lower bound on the velocity of matter; all matter consists of tachyons.Hence anthropic and other arguments rule out all cases except N=3 and T=1—which happens to describe the world about us. Curiously, the cases N=3 or 4 have the richest and most difficult geometry and topology. There are, for example, geometric statements whose truth or falsity is known for all N except one or both of 3 and 4. N=3 was the last case of the Poincare conjecture to be proved. For an elementary treatment of the privileged status of N=3 and T=1, of Barrow for deeper treatments, of Barrow and Tipler (1986) and Tegmark String theory builds on the notion that the "universe is wiggly" and hypothesizes that matter and energy are composed of tiny vibrating strings of various types, most of which are embedded in dimensions that exist only on a scale no larger than the Planck length. Hence N=3 and T=1 do not characterize string theory, whicha embeds vibrating strings in coordinate grids having 10, even 26, dimensions
 What is space time in the string theory? Space-time is defined there as an invisible, underlying matrix woven from a double helix having one atomic diameter cross-section and infinite length, always traveling at the speed of light "c" along its axis. It is the power source and regulator of the entire universe. I can rather call this invisible double helix the Space-time Helix (STH) because it defines the limits and dimensions of space by its ubiquitous presence and extension. It marks time at the most fundamental level by its resulting crest-to-crest sine wave spacing (wavelength), while traveling at c; and the term "helix" incorporates its cork-screw shape. The STH produces all known rotational phenomena without actually rotating. A travelling helix gives the appearance of rotation without actually rotating, yet it can induce rotation in an intersecting plane of detection through which it slides. We tend to think of a helix in terms of the Archimedes' screw in which a rotating screw lifts water; the screw turns and the water doesn't. The STH works in the opposite manner; the STH doesn't rotate but it causes rotation of the electrons and nucleons formed by two intersecting space-time helices. If the STH were forced to rotate, it would soon twist into a hopeless knot.As long as the double helix travels longitudinally at speed c in a balanced state without lateral displacement or vibration, it remains hidden and does not intrude into our reality. Once the STH is disturbed laterally or longitudinally, by being struck or forced out of balance, it is capable of producing all known vibrational frequency particles, both short-lived and long-lived. The STH is the hidden power source for all that exists and occurs in the universe. The STH is described as follows –
1)   The Space-time helix can be illustrated by a ball of twisted yarn or by a twisted ribbon of crepe paper with unequal edges (see Figure 1
2)   The inner helix  has "positive proto-charge" and "proto-mass" capable of producing a proton when physically coupled with the inner helix of another intersecting Space-time helix. Such coupling occurred one time only during the opening one (1) second of the Big Bang event, creating instantly all the protons in the universe. The sudden appearance of unbalanced, unbridled positive charge in the ultra-dense compacted universe, which began smaller than a single pea, provided the mutually repulsive force needed to explode the disassociated hydrogen H+ nuclei into the ever expanding, cooling universe we know today.
-  The inner helix normally has an orbital diameter roughly equal to the nuclear diameter of a hydrogen H nucleus; but the inner radius of gyration can be momentarily displaced and expanded in its travels at c by a width ranging up to the nuclear diameter of the heaviest possible element.
--    The outer helix has "negative proto-charge" and "proto-mass" capable of producing an electron when physically coupled with the outer helix of another intersecting Space-time helix. The coupling of two inner helices and two outer helices at a junction point or pair node produces a hydrogen H atom, with an orbital proton and an orbital electron. According to the literature, electron coupling first occurred 300,000 years after the Big Bang, when the rapidly expanding chaotic H+ plasma cooled to the point that the two outer helices of node-paired Space-time helices could capture each other as they whipped around the proton-node already formed by the intersecting inner helices.
--    The outer helix has an orbital diameter in free space roughly equal to the single electron orbital diameter of a hydrogen H electron shell. The outer orbital diameter can be momentarily displaced and expanded in its travels at c by a width ranging up to the outer electron shell diameter of the heaviest possible element. The outer helix is somewhat elastic and can assume a higher or lower orbital diameter as it speeds through an intersecting atom-node. An imbalance between the radii of gyration of a coupled proton and electron, at the atom node, may contribute to chemical valence states, and provide some basis for chemical bonding along the longitudinal axis of either paired helix (see Figure 1 and Figure 2).
--    The STH travels at c along its path throughout the universe in a dynamically balanced state, so that the radii of gyration of the inner and outer helix members are inversely proportional to their proto masses, which themselves are proportional to the relative masses of the proton and electron, that being 1836.1 m(proton) :1 m(electron). By extrapolating from the orbital frequency of a single electron in the hydrogen H atom, given as 6.6 million gigahertz, we can determine that the wave length of the STH at this present point of universe expansion is about 4.54 x 10-6 cm.

[please enlarge  the all  pictures by click on individual pictures and then at  format pictures and then on size icons]
Time is nothing more than fixed periodicity established at the most primal level. The basic time is the standard of the entire material universe, shared by every atom, is the rotational frequency of its constituent electrons, and the corresponding rotational frequency of its nucleons that are paired to its electrons by the STH structure. Time renormalizes at every electron, proton and neutron in the universe because an STH imposes its rotational frequency on an intersecting node-paired STH, which in turn is forced to the same rotational frequency by the STH it intersects. That is why the universe, other than for spectral red shift or spectral blue shift does not appear to radically depart from a common time base.
Relativistic time dilation occurs when a pair node (atom) is accelerated to speeds approaching the speed of light c. At higher speeds the two space-time helices are drawn into a narrow "V" trailing the atom, but each STH continues to course through the atom from a lagging position toward the leading position. If one STH is oriented by direction of flow opposite to the direction of travel of the atom, this opposing STH folds to trail the atom, for the simple folk reason that it is impossible to push a rope (see Figure 3). A rope can only be pulled because it is flexible, just like the STH. The rope, in this case the STH opposing the direction of travel, folds as the atom drags it along. In normal space-time, time can flow only one direction, unless the STH is stiffened by an intense magnetic field As the speed of the atom approaches c, both helices become more aligned in the direction of travel. If it were possible to move an atom at speed c, the two helices would become essentially overlaid and could be treated as a single helix with uniform rotation. Rotation speed of the electron depends upon the differential between the speed of the pair node (atom) through space, and the speed of the STH which always travels at speed c. As the differential decreases, the apparent rotational speed of the electron slows .At speed c, the speed of the atom and electron would match the speed of the STH, so the STH could no longer force the electron to rotate; time for the atom and electron would stop, and the electron would become a stationary node riding the STH. An atom cannot be pushed to speed c, because of relativistic mass increase which prevents the atom from reaching speed c. The same behavior would be true for nucleons in the atom. Time dilation is [shown in  Equation as mentioned bellow]relativistic  which relates the motion of one observer to another without benefit of an underlying matrix common to both observers. The Clopton Model provides an inertial frame of reference traveling at speed c that is common to both observers

 The given formula for relatA = tB / sqrt (1- vBA2 / c2 )      
  tA = Time differential as measured by observer A
  tB = Time differential as measured by observer B
  vBA2 = Square of the difference in velocity between observer A and observer B

Relativistic mass increase is linked to relativistic time dilation. At higher speeds the two space-time helices are drawn into a narrow "V" trailing the atom. As the moving atom approaches speed c, the "V" narrows even more, so that the atom is physically dragging along both of the space-time helices. It was entirely possible that the universe is made of only one STH string, wrapped countless times around the universe like a ball of yarn stretching and expanding as a shell (Big Bang and the Shape of the Universe). As an accelerating atom approaches the speed of light and time slows for the atom, it becomes mechanically coupled to the space-time helix, so that the atom is actually attempting to drag the entire universe Relativistic Time Dilation, above). The formula for relativistic mass increase shows that the mass of any body becomes infinite at speed c, so matter can never be accelerated to the speed of light.
 What is string theory? Why it is required?
Pythagoras could be called the first known string theorist. Pythagoras, an excellent lyre player, figured out the first known string physics -- the harmonic relationship. Pythagoras realized that vibrating Lyre strings of equal tensions but different lengths would produce harmonious notes (i.e. middle C and high C) if the ratio of the lengths of the two strings were a whole number. Pythagoras discovered this by looking and listening. Today that information is more precisely encoded into mathematics, namely the wave equation for a string with a tension T and a mass per unit length . If the string is described in coordinates as in the drawing below, where x is the distance along the string and y is the height of the string, as the string oscillates in time t, then the equation of motion is the one-dimensional wave equation
Nonrelativistic string equation
where vw is the wave velocity along the string.
When solving the equations of motion, we need to know the "boundary conditions" of the string. Let's suppose that the string is fixed at each end and has an unstretched length L. The general solution to this equation can be written as a sum of "normal modes", here labeled by the integer n, such that
sum of string normal modes
The condition for a normal mode is that the wavelength be some integral fraction of twice the string length, or
The frequency of the normal mode is then
  The normal modes are what we hear as notes. Notice that the string wave velocity vw increases as the tension of the string is increased, and so the normal frequency of the string increases as well. This is why a guitar string makes a higher note when it is tightened. But that's for a nonrelativistic string, one with a wave velocity much smaller than the speed of light. How do we write the equation for a relativistic string?
   According to Einstein's theory, a relativistic equation has to use coordinates that have the proper Lorentz transformation properties. But then we have a problem, because a string oscillates in space and time, and as it oscillates, it sweeps out a two-dimensional surface in spacetime that we call a world sheet (compared with the world line of a particle).
  In the nonrelativistic string, there was a clear difference between the space coordinate along the string, and the time coordinate. But in a relativistic string theory, we wind up having to consider the world sheet of the string as a two-dimensional spacetime of its own, where the division between space and time depends upon the observer.
   The classical equation can be written as
Relativistic string eqaution
where  and  are coordinates on the string world sheet representing space and time along the string, and the parameter c2 is the ratio of the string tension to the string mass per unit length.
   These equations of motion can be derived from Euler-Lagrange equations from an action based on the string world sheet
Bosonic string action
The space time coordinates X of the string in this picture are also fields X in a two-dimension field theory defined on the surface that a string sweeps out as it travels in space. The partial derivatives are with respect to the coordinates  and  on the world sheet and hmn is the two-dimensional metric defined on the string world sheet.
   The general solution to the relativistic string equations of motion looks very similar to the classical nonrelativistic case above. The transverse space coordinates can be expanded in normal modes as
The string solution above is unlike a guitar string in that it isn't tied down at either end and so travels freely through spacetime as it oscillates. The string above is an open string, with ends that are floppy.
   For a closed string, the boundary conditions are periodic, and the resulting oscillating solution looks like two open string oscillations moving in the opposite direction around the string. These two types of closed string modes are called right-movers and left-movers, and this difference will be important later in the supersymmetric heterotic string theory.
   This is classical string. When we add quantum mechanics by making the string momentum and position obey quantum commutation relations, the oscillator mode coefficients have the commutation relations
The quantized string oscillator modes wind up giving representations of the Poincaré group, through which quantum states of mass and spin are classified in a relativistic quantum field theory.
    So this is where the elementary particle arise in string theory. Particles in a string theory are like the harmonic notes played on a string with a fixed tension
String tension
The parameter a' is called the string parameter and the square root of this number represents the approximate distance scale at which string effects should become observable.
   In the generic quantum string theory, there are quantum states with negative norm, also known as ghosts. This happens because of the minus sign in the space-time metric, which implies that
So there ends up being extra unphysical states in the string spectrum.
   In 26 space-time dimensions, these extra unphysical states wind up disappearing from the spectrum. Therefore. bosonic string quantum mechanics is only consistent if the dimension of spacetime is 26.
   By looking at the quantum mechanics of the relativistic string normal modes, one can deduce that the quantum modes of the string look just like the particles we see in space time, with mass that depends on the spin according to the formula
Regge formula
   Remember that boundary conditions are important for string behavior. Strings can be open, with ends that travel at the speed of light, or closed, with their ends joined in a ring.


The main alternative theory of the origin of the structures of the universe are the cosmic strings or super heavy strings which are predicted too form in the early universe by the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) in inflationary “ Big Bang model. Loops of cosmic strings were the seed of the galaxies. They were super heavy strings, formed at phase transition or condensation that took place when the universe was cooled after GUTS in the very early universe. Kibble had suggested that GUTS strings played an important role in the evolution of the Universe and the strings provided the inhomogenity leading to the formation of galaxies. In the very early universe Strings were predicted to be formed at symmetry breaking phase transition by those in grand unified theories (GUTS) in which vacuum had the appropriate topology. Cosmic Strings were the configuration of the matter fields, which owe their topology of the space of degenerate vacuum, produced in the phase transition, in the early universe. Let us ignore the internal structure of the strings and treat them as one-dimensional object with tension. In the resting frame of the strings, the mass per unit length μ to the tension. The equality of the line of the density and the tension caused the typical velocity associated with large vibration on the strings to be close to speed of light. The strings cannot end but can either close on themselves or can be extended to infinity. The closed strings are loops.
Whenever two long strings cross each other, they exchange ends, or `intercommute' (case (a) in the figure below). We had already encountered this apparently strange fact when we discussed the strings in the context of nematic liquid crystals. In particular, a long string can intercommute with itself, in which case a loop will be produced (this is case (b) below).


As with any object in tension, strings would also accelerate so as to try to become straight. Damping of the string motion was due to their non gravitational interaction with other matter, those become negligible as soon as the strings were formed. Strings that extended outside the horizon were conformably stretched by the cosmic expansion. Thus at a given epoch, these strings were straight on their length & scale, but were smaller then the horizon size, but was quiet convoluted on large scale lager then this. The typical velocity was associated with the straightening of a string and was close to the speed of light and the velocity field of the string extending outside the horizon was relativistic and approximately constant over scale much smaller than a horizon size. Once a loop entered the horizon it no longer expanded but rather started oscillate with a period comparable to light travel time across it. This motion was damped by gravitational radiation causing the size & period of the loop to decrease approximately linearly with time The Fractional decrease in size, period,& mass of the strings in one oscillation was given by equation* Gμwhere G is Gravitational constant. A string will decrease to zero size in a finite amount of time loosing its energy by Gravitational Radiation. The distribution of strings in our universe was not quite so well understood
Example
                                        1]    
These pictures show
1) a full three-dimensional simulation of the intercommoning of two cosmic strings... The reconnection and `exchange of partners' when two strings intersect. In this three-dimensional simulation, the strings approach each other at half the speed of light. Notice the radiation of energy and the production of a small interaction loop in the aftermath of the collision
[ Picture By Rupak Bhattacharya].
2]
The scattering of two vortices is highly non-trivial; the two vortices approach and form a donut from which the emerge at right-angles have `exchanged halves'
 3]
Both long cosmic strings and small loops will emit radiation. In most cosmological scenarios this will be gravitational radiation, but electromagnetic radiation or axions can also be emitted in some cases (for some specific phase transitions). Here is a single, oscillating piece of string
4]  Radiation fields from the oscillating shown above. A transverse cross-section of the fields has been made at the point of maximum amplitude. Notice the four lobes of the radiation (a quadrupole pattern) which is characteristic of all cosmic string radiation
5]  The effect of radiation is much more dramatic for loops, since they lose all their energy this way, and eventually disappear. Here you can see what happens in the case of two interlocked loops. This configuration is unlikely to happen in a cosmological setting, but it is nevertheless quite enlightening. Notice the succession of compicated dynamic processes before the loop finally disappears
. After formation, an initially high density string network begins to chop itself up by producing small loops. These loops oscillate rapidly (relativistically) and decay away into gravitational waves. The net result is that the strings become more and more dilute with time as the universe expands. From an enormous density at formation, mathematical modelling suggests that today there would only be about 10 long strings stretching across the observed universe, together with about a thousand small loops!
In fact the network dynamics is such that the string density will eventually stabilize at an exactly constant level relative to the rest of the radiation and matter energy density in the universe. Thus the string evolution is described as `scaling' or scale-invariant, that is, the properties of the network look the same at any particular time t if they are scaled (or multiplied) by the change in the time. This is schematically represented below:
After the phase transition, the strings were formed in a random network of self-avoiding curves/loops. Some of the strings were in closed loops and some were as infinite strings. The distribution of strings so happened that a constant number of loops entered the Horizon. If the infinite strings would simply straighten out, then the numbers of open strings across the horizon-sized volume would also increase with time and strings would soon come out to dominate the density. Velenkin .A [Physics Review D23, p852; 1981] showed that the geometry produced by the gravitational field near a length of straight string is that of Minkowski space with a three dimensional wedge taken out of each space like slice. The vertex of the wedge lies along the length of the string and the angle subtended by missing wedge lies in rest frame of the string and is equated asδπGμThe two exposed faces of the strings are thus identified. Thus the Space Time remained flat everywhere except along the Strings, where it was highly curved. If Gμ<<1, then the stress energy of the strings would produce only small (lenier) perturbations  from the metric of  rest of the universe. Because the matter in the Universe did not produce significant purturbation from the Minkowski metric Space ,on scale ,less then horizon, the Gravitational field at a point much closer  to a length of a string would be essentially  then the same  as gravitational field  at a similarly located point in Minkowski  space. In the rest of frame of the strings, all particles  were  when passing , the strings were deflated  by an angle  8πG μ with respect to all particles passing on other side of the strings. The magnitude of discontinuity in temperature(While passing of particles) across the string was δT/T= 8πGβ, where β=Transverse Velocity  of the strings which was typically  was close to Unity. This Jump of temperature persisted on angular distance  away from the string, corresponding to the present angular size of the radius of curvature of the strings. The magnitude of temperature jump was then independent of the Red shift (Z) at which Light Rays  reaching to us,  passed by the strings. If we calculate   the general properties of microwave  sky anisotropy  in string mode , then let us assume  that microwave  photons were last scattered at Red shift Z 1s. In a perfectly homogenious  Universe ,the matter became mostly neutral and optically  then at Z˜ 1000. However in a Universe with strings, there will be large amplitude in homogeneity on small scale and the heat output from objects forming at or before Zγee may re -ionize the plasma. If the plasma were kept fully ionized then Z1s>10 and we have 1000>Z1s>10,the angle subtended by a horizon-sized volume space at Z1c is o1s-1/2<<1. One would do expect to see on a round patch of sky of strings per horizon volume at red shift Z, will project to one length of string of angular size o if z<z1s. These strings will be moving relativistic ally, as they were unable to straighten themselves out of these length scale.
In the modern Gauge theories of fundamental interaction of the Vacuum was far from being nothing. Rather it is now recognized as a dynamical object that was in different state. The current state of vacuum affects the properties such as masses and interaction of any particles put into it. Although the vacuum is thought to lie in it’s ground state ,that with the lowest state of energy, this state had not always been the same. Thus in the early universe when the particle component  [ordinarily matter and radiation] was at a very high temperature, the vacuum adjusted it’s state in doing so modified  the properties of particles so as to minimize the free energy of the entire system. [Vacuum plus particles. ] e i. the vacuum went into higher energy state in order to lower the energy  of hot plasma by even greater amount. As the universe cooled to keep the entire system  at the lowest possible energy  at a given temperature , the vacuum had to change  eventually, ending up in it’s present state which is nearby the true or zero temperature vacuum. It was possible in early universe that as the Universe expanded , the cooling  happened too rapidly for the vacuum to find it’s true ground state and the vacuum was frozen  into ground state with defects. Defects  that probably could occur in a three dimensional space could be Zero dimensional (Monopoles), Two dimensional (Domain walls) or One dimensional (Strings). The Strings are macroscopic objects. In most cases of cosmological interest they have no ends and are either infinitely long or closed in a loop

At GUT’s the Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic forces behaved as if, they had equal strength, much as line defects found in the crystal. They formed as a net work across the space& time. The GUT”s predicts that strings were   formed at a temperature of about  1015 to ~1016 Gev. at a Cosmological time of about 10̃35 Second. The Cosmic Strings  were formed at the mass scale of GUTs Symmetry  breaking (Mx-̃ 2x1015 Gev) was typified  by a mass  per unit length μG/c2̃̃ ~ 2x10 6 in dimensionless unit.[ G= Gravitational Constant, C= speed of Light, which is corresponding  to μ= ~ 2.6X10 21, Kgm-1~ 4x107 MOPC-1  where MO= Mass of Sun . Or in other words the strings were formed with a mass  per unit length of about  1020 kg-1. They have a mass per unit length  μ=ε/G  [where ε= ~( <φ>/ mp)2  is the dimensionless amplitude  of their Gravitational potential, mp is the Plank Mass and the Vaccum Expectation  value of Higgs field is φ.] Because of their enormous tension  ε/G , the net work of the Strings were formed in the phase transition. In this Theory the Strings contributed   only a small fraction of mass of the Universe. The Galaxies were formed by  Accreating of ordinary matter about the Strings.  The Strings were stretched   by subsequent expansion of the Universe  on waves,   on a given scale  and began to oscillate then. The strings underwent Oscillation in which the Transverse intertia  acted as weight and the restoring forces were provided by longitudinal tension of the strings.   As a result of oscillation  in such that the scale entered the particles horizon and whenever the strings crossed itself and exchanged  particle partners and produced closed Oscillating loops of the Strings with long life(Peebles. P.G. Z- large scale Structure of the Universe.- Princeton University press –1981).
The Strings actually underwent Oscillation in which the Transverse inertia acted as weight and the resting force was provided longitudinal tension of the strings. The gravitational field of these strings loops caused accretion of matter around them. Brosche. P.J in the journal of Astrophysics stated that angular momentum of an astronomical object is proportional directly t square of mass and constant of proportionality is comparable to String Theories, which suggest that the Universe had evolved through hecrchial breaking of rotating or oscillating strings and the angular momentum with mass between various classes of different objects ranging from planets to super clusters (brosche.PZ.J-Astrophysics Vo 57; P143; 1963). For the past three decades, a variety of Grand Unified Theories (GUT’S) had been developed to unify the strong and electro weak interactions at an energy scale of 1016 Gev. GUTs are Gauge invariant point field theories (yang Mills), which do not incorporate Gravitational forces and henceforth there remains few theoretical constrains on the possible internal symmetry group. The most favored Guts theories are based on the special unitary group Su (5), the special orthogonal Group SO (10) or the Exceptional Group E6. In such Guts theories “Quark’ and “Leptons” make up three of these families, are unified in one family. Super symmetries an important ingredient in Guts. It is a symmetry that relates to “Fermions” and particles of different spins. But supper symmetry is not an internal symmetry but amounts to an extension of the Space &time in super space that includes extra spinorial anti commuting co-ordinates as well ordinary co-ordinates. Super Symmetry requires particles Known as” s-quarks”, s leptons”, winos, Zinos, or Rupak –particles( a near zero mass particle from where mass came] which have yet to be discovered through LHC. Super gravity theories are point field theories that incorporate local or gauged supper symmetry and thereby enlarging Einstein Theory of relativity. The basic idea of Gauge theory is that a continuous Symmetry or global invariance properties of Lagaragian field theory that can be made into a local invariance by introducing compensating gauge field in to the theory. This means that given a field theory, which possesses symmetry such as U1 (1), Su (2), Su (3) or any other Ugroup. The theory can be extended to a gauge theory, which has the symmetry at each part in the space-time individually. The new symmetry is then called gauge symmetry because it implies that we can choose our measuring standard gauge differentiate through out space-time without changing physics of the theory. The most familiar example of a gauge theory is Electromagnetism.  In Quantum Electrodynamics the quantum field theory of electromagnetic interactions are charged particles and Boson (photon) is the most successful gauge theory. The behavior of a relativistic String moving in space-time differs significantly from that of a structure less point particle. Unlike a point particle, a classical relativistic string has an infinite number of vibrational modes with arbitrarily high frequencies and angular momentum. This means that in quantum theory, a single string has an infinite number of states with masses sand spins which increases without limit. The string theories were developed in early 1970s as model of strong interaction physics. A Meson has thought of as a string with a quark attached to one end while an antiquark to the other end. The string tension (T) was supposed to be _1Gev2 and the excited states of the string were supposed to be hadrons. The main theories were “Boson Theory” [Boson particle are particles in the name of Prof. S.N. Bose of kolkatta, India and Einstein] which only described Bosons and the spinning theories that incorporated “Bosons” as well  “Fermions”. These early String theories had several theoretical inconsistencies according to the present authors of this article, because the string ground states always turned out to be Tachyons (it is the particle that moves faster then Light particle in the universe and yet to be discovered as told by professor PK Bhattacharya a Rupak Bhattacharya et al in 2012 in Nature journal under titleTachyons is an mathematical Imaginary particle that may move faster then Photons (Light particles) in the universe and yet to be discovered”
[http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110922/full/news.2011.554.html#comment-id-27107]
 - not the neutrinos. It has been that photon(light particle is no more fastest p[article in the universe). Super string theories, that evolved from spinning string theories, that incorporated supper-symmetry and had no Tachyonic ground states. Super string theories hence offered the possibility of constructing a consistent quantum theory that unifies all interactions including the gravity and natural mass scale set by string tension (T) in Planck scale [ T1/2 =109Gev] The excited states were so massive that they could be taken to be infinitely heavy and the theory can be approximated by an effective point field theory of the mass less state only. At energy scale bellow the plancks scale the string looks like a point. One of the constrains in any string theory is that all string theories contain mass less spin-1 and Spin-2 particles which are associated with  “yang( He was a NL in physics] mills Gauge   Boson” and Gravitation. Furthermore the original  “Bosonic String Theory” required 26 space time dimension whereas  super string theory  only ten(10) dimensional space Time. We live in only three (3) dimensional Universe and we can at best imagine Four (4) dimensional space-time. Then where are these Extra Six Dimension in super string theory? Or extra 22 dimensions Bosonic String theory? May be these extra dimensions are curled up [they may be as large as our three dimension] coiled up and finally became very small by compactification in super string theory.
There are three types of Super String theories. Type 1 super string theory describe the dynamics of open strings that have their free end points. The string carries quantum numbers in the n-dimensional, defining representation of a classical group G=S0 (n) or the simplistic group USP (n) at their end points SU (n). This is similar to the way in which “quark quantum numbers” were incorporated in the original string picture of mesons.
The string is locally invariant under two super symmetries n=2, and the free ends boundaries condition breaks down this just to one. (N=1) super symmetry. The mass less open strings states are the usual state of Super symmetry of Yang Mills theory, in ten dimension with Gauge” group G” The two open strings can interact when two ends touch and join to form one open string or co- inversely one string can split in two One important thing is that the two end points of a single string can join to form a closed string and thus the mass less state of a closed string form a super gravity and do not carry Yang Mills quantum numbers
Type II Super String theory only involve the closed strings. These can have an orientation associated with fact that waves can run around the strings in two possible directions. The two orientations allows for two chiral Super symmetries. So these theories are invariant under ten (10) dimensions. In type II (a) theory the two super charges have opposite chirality’s and so the theory has actually no chirality’s and therefore it is not a very important theory. It is rather a low energy point field theory whose Dimension D=10, n=2nonchirial super gravity. In type II (b) Theory has super charges of the same chirality’s. It’s low energy point field theory limit is the chirial dimension D=10, n=2 super gravity. This theory is a remarkable theory in being chiral and yet not having any gravitational anomalies [a very important thing of any super string theory is that it must give rise to observed chirality’s of our three dimensional world i.e. it must maintain parity with law of physics]
Type III Super String Theory also called Heteriotic string theory. It is based on closed strings only, although it carries a Yang mills Gauge group G and has super symmetry n=1. In this theory, instead of the Yang Mills charges residing at the ends of the string, there is a charge density along the whole string. (Gross. D, Hurvey.J, Martinec E, Rohm.R –Physics Rev.Lett. Vol54; P502, 1984). This type III super string theory by Gross et al based on either E8xE8  of type I super string theory or S0 (32). It has been speculated in this theory, if the Gauge Group G is E8 X E8` the E8—E8` symmetry may persist even in dimensionally reduced theory and in that case there will be two types of matter whose interaction will be described be E8. One type of matter will exactly mirrors the other i.e. matter and antimatter or one can call them shadow matter.  This shadow matter or antimatter interacts gravitationally with ordinary matter. But the Heteriotic string theory involve original twenty six (26) dimension with Sixteen (16) dimension being the maximal tours of one or other of the two groups and thus this theory leaves us in ten (10) dimension space time.
 
It was Kulza in 1922 and oscar in 1926 who showed that if a person assume general relativity in five dimension, where one dimension was curled up the resulting theory then would look a four dimensional theory of electromagnetism & gravity. Electromagnetism emerges as a gravity in the 5th dimension. Wien(NL) had identified the momentum of particles moving around the 5th  dimension as electric charge. Bosonic String theory (typeIII string theory) requires 26 space time dimensions when superstring theory contains 10. so in the string theory at least there are six(6) or 7(seven) extra dimensional space time remains. One can imagine that these dimensions are curled up to form small main fold and remarkably such six or seven dimensions compacttification can produce a world remarkably like ours own world in which shape of extra dimension determine the complete matter content and all the forces of nature  as seen a four dimensional observer
So the strings could occur as voitics in gauge theories in analogues manner to the formation of Abrikosov magnetic filaments in super conditions and such vortex was formed in phase transition in very early universe in the Higg’s field. The strings then broke down or chopped of mesh at about
10 8 second (3 years) after the initial Big Bang. The spontaneous broken theory with Higgs field says μ =1M2X /4α G ∫π n2∫ G, where n= is the vacuum expectation value of Higgs field, Mx= Mass of the associated Vector Boson, G= g2/4π is the Gauge field coupling constant and ∫G= is the geometrical fraction for the Abelian Higg’s model. If MH = MX where MH is the mass of scalar Higg’s particle then ∫ G=1. Then electro weak strings with α ~ 10-2 and Mx~100Gev and the string mass μew ̃~2x10-5g cm-1~2x10-33 c2/G. For Grand Unification Strings αG ~10-2  And Mx ~ 10-15 Gev, yielding μ Gvγs~ 2x1021gcm-1~2x10-7c2/G where C= speed of light [ Velenkin .A. – Physics Review letter Vol 46; p1169; 1981] which shows that  value of μ   for astronomical strings is much closer  GUT’S strings. So Brosche and Tassie’s { L.T.Tassie – Nature Vol 323; p40; 1986] theory suggested a very different evolution of Universe and Galaxies. According to them, some time in the early past of the Universe the Strings constituted all or nearly all of the mass of Universe and that astronomical objects were originally were formed from the strings, in such a way that a large piece of strings which eventually corresponded to super cluster and galaxies broke into smaller pieces of strings corresponding to cluster of galaxies. These pieces  of strings in turn broke into further smaller pieces of strings corresponding to Galaxies. They again broke into further smaller pieces of strings corresponding to stars and so on. At each stage of hierarchy breaking of strings ,the new pieces  of strings  might have some vibrational  energy  and the vibrational energy  was large  compared  with mass to come on. Eventually the pieces of strings transformed either by phase transition or by some form of rapid breaking into ordinary matter and thus became planet, satellites, asteroids etc. that we see now. But many other theory says that seeding of galactic matter and radiation densities the universe passed the state of equal matter and radiation densities some about 1011 second (3000years) later than galactic strings loops chopped of meshes ie about 108second(3 Years) after the Initial Big Bang
So the Idea that the super heavy Strings were formed at phase transition in the very early universe that provides us an explanation of origin of galaxies. GUTS formed strings at symmetry breaking phase transition in the very early universe, in, which vacuum was the appropriate topology. They have well known analogous in the condensed matter physics. Much as the line defect, the strings formed a net work across the whole space. In some theories, strings were formed after a period of inflation. They were then stretched by the subsequent expansion of the universe and waved on a given scale, begin to oscillate as the scale entered the particle horizon. Whenever the strings crossed itself an exchange of partner occurred and produced crossed oscillating loops of strings with long life times. The gravitational force of these loops caused matter to accrue around the strings. Thus the strings could be the primordial density fluctuation needed in the early universe to explain the eventual formation of galaxies. Now the question stands how such strings would produce density fluctuation on broad range of scale which was responsible for formation of galaxies? Galaxy formation from the Dark Matter was an extremely active area of study. From the Big Bang Nuecleosynthesis it was known that Baryons accounted for less then 15% of the Critical Cosmological Density. Observation of the dynamics of galaxies suggest us that matter clustered with galaxies is 60% of the Critical Density and the lower end of the observed range is consistent with baryon limit. Thus the dynamical Dark Matter could be Baryon. They are however two arguments which drive us to look for other candidate. The first is the Inflation. And the second is the anisotropy of 3K Microwave Back ground.

Inflation was the only way of explaining several of otherwise extra ordinary initial conditions of the universe. But for fine tuning of inflation required a critical density of the universe. Thus at least 85% of the universe could not be then the baryons matter and more then 60% of the matter of this Universe so did not cluster into galaxies. The density of the matter on the universe must be greater then the baryonic upper limit .To make the things a little more difficult, it was said, that” the special co-relation function of rich cluster of galaxies had revealed strong clustering of very large scale up to 150 MPC.” This co-relation function of clustering of galaxies was 18 times stronger then the special co-relation  function of galaxies. It was also found that the largest scale of the universe seem to look filamentous [Strings are filamentous] with large voids and large clumps . With the GUTs an excellent way appeared to produce the distribution of size of universe. In normal generation and application of GUTs [a fluctuational spectrum with equal powering all scale formed naturally] it was assumed that there was no special co-relation between large scale and small clumps. They each had a random probability of occurring anywhere in the universe. On the other hand, it means, that strings are still produced in the some spectrum, somewhere, &in some size. Different proposals so had been put to solve the problem. But no models could solve it, as long as it was assumed that the primordial fluctuation had random phases. For example- a model based on Neutrinos produces both critical density and large-scale structure [filaments, voids, cluster co-relation function] but did not account for early formation of galaxies (Bachcall.N- J Astrophysics Vol 270; p20; 1983). Models evoking heavy or slow moving particles [like Gev mass photinos, gravitinos, ax ions, planetary mass black holes] however fits the small scale structure galaxy co-relation function, formation of time &so forth as well as building hierarchal to yield clusters but it do not allow critical density of the universe to be reached.]. Even the hybrid models, - with low- mass and huge - mass ions also runs problem, because of low- mass particles smear out the small-scale structure of universe. A more natural solution of the problem might be non-random phases of string model. J.E Peebles (Nature Vol-311; P517; 1984) noted that the non random phases of string model of the Universe yields large scale filaments and voids, as super heavy strings attract galaxies and cluster and gives string cluster- cluster co-relation. Work by J.E. Peebles showed that a model based on clustering of galaxies about filaments [here strings] fit higher 3 and 4 points  co-relation function for galaxies as well as hierarchical clustering. This model also enables density growth in some areas without producing a large universal background anisotropy and so could enable baryons to be dark matter on galaxy and cluster state with non-baryonic stuff being   a critical density background. The degree of random to nonrandom phases in such a model depends upon density of strings in the space. In the limit of space being completely filled with strings, the strings picture also gives random phases. Even if strings densities are large enough to randomize phases, their mere existence would still alter galaxy –in formation, calculation, because it were the strings rather then matter that would carry the fluctuation.


The basic things of string theory say that-:
*we live in accelerating and expanding universe today** String theory support the inflation theory where a period of rapid expansion happened in the early universe history. *** Most of the theories in the string theory are focused on understanding of theory of unbroken super-symmetry. ****In string theory De-Sitter Space can arise only when super-symmetry is broken( Rupak Bhattacharya, Ritwik Bhattacharya & prof Pranab kumar Bhattacharya’s Theory). Breaking supper-symmetry in the string theory requires us to  come face to face with problem of moduli stabilization. In string theory Vacuum with N≥2 super-symmetry, there are many flat direction or modules. The energy as we go along these direction of space time, there are many flat direction. In field the space is constant and in fact vanishes identically. There are 100 flat directions in compactification. The flat directions are however very bad in cosmology. Flat directions cause however problems in standard model. They ruin the successful prediction of Big Bang Theory.
 The big Question hat one of author of this article Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya  once raised “ Does the string theory allows De sitter Universe? Vacuum with negative cosmological constant to anti de-sitter space and Inflation theory of Big Bang?” This was of course a great question, exactly not yet solved probably. Interested readers can read the Threads and discussion at http//www.bautforumtoday.com   of BAD Astronomy & Universe Today forum under the threads “ String theory- De sitter Universe and Inflation’ in astronomy forum and in thread by Fraser “ Superstrings could be detectable as they decay” in Universe Today & story Comments forum
 It is known that the de- Sitter space can only arise if super symmetry is broken. In string theory with≥2 super-symmetry there are many flat directions. The energy as we go along these spaces is a constant & in fact vanishes identically and these flat directions are bad news from the part of Big Bang cosmology. Cosmology flat directions cause problems in standard model of Big Bang and ruin the successful prediction of Big bang nucleo-synthesis. In these compactifications besides curling up the extra dimensions preserved in the string theory to small size, fluxes are also turned on along the compactified directions. The fluxes includes higher form generalization of magnetic fluxes in the electromagnetism turning them on charges, the potential in moduli spaces, so that new minima arise in regions or field space where the potential can be calculated with control. The value of Cosmological constant in this minima can also be can also be calculated with a positive value give rise to De-Sitter universe.

the cosmic soup consisted of quarks and anti quarks, electrons and it’s antiparticles anti electrons or positrons. The particles and antiparticles were in constant annihilation and radiation as per Einstein’s famous equation E= mC2. At 109K temperature matter were produced and the universe is today made of matter i.e. hadrons. (Proton, Neutron, lepton, Electrons) But in the Big Bang Moment universe started it’s voyage with equal numbers of matter and antimatters. Electron and Positron were created and were in constant annihilation, liberating burst of energy and radiation. Thanks to the creator of the Big Bang that during the nucleon synthesis anti proton were not created. If at all antiproton, antineutron were created they were at least in separate compartment and did not come into contact [Matter and antimatter as soon as come in contact both are destroyed and their entire rest mass converts into radiation and energy known as entropy or annihilation. Prof, S.W. Hawking in his famous book  “The Brief history of Time” nicely said –If you even meet your anti You (Mirror image of You) don’t hand shake with him you will turn into flash, radiation and energy at once”
“………….. The Universe consists of now large masses of matter and antimatter organized into galaxies, stars, and planets. According to this view about construction of the universe, the matter and antimatter should co-exist at some early stage in the Big Bang. For it only if the temperature was high enough it should be possible for nucleons and anti nucleons to rub their shoulders with each other’s. Simple theory suggests that they should after ward annihilate each other’s with production of photons and neutrinos. To account a universe in which matter and anti matter were separated in separate galaxies it is therefore necessary to explain how such a separation could have taken place at very early stage in the development of primeval fire ball?
It is one of the most fundamental questions in cosmology. The question of existence of antimatter in significant quantities in the present universe. in our galaxy! The question of whether antimatter had an equal role with matter in making up galaxies? In a contemporary Para diagram of Grand Unified theories & Gauge Theories (String Theories) these questions are related to the questions of nature of charge, parity variations at high energy. The questions of separating matter and antimatter, proton and antiproton, helium and anti helium. The symmetry between matter and antimatter [ i.e baryon symmetry in the cosmology ] that was once observed  at accelerator had forced many scientists  and astrophysicist to think that  there existed  also a similar balance  in the universe  of matter and antimatter at most early phase of the universe. But we don’t see or don’t find  antimatter  in our observable universe. Our observable universe  is made of matter only. Why? Antimatter annihilate with matter. If that was so, then there would  not be any matter to make up galaxies, our observable universe. Was the matter and antimatter mixed together? Or was the matter and antimatter were in  two separate compartments? If the later was true, then we must have another Universe. That universe was made of antimatter.(Authors Theory). However universe consisted of  large mass of matter and antimatter-  standard BigBang model says so. On this view, in authors opinion, is that matter and antimatter must co-existed   all together  at some early stage of Big Bang.? For it ,only when the temperature was high enough, it was possible for nucleons and anti nucleons, quarks and anti quarks to rub their shoulders with each others, and simple theory suggest that these rubbing resulted annihilation with production of photons and neutrinos. H. Alfeven etal ( Alfeven .H – Rev. Mod. Physics Vol37; P652; 1965) did bring out a mechanism which permitted region of matter and antimatter to co-exist together in our galaxy, even without appreciable mixing. Otherwise in early state of universe [when a homogeneous universe] there would have to be also a mechanism for separating matter and antimatter so that galaxies were formed in clusters. Then the big questions are 1) what was the mechanism for separation of matter and antimatter? 2) Where went the bulk of antimatter?  3) Does the antimatter stars or antimatter galaxies were capable of nuecleosynthesis? Does the antimatter stars or antimatter galaxies at all exists that Mr. Rupak Bhattacharjee suggested in his concept of anti Universe?  5) If at all exists what is the way of communication from our universe made of matter to a Universe made of antimatter?Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya-   Does the universe contain  also anti galaxies- a myth or a reality? Space Light Vol 4 P7-13; 1998). Defining a region of mass MR as a typical unit of matter and antimatter According to the conventional Big Bang model of the universe, there were small excess of baryon particles (~1 in 109) over the anti particles in the early stage of evolution of universe. At that time the thermal energy “KT” exceeded the rest energy mpc2 of baryon particles. It was to the excess amount of KT, for that we see the present existence of matter in the universe. So as the thermal energy dropped bellow mc2, the baryons and anti baryons started annihilated and there leaving just excess of baryons intact. Let us consider a model of universe that was initially filled up with the thermal radiations. Its expansion was described by the scale factor R (t) which behaved approximately like t -1/2 while the temperature varied likeR-1. For the early stage of the universe, the effect of space curvature was negligible. It was known in the history of such a model, the model can be divided in to several periods according to content of thermal radiation. The Hadronic (KT≥100mev), Leptonic (KT≥ 1mev) and Radiative (KT≥300K). Super imposed on division, on evolution of baryons, we have to consider also other periods. The separation period (KT≥350Mev), annihilation period (KT≥25Kev) and coalescence period (T>300K). There was some interest in 1970s regarding the existence of the antimatter in the universe. Stiegman. G in 1969 ( Stiegman. G. – Nature Vol224; P447; 1969) showed that if the space time were filled with equal mixture of matter and antimatter then gamma ray flux that resulted from nucleon and anti nucleon annihilation would be far above the observed limit. But there were much possibilities that matter and antimatter existed quite separately in large regions consisting solely of one charecteristic type, perhaps in the form of galaxies and anti galaxies (Bhattacharjee Rupak and Bhattacharya separation, one can assume that a process probably existed in the early Big Bang model. This process could however separated matter and antimatter into contiguous regions at some early epoch of Big Bang. We can also assume that the regions remain separated until and after decoupling would prevent collision between them, owing to the effect of radiation. After decoupling, the material contained in several such regions started to collapse and coalesce. The collapse and coalescence led to an annihilation of particles from regions to anti regions. The rate at which coalescence occurred, depended on the scale of density fluctuation. Defining a blob of mass  MB, as the largest commonly occurring density fluctuation, existing at decompleing, we know from galaxy forming theory that the minimum mass of the blob was ~107MO jeans mass. It is also well known that any gravitational bound group of blob will eventually undergo collapse. But due to the expansion of the universe, the collapse would not proceed rapidly until the density contracted. The collision cross section for blob contained in such group became very high once collapse set in. So if both matter and antimatter were present in early universe, one must expect a considerable amount of annihilation to occur at the time of collapse. SO There must be a separation period for matter and antimatter. In the separation period the particles and antiparticles [Quarks and antiquarks/ R particles and Anti R particles/ Neutrinos and anti neutrinos/ Gluons and antigluons] separated spatially as a consequence of their statistical repulsion. This was initially induced by fluctuation (Bhattacharjee Rupak and Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar- Does universe contain anti glaxies – a myth or a reality? – Space Light Vol4; P7-13; 1998).  One can compute the size as “δ,” as the individual condensation containing an excess of nucleon and anti- nucleon reached during 10-5 S of the period. The total baryonic number in that period was 1028. Near the end of separation period the universe was filled up with emulsion of nucleons and anti nucleons with a topical size δ=3x10-4c.m. The next came annihilation period. When temperature fell bellow the critical temperature (T) the particles and antiparticles [quarks and anti quarks] started to annihilate. The annihilate process was then controlled by diffusion so that densities D and N (Nucleons) and N-(anti nucleons) satisfy the equation as given below
δΝ/δΤ=DV-2N-αN N-,       δN-/δΤ=δV-N-αNN- (Bhattacharjee Rupak). At the end of this period a typical fraction of  10-8  or more nucleon survived. They were still in the form of emulsion with a typical size of 105cm and with a typical mass of  1010 gram( 100,000,000, kilogram) within a sphere of radius. This was however very far from a galactic mass. During annihilation the process first gave birth chiefly to pions and through their decay to high-energy photons, electrons, positrons, and neutrinos successively. The transfer of momentum by photons and electrons produces an annihilation pressure at boundary between matter and antimatter. To find the behavior of matter and antimatter, which were probably in contact through a common boundary, the effect of high-energy photons and leptons was a dominant feature, because these particles exerted a very strong pressure and kept the heating system on. Radiative pressure was  very dominant, so that pressure due to heating tended to balance annihilation. With the possible exception of cosmic gumma rays, observation yielded essentially no information  on the relative amount of matter and antimatter beyond our solar system. What the observation told us  was that matter and antimatter are  rarely ,if ever found together. What was the mechanism that matter and antimatter were then separated?. Consider a gas of proton, antiproton, electron and positron, which is sufficiently  diluted and then annihilation can not be neglected there. In general, such a gas will be situated in a magnetic field say “B” ,  in a Gravitational field say “G” and in a electromagnetic field  of  flux “F”. Each of the fields will then be assumed static and homogenious. In particular length  scale for variation in “B” must be large enough  that particle drifts arising from magnetic in homogenetics are also negligible. The protons and antiprotons will be much more strongly influnced  by Gravitational field than by  Radiation field. As well as spiraling around the magnetic line  of forces the heavy particles  will therefore have a drift velocity  Vh= mPxgxB/qB2 ,where mP is the proton mass, q is the particle charge,.[Bhattacharjee Rupak & Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar – Does the Universe contain also anti galaxies- a myth or a reality- Space Light; Vol4 P7-13;1998] .Because of their small mass, and larger scattering cross section, the electrons  and positrons will feel much weaker Gravitational force due to radiation pressure. It is however to be noted  that just electric current through gas does not heavily result in seperation of charges, and the opposed drift of matter need not produce an actual matter- antimatter  seperation. On the other hand , matter and antimatter in an isolated cloud  or in extended medium, with an appropriate field configeration  should achieve some degree of seperation. Because , proton and antiproton ,electron and positron  fluxes will not be equal  in general. There will be some seperation  of charge leading to an electrical field “ E “ and ExB drift. As ExB drift increases, the heavy particles acquire  an inertia which tends to remove  the original difference  between proton and antiproton  and electron and positron  fluxes. So  the big question appeared before us  What happened to these antimatter?. After the Plank epoch, when the age of the universe  was  t ≤10-43S and the temperature of the universe was T≥109Gev , we can be sure enough , that the interactions between the matter and  the antimatter at their first  quark level or Between R+/ R_[R particle level]  became unimportant. This was because  of that rate for gravitational interaction   was much less then the expansion rate of the universe. Although the interactions between matter and antimatter particles  kept each of them separately in a thermal equlibrium   and thus probably Two world were created. These Two world did not feel  each others existence at very microscopic level. During the primordial nucleosynthesis of the early universe, which started 1S after the initial Big Bang moment, the yield of the Big Bang depended on the expansion rate of the Universe. The expansion density PT= P+Ps by R0/R= [(δπGN/3)(P+Ps)]1/2 where P and Ps= density of matter and Antimatter, R= Cosmic scale factors. During this early epoch the universe was radiation dominated with P=g (π2/30)T4 where g counts the effective number of degrees of freedom particles (Rupak Bhattacharjee). The temperature of the particle world and that of anti particle world were not the same. The inflation occurred in the two worlds in both the sector but not necessarily simultaneously. The inflation involved was a random event in the nucleation of a bubble or in the formation of a fluctuation region. At the beginning of the inflation the universe was in false vacuum state for both the world. The bubble nucleated for one world, first say for antimatter world. As the bubble grew exponentially in physical size, both the temperature of matter and antimatter decreased exponentially. At this time the ratio of entropy remained constant. When the antiparticle vacuum energy was converted into radiation, the antiparticle temperature raised and entropy decreased. Eventually a bubble of fluctuation region formed for the matter world within the antimatter bubble. During the second phase of inflation, new bubble grew exponentially. When the vacuum energy of ordinary matter world converted into radiation, the temperature of particle world raised to a temperature, which was exponentially larger than the temperature of the antiparticle world.  Thus the entropy was reduced further. To an exponentially small value and the matter dominated the visible universe. According to Big Bang model of Universe, there was small excess of matter then antimatter (~1 in 109) in the early stage of evolution, when the thermal energy KT exceeded the rest of energy mpc2. The baryons and anti baryons annihilated and then leaving just excess of baryon intact. From a fit of nucleon-nucleon scattering theory, the evidence of π, η7, ω, ρ, and mesons can divide the nucleon and anti nucleon scattering amplitude. There are bound states of nucleon and anti nucleon pairs, which can be identified with mesons π, ρ, ω, and η7. Such a situation in which some particles appear as bound states and act as agent for Special Forces. Dashen .R  (Dashen. R Physics Review-Vol187; P345; 1969) summarized a basic formula relating to Gibb’s potential Ω to it’s value Ω0 for free particles and to collision matrix –
S Ω =Ω0   -KT/2π∫δEc-E/KT trace [clogs (E) ee-u1n1]. Analysis of this result drives a phase transition at a temperature of KT of the order of 350 Mev. Above this temperature, nucleon and anti nucleon tended to remain separately from each other’s………….”.[ Taken from the E. Book”  DID our Universe Started in a Big Bang Gospel or Just Be” published in www.unipathos.com  authors Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, Mr RupaK bhattacharya, Mr. Ritwik Bhattacharya, Mrs Dalia Mukherjee and Miss Upasana Bhattacharya- Please Do not Infringe Copy right of authors as every words in the book is under coverage of IPR copy Right of authors]

Symmetry and asymmetry in biological model
There remain always a fundamental asymmetry in the distribution of the constituents of the universe. That is, there appears to be an excess of normal matter over antimatter in the most current and compelling models of the universe (cold dark matter [CDM]). The origin of this asymmetry remains  yet unexplained before us as do the nature of both dark matter and dark energy. Dark matter and dark energy are required by the latest CDM models that have recently been shown to be very much in accord with the findings of the cosmic background surveys . However, most intriguingly, this fundamental cosmic asymmetry appears to manifest itself by way of other asymmetries observed in other more complex systems of universe. For example, there has been a much discussed thesis that the left-right symmetry encountered in simple as well as complex multicellular organisms, including human laterality and cerebral symmetry, are a consequence of symmetry at the molecular level . This, in turn, is thought to arise from asymmetry at the level of elementary particles. However, although connecting links between molecular—and subatomic—chirality and macroscopic handedness and asymmetry are not established, the implications of this asymmetry for biologic processes and evolution are profound. We today now know that proteins in life forms consist (almost) exclusively of L-{alpha}-amino acids, whereas nucleic acids contain only the D-isomers of ribose or deoxyribose. Although there exists considerable controversy concerning the questions of when and how this homochirality arose in world, but it appears to be the fundamental, but incompletely tested, assumption that life as we know it could not have arisen without it. Much less attention seems to have been paid in recent years to the reasons for homochirality and its connection to the origin of life. Older studies have held that the structure-destabilizing effects of ‘‘chiral defects’’ (i.e., the incorporation of D-amino acids or L-nucleotides into their respective polymers would render them incapable or unable to participate in ‘‘biology’’). However, although newer studies confirm some destabilization, they also indicate that there is more ability to accommodate unnatural enantiomers than was previously appreciated. These findings provide new insights into the constraints imposed on life’s origin with respect to chiral purity. We should note, however, that this is a subject that has attracted considerable interest and has been reviewed in the past . Indeed, one  can even use one’s nose and establish that stereo isomers can smell different
Or on a more tragic note, the story of thalidomide where the R isomer is a teratogen while the S  isomer is a tranquilizer. The primary amino acid sequence determines the structure and function of a protein. The two most common structural motifs are the {alpha}-helix and ß-sheet. Although {alpha}-helices are now more abundant in proteins than ß-sheets, it is thought that the ß-sheet occurred earlier during chemical evolution . Generally, L-amino acids form a right-handed helix; a right-handed helix exhibits optical rotation of its own. Similarly, ß-sheets are not flat but, if made of L-amino acids, exhibit a right-handed twist when viewed along their strands. This right-handedness of turn arises from energetic constraints in the bonding of L-amino acids; a chain consisting of D-amino acids would produce sheets with a left-handed twist . Indeed, the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum produced by the all-D enantiomer of the full-length ß-amyloid peptide (42 amino acid residues) was a mirror image of the spectrum obtained with the natural all-L enantiomer, indicating that the two enantiomers had opposite optical rotation . Furthermore, there are indications that such mirror image conformation translates into functional stereospecificity. When the D- and the L-enantiomer of the complete enzyme HIV-1 protease were chemically synthesized, they were found to have identical covalent structure and CD spectra of equal, but opposite, optical rotation . These data suggest that the folded forms of the D- and L-protease enzymes are mirror images when viewed in three dimension

. Most notably, the enantiomers exhibited reciprocal chiral specificity, the L-enzyme cleaving only the L-substrate and the D-enzyme showing activity only for the D-substrate. Although protein macromolecules are carriers of function, DNA macromolecules are the transgenerational informational carriers of most contemporary organisms . RNA plays the role of an intermediary between DNA and proteins in eukaryotes and can take on both informational as well as functional roles. As in proteins, the monomeric units of DNA and RNA are homochiral, each of the nucleotides containing either D-ribose or D-deoxyribose. Also like proteins, nucleic acids are able of taking on a variety of secondary structures, most famous among them the double helix. Both RNA and DNA are matrices for the assembly of a complementary replica, and homochirality has been postulated to be an absolute necessity for complementarity . Molecular modeling was interpreted as indicating that incorporation of a single T of the opposite chirality in double-stranded poly(A)/poly(T) would prevent base coupling, thereby destroying the template property and the ability to act as an information carrier . This does not, however, appear to be entirely correct. An NMR study with a dodecadeoxynucleotide containing a single nucleotide with a L-deoxyribose (the G4 residue) formed a stable base pair with the natural C-9 residue within a right-handed B-form conformation . Similarly, although substitution of a D-nucleotide with an L-nucleotide somewhat destabilized a short DNA duplex, the D-isomer could nonetheless be accommodated via changes in some of the backbone torsion angles around the phosphates and the glycosidic bond . Others have confirmed that cooperative binding between mixed L/D-oligodeoxynucleotides and single-stranded DNA and RNA is possible despite the destabilizing effect of L-substitutions . The magnitude of this destabilization was found to depend on the position and type of the nucleotide . In addition, there appears to be a limit to the number of substitutions that a sequence can tolerate .
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Acknowledgement- To our late parent diseased late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharya and late Mrs. Bani Bhattacharya of residence 7/51 purbapalli, Po-Sodepur, Dist 24 parganas (north) , Kolkata-110,WestBengal, India,  for their initial teaching  for us about the Structure of this Universe, Big Bang , Space time and eternity . This article Published in this blog was as it was once a personale reply of professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya to Robbie York  at his email rly7774@hotmail.com  he put a problem and one of his rheory to  then E mail address of Professor Pranab kumarBhattacharyya  received on Tue, 7 Jul ,2009, 04:11:28 -0400 [07/07/2009 01:41:28 PM IST] at e mail pranab@unipathos.com as  Problem Topic “Symmetry and Asymmetry and an Novel  Idea for  Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya & his brothers Rupak Bhattacharya’s valuable Consideration” as he placed his idea as personal communications
”  ……….because his idea on Space time concept involved a triple helix structure as the "thread of time" in the "fabric" structure of the universe, with triple helices spiraling around a time axis at all possible straight lines in the universe. And He believe that this structure might be responsible for our experiencing three spatial arrows of dimensions plus the dimension of time as a matter and energy travel along these helices with time. he envision the spatial progression of these time lines as the expanding universe, and photons on the time line would have zero velocity relative to the time line from the point of the Planck moment of Big bang. his envision the particles bound to this triple helix are any of the individual members from the three families of quarks that make up protons (which are reportedly proven to be in a 2-d triangular configuration) traveling through time along the three "spines" of the helix……………………………….)

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Professor Pranab kumar Bhattacharya
 Professor and Head of Pathology now convener In-charge of DCP &DLT course of WBUHS School of Tropical Medicine 108 CRAvenue  Kol-73 , and EX Professor&HOD Ophthalmic pathology RIO, CR Avenue kol-73 and also of WBUHS  and EX Professor of Pathology,  Ex In charge of Histopathology unit, in charge of Blood Banks VCCTC, in charge of Cytogenetics ,Human  Tech DNA & Gene cloning laboratoriesat Institute of Post Graduate medical Education & Research,244a AJC Bose Road, Kolkata-20.India,  Member of Board of Studies Undergraduate, Post Graduate& post Doctoral Courses in Pathology of West Bengal University of HealthSciences(WBUHS), India 

 The author of this letter great fully acknowledges contributions of late Mr. Bholanath Bhattacharya B.Com(cal), FCA, SAS(Ind.) - his diseased[ 2009]  retired Father, His diseased[2006] Mother late Mrs BaniBhattacharya, his only sweet daughter Miss Upasana Bhattacarya, and his youngest  twin brothers Mr. Rupak Bhattacharya Bsc(cal)Msc(JU), Mr. Ritwik Bhattacharya B.Com(cal), Nice Miss Rupsa Bhattacharya, Nephew Somuyak Bhattacharya BHM Msc Student- all of Residence 7/51 purbapalli, PO-Sodepur, Dist 24 Parganas(north) , KOl-110, West Bengal,  Mrs Dahlia mukherjee BA(hons) cal, and Mr. Debasis Mukherjee BSC(cal) of Swamiji Road, Po- South Habra, 24 Parganas(north) and of Miss Upasana Bhattacharya- his only sweet daughter as he took many of their concept and discussions to write this letter to Prof. Robbie York,